Training design and development - optimized

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  • PASSIVE METHODLecture and discussion Video and films Laboratory demonstration
  • ACTIVE METHODEquipment mock-upsFlat panel simulatorsPart- task simulatorsFull-scope simulators
  • Theorists: These are people who like lecture, facts, and details, critical thinking, textbooks and readings, etc. The brain dominance for theorists is the upper left (cerebral). Organizers: These are people who prefer to learn by outlining, checklists, exercises and problem solving with steps, policies and procedures. People with these preferences have lower left (limbic) brain dominance. Innovators: Innovators prefer brainstorming, metaphors, illustrations and pictures, mind mapping and synthesis, and holistic approaches. The brain dominance for innovators is upper right (cerebral).Humanitarians: Prefer cooperative learning and group discussion, role-playing, and dramatization. Their brain preference is lower right (limbic)
  • Effective training is whole-brainedTrainers typically design learning experiences that reflect their preferencesIn light of the above we need to examine our previous assumptions about teaching and learning
  • Learning must be vivid, exciting and stimulating. This will improve retention. Repetition – Learning should require use and repetition of shills and knowledge acquired Use of knowledge. Knowledge learnt must immediately be put to use to avoid loss of information An Effective Trainer OrganizedPrepared and practicedKnowledgeableEnthusiasticExtremely confident Encourages participation of all7. Use a variety of training material Don’t make the mistake of thinking that because the adult learner must be kept active, theory is not important.
  • Objectives should accomplish the following:Provide a focus for design, Establish clear-cut instructor and student goals, Provide a means of measuring what has been learnedGuide the selection of teaching/learning strategies
  • Onsite Training MethodsJob rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation .It can improve “multi-skilling” but also involves the need for greater training.Apprenticeship training is an (earning while learning) arrangement for a required term .On the job training - Most frequently used training method in smaller businesses and among manufacturers. OJT is the preferred method for training employees for new technology and increasing skill in the existing use of existing technology.Offsite Training methodsDemonstration is a visual display of how to do something or how something works. Demonstrations is more effective to increase knowledge and skills (technical or interpersonal).Business games are simulations that attempt to represent the way an industry, company, or unit of a company functions. In-basket -This method assess a participant’s ability to perform a management job from an administrative perspective . in the exercise, the participant is confronted with the issues, problems and complexity of managerial life in the form of documents such as memos from superiors, peers and subordinates Experiential Learning - It is a process of actively engaging participants in an experience that will have real consequences. Participants make discoveries & experiment with knowledge themselves instead of hearing or reading about experience of others.
  • Onsite Training MethodsJob rotation involves the movement of employees through a range of jobs in order to increase interest and motivation .It can improve “multi-skilling” but also involves the need for greater training.Apprenticeship training is an (earning while learning) arrangement for a required term .On the job training - Most frequently used training method in smaller businesses and among manufacturers. OJT is the preferred method for training employees for new technology and increasing skill in the existing use of existing technology.Offsite Training methodsDemonstration is a visual display of how to do something or how something works. Demonstrations is more effective to increase knowledge and skills (technical or interpersonal).Business games are simulations that attempt to represent the way an industry, company, or unit of a company functions. In-basket -This method assess a participant’s ability to perform a management job from an administrative perspective . in the exercise, the participant is confronted with the issues, problems and complexity of managerial life in the form of documents such as memos from superiors, peers and subordinates Experiential Learning - It is a process of actively engaging participants in an experience that will have real consequences. Participants make discoveries & experiment with knowledge themselves instead of hearing or reading about experience of others.
  • Training design and development - optimized

    1. 1.
    2. 2. Training Design<br />Participants will be able to:<br /><ul><li>Define the term training design
    3. 3. Recognize the important role that adult learning theory plays in training design
    4. 4. Create a program plan that identifies specific design requirementsand constraints
    5. 5. Design goal statements that clarify program outcomes</li></li></ul><li>more Training Design<br />Set Goals and Objectives<br />Define Target Audience<br />Sequence<br />Select Strategies and Tactics<br />Selecting an Instructional Programme<br />
    6. 6. TYPES OF TRAINING DESIGN<br />PASSIVE METHODS<br />Lecture and discussion<br />Video and films<br />Laboratory demonstration<br />
    7. 7. TYPES OF TRAINING DESIGN<br />ACTIVE METHOD<br />Equipment mock-ups<br />Flat panel simulators<br />Part- task simulators<br />Full-scope simulators<br />
    8. 8. Understanding the Adult Learner<br />Andragogy<br /><ul><li> The discipline that studies how adults learn</li></ul>It is based on five assumptions about the differences between how adults and children learn:<br />Self –concept <br />Experience<br />Readiness to learn <br />Orientation to learning <br />Motivation to learn <br />
    9. 9. TYPES OF LEARNERS <br /><ul><li>Innovators
    10. 10. Theorists
    11. 11. Humanitarians
    12. 12. Organizers </li></li></ul><li>Implications for Training <br />People have different modes of thinking and Learning. Those preferences influence how we:<br /><ul><li>Process and store information
    13. 13. Retrieve information
    14. 14. Make meaning out of information
    15. 15. All learning groups are made up of people with different learning styles, different thinking styles and different ways of knowing. </li></li></ul><li>Guides to Better Learning <br /><ul><li>Become familiar with learning styles
    16. 16. Use of audio visual-equipment
    17. 17. Kinesthetic
    18. 18. Physically participating in activities</li></ul>Adults learn through:<br /><ul><li>Active participation
    19. 19. Collaborative efforts
    20. 20. Infusing past experiences
    21. 21. Deciding what is important to their training </li></li></ul><li>Training Goals & Objectives<br />Goal is a clear statement, usually in one sentence of the purpose and intent of the programme ; who is the training for, what is it about, why is it being conducted.<br />Objectives are specific results that will be achieved at the end of the programme.<br />
    22. 22. Types of objectives<br />
    23. 23. Format of Objectives <br />A good objective statement has the following components (ABCD):<br /><ul><li>Audience
    24. 24. Behaviour
    25. 25. Conditions
    26. 26. Degree
    27. 27. They should be SMART – specific, measureable, action-oriented, realistic, timely</li></li></ul><li>Defining Target Audience<br />Aptitude <br /><ul><li>one’s ability to learn information or acquire a skill.</li></ul>Attitudes and Perceptions<br />
    28. 28. Sequencing<br />Judge importance of sequencing<br /><ul><li>If content is large and interrelated then sequencing becomes important
    29. 29. If total instruction time is less than one hour, sequencing is probably not critical
    30. 30. If topics are independent, then sequencing is not important</li></li></ul><li>Selecting Strategies & Tactics<br />Learning environment: on-the-job, classroom, or informal<br />Performance measurement: written tests, role-play and simulation exercises, observation of on-the-job performance<br />Methods: lecture, tutorial, discussion, self-study, laboratory<br />
    31. 31. Selecting an Instructional Programme<br />A key decision is whether to develop an HRD programme “in-house” or to purchase it “off the shelf”<br />The organization may have a staff of instructional designers to design HRD programmes.<br />You may opt to use other sources such as consulting firms, educational institutions, professional societies, governmental agencies, non-profit organizations etc. <br />
    32. 32. Training Development<br /><ul><li>Methods
    33. 33. Materials and media selection
    34. 34. Production</li></li></ul><li>COMMON TRAINING METHODS<br />ON-SITE METHODS:<br /><ul><li>Apprentice
    35. 35. Job rotation
    36. 36. Vestibule
    37. 37. On-the-job</li></li></ul><li>more COMMON TRAINING METHODS<br />OFF-SITE Methods:<br /><ul><li>Lecture
    38. 38. Small Group activity
    39. 39. Case studies
    40. 40. Business games
    41. 41. Role plays
    42. 42. Programmed instruction
    43. 43. In-basket Exercise
    44. 44. Experiential learning </li></li></ul><li>Materials and Media<br /><ul><li>Audio recordings (CD’s, cassette, Multimedia CBT)
    45. 45. Projected materials ( video, film, powerpoint)
    46. 46. Non-projected materials (flip charts, charts, graphs)
    47. 47. Tangible objects (models, equipment, presenter)</li></li></ul><li>PRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>Check and revise all material before beginning production
    48. 48. Replication of materials and manuals
    49. 49. Can be done in-house or sub-contracted to an outside agency</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br />A training system that learners and trainers can implement to meet the learning goals <br />typically includes:<br /><ul><li> identifying learning objectives
    50. 50. needed facilities
    51. 51. necessary funding
    52. 52. course content
    53. 53. lessons and sequence of lessons</li></li></ul><li>References<br /><ul><li>Noe, R. (2005) Employee Training and Development, 3rd Ed., McGraw Hill
    54. 54. Moskowitz, M. (2008) A Practical Guide to Training and Development, Wiley and Sons
    55. 55. Koslowski, S. and Salas, E (2010) Learning, Training and Development in Organizations, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. NY</li></li></ul><li>END<br />

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