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New thoughts

  1. 1. Foundations of revolution
  2. 2. Intellectual <ul><li>The intellectual ideas of the Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason, came from two English political thinkers, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke </li></ul>
  3. 3. Thomas hobbes <ul><li>Hobbes believed that all humans were essentially evil beings that needed government to keep them in line. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Thomas hobbes <ul><li>He wrote this in his book Leviathan . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Thomas hobbes <ul><li>He said that humans would lead a short and nasty life if it were not for a strong ruler, who gave the people law and order. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Thomas hobbes <ul><li>This agreement between government and the people was called the social contract . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Thomas hobbes <ul><li>The best government was one that kept total control of the people, and for Hobbes, this meant absolute monarchy. </li></ul>
  8. 8. JOHN LOCKE <ul><li>John Locke had a kinder view of humans. </li></ul>
  9. 9. JOHN LOCKE <ul><li>He believed that people could learn from their mistakes and make themselves better. </li></ul>
  10. 10. JOHN LOCKE <ul><li>Therefore, Locke believed that humans could govern themselves and take care of everyone else at the same time. </li></ul>
  11. 11. JOHN LOCKE <ul><li>He believed that a government should only exist with the consent, or agreement, of the people. </li></ul>
  12. 12. JOHN LOCKE <ul><li>He thought that all people were born free and equal and that they had three basic natural rights – life, liberty, and property. </li></ul>
  13. 13. JOHN LOCKE <ul><li>This will later become the most important piece in the Declaration of Independence during the American Revolution . </li></ul>
  14. 14. philosophes <ul><li>Locke inspired other men to write what they thought about the role of government in the lives of the people. </li></ul>
  15. 15. philosophes <ul><li>A group of writers, called the philosophes , believed that society could be better than it was. </li></ul>
  16. 16. philosophes <ul><li>For the most part, they were French. </li></ul>
  17. 17. VOLTAIRE <ul><li>He wanted freedom of thought and freedom of religion, and he was against the Catholic Church because he felt it discouraged freedom of thought. </li></ul>
  18. 18. VOLTAIRE <ul><li>He was sent to prison twice for his writings and was actually sent to England as punishment. </li></ul>
  19. 19. VOLTAIRE <ul><li>This only encouraged him to continue, especially because he came to know and like the English form of government. </li></ul>
  20. 20. montesquieu <ul><li>He wanted to separate the three major branches of government, law-enforcing, law-making, and law-interpreting, so that they could check each other. </li></ul>
  21. 21. ROUSSEAU <ul><li>He believed that people were basically good and that society corrupted them. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ROUSSEAU <ul><li>He also believed that when people realized that they needed laws to help them live, they created governments. </li></ul>
  23. 23. ROUSSEAU <ul><li>He said that if people could create these governments, they could also take power away from them. </li></ul>