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Cyber-Physical Systems and
Robotics
Tuan A. Trinh
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Network Economics Group ...
Examples of CPS
Make it easier and safer
for humans to work side-
by-side
Giving robots the tools
to learn the preferences
of a human cowo...
Economic impact of ICT in Europe
(2013)
Europe accounts for 30% of world production of
embedded systems with particular st...
Economic impact of ICT in Europe
(2013)
In the ARTEMIS program , the European Union,
had spent € 7 billion on embedded sys...
Economic impact of ICT in Europe
(2013)
The United States is still a global leader in cyber
technologies and well-position...
Economic impact of ICT in Europe
(2013)
Japan is capitalizing on its traditional strengths in
this field to make technolog...
Economic impact of ICT in Europe
(2013)
The great potential of CPS is motivating countries
such as India and China to forg...
Smart Interactions
Big Data and
Next
Generation
Data Analytics
Cyber-physical
Systems and Robotics
Sensor
networks
Intelligent Energy Management for Public Underground
Spaces through Cyber-Physical Systems
Courtesy: SEAM4US
Intelligent Energy Management for Public Underground
Spaces through Cyber-Physical Systems
Big Data and
Courtesy: SEAM4US
...
Cyber-Physical Systems vs. Embedded
Systems
• Embedded system: “integration of information
processing into products”
– Tim...
Embedded
systems
Embedded
systems
Physical
Environment
Physical
Environment
Cyber-physical
systems
Cyber-physical
systems
Definition according to National Science
Foundation (US)
• Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are engineered systems that are bu...
Vision: Internet of
Things, Data and
Services, e.g.
Smart City
Cyber-Physical
Systems
Internet of Things, Data and Service...
Components of CPS
Information
HCI/HRI
A/D converter
Sample-and- D/A
Sensors
Physical
environment
Actuators
Information
pro...
Component of CPS – networking perspective
Traditional control system
An extreme view of cyber-physical
system
Cyber Physical
Components of CPS – Control theoretic perspective
ZoH : practical signal reconstruction done by a conventional
digital-to-...
Characteristics of Cyber-Physical
SystemsSystems
Reactive
Cyber-Physical
SystemSystem
Typically, CPS are reactive systems:
“A reactive system is one which is in continual
...
Hybrid
Cyber-Physical
System
Hybrid systems
(analog + digital parts)
Characteristics of cyber-physical systems
Dedicated
Cyber-Physical
System
Dedicated towards a certain application
Knowledg...
Characteristics of cyber-physical systems
Dynamic
Cyber-Physical
System
Dynamics
•Frequent changes of environment
•High vo...
Characteristics of cyber-physical systems
Reactive Dedicated
Hybrid Dynamic
Cyber-Physical
System
Broad challenges for cyber-
physical systemsphysical systems
Scientific and technical challenges
• Integrating complex, heterogeneous larg-scale
systems
• Interaction between humans a...
Design process of CPS
Phase 1
• Application knowledge
Phase 2
• Specification
• Hardware/Software componentsPhase 2 • Hard...
Challenges for CPS software design
• Dynamic environments
• Capture the required behaviour
• Validate specifications
• Eff...
Operating system requirements for CPS
• General requirements for embedded
operating systems
• Configurability
• I/O
• Inte...
Expectations and design challenges of
CPS
• Dependability
• Efficiency
• Meeting real-time requirements
• Hardware propert...
Dependability
• Reliability R(t) = probability of system working
correctly provided that it was working at t=0
• Maintaina...
Efficiency
• Code-size efficient
(especially for systems on a chip)
• Run-time efficient
• Weight efficient
• Cost efficie...
Real-time constraints
• A real-time system must react to stimuli from the
controlled object (or the operator) within the
t...
Intellectual Property (IP) in CPS design
© Fujitsu Corporations
• Increasing design complexity
• Lack of internal capabili...
© Fujitsu Corporations
The initial stage involves creation of Architecture and Specification,
design partitioning and budg...
© Fujitsu Corporations
The engineering and procurement team, depending on the internal
expertise and funding, scope out th...
© Fujitsu Corporations
In partnership with IP vendors and other vendors (e.g. for
semiconductor businesses, the EDA vendor...
An IP example from the semiconductor sector
IP enabled servicesIP ecosystem
Source:
Design
& Reuse
Value proposition from ...
Institutional, societal, and other
challenges
• Trust, security, and privacy
• Effective models of governance
• Creation o...
Security and Privacy Issues in
Cyber-Physical SystemsCyber-Physical Systems
“The Internet of Things is a
security nightmare” - EFFsecurity nightmare” - EFF
"One way of protecting data is to
not collect it in the first place."not collect it in the first place."
Differences between corporate IT security and
CPS security
• Software patching and frequent updates, are not well
suited f...
New security problem in CPS/Control
systems
• Authentication, access control, message integrity,
separation of privilege, ...
Countermeasures
• Most of the effort for protecting control systems
has focused on reliability (the protection of the
syst...
Prevention
• Introduction of cybersecurity standards
– North American Electric Corporation (NERC) cybersecurity
standards ...
Detection and recovery
• Utilizing our knowledge of the physical systems, control
systems can provide a paradigm shift for...
Resilience and deterrence
• Useful principles
– Redundancy as a way to prevent a single-point of failure
– Diversity as a ...
Strategic R&D opportunities for
cyber-physical systemscyber-physical systems
Robust, Effective Design and Construction of System
and Infrastructure
Science and
Engineering
Develop cost-effective syst...
Improve Performance and Quality Assurance of
Computational and Physical Systems
System
Create methods for system-level eva...
Effective and Reliable System Integration and
Interoperability
Applied
Development &
Create universal definitions for repr...
Usecases
(See: enclosed slides)
1. CPS for green future mobile
networks
2. CPS for Smart Home – Smart
Grid
Motivation: forces behind recent
proliferation of robots
• Ever faster processors
• Cheaper sensors
• Abundant open-source...
Make it easier and safer for
humans to work side-by-side
Giving robots the tools to learn
the preferences of a human
cowor...
Robotics applications
• Monitoring (environmental, security)
• Medical, e.g. tele-surgery, elderly care,
drug delivery, re...
Robotics applications
• Monitoring (environmental, security)
• Medical, e.g. telesurgery, elderly care,
drug delivery, rem...
Robotics: Myths and Facts
Robots are intended to eliminate jobs MYTH
Manufacturing and logistics must adopt
robots to surv...
SUMMARY
Applications of cyber-physical systems and robotics (1)
Innovative Products or
Applications
Cyber-Physical Systems
and Rob...
Applications of cyber-physical systems and robotics (2)
Innovative Products or
Applications
Cyber-Physical Systems
and Rob...
Applications of cyber-physical systems and robotics (3)
Innovative Products or
Applications
Cyber-Physical Systems Impacts...
Applications of cyber-physical systems and robotics (4)
Innovative Products and
Applications
Cyber-Physical Systems
and Ro...
Applications of cyber-physical systems and robotics (5)
Innovative Products or
Applications
Cyber-Physical Systems
and Rob...
How to efficiently implement Smart
CPS/Robotics in my company?
• Technology transfer
• Standardization aspects
• Other asp...
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Cyber physical systems and robotics

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Lecture notes for "Cyber-Physical Systems and Robotics" course@Universilty of Luxembourg

Certificate program: Smart ICT for Business Innovation

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Cyber physical systems and robotics

  1. 1. Cyber-Physical Systems and Robotics Tuan A. Trinh Budapest University of Technology and Economics Network Economics Group Lead Luxembourg, May 13-14, 2016
  2. 2. Examples of CPS
  3. 3. Make it easier and safer for humans to work side- by-side Giving robots the tools to learn the preferences of a human coworker (MIT, 2012) of a human coworker
  4. 4. Economic impact of ICT in Europe (2013) Europe accounts for 30% of world production of embedded systems with particular strengths in the automotive sector, aerospace and health.
  5. 5. Economic impact of ICT in Europe (2013) In the ARTEMIS program , the European Union, had spent € 7 billion on embedded system and CPS by 2013 – with a view to become a world leader in the field by 2020
  6. 6. Economic impact of ICT in Europe (2013) The United States is still a global leader in cyber technologies and well-positioned to gain/maintain a competitive advantage in CPS
  7. 7. Economic impact of ICT in Europe (2013) Japan is capitalizing on its traditional strengths in this field to make technology advances.
  8. 8. Economic impact of ICT in Europe (2013) The great potential of CPS is motivating countries such as India and China to forge ahead into the field.
  9. 9. Smart Interactions Big Data and Next Generation Data Analytics Cyber-physical Systems and Robotics Sensor networks
  10. 10. Intelligent Energy Management for Public Underground Spaces through Cyber-Physical Systems Courtesy: SEAM4US
  11. 11. Intelligent Energy Management for Public Underground Spaces through Cyber-Physical Systems Big Data and Courtesy: SEAM4US Big Data and Next Generation Data Analytics Sensor networks
  12. 12. Cyber-Physical Systems vs. Embedded Systems • Embedded system: “integration of information processing into products” – Time and concurrency • Cyber-physical systems: Orchestration of computational resources with physical systemscomputational resources with physical systems and environment [Edward Lee (UC Berkeley), 2006]
  13. 13. Embedded systems Embedded systems Physical Environment Physical Environment Cyber-physical systems Cyber-physical systems
  14. 14. Definition according to National Science Foundation (US) • Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are engineered systems that are built from and depend upon the synergy of computational and physical components. • Emerging CPS will be coordinated, distributed, and connected, and must be robust and responsive. • The CPS of tomorrow will need to far exceed the systems of today in capability, adaptability, resiliency, safety, security, and usability. • Examples of the many CPS application areas include the smart electric grid, smart transportation, smart buildings, smart medical technologies, next-generation air traffic management, and advanced manufacturing.
  15. 15. Vision: Internet of Things, Data and Services, e.g. Smart City Cyber-Physical Systems Internet of Things, Data and Services (Enabling technology: Cyber-Physical Systems) Networked Embedded Systems e.g. autonomous aviation Embedded Systems e.g. airbag
  16. 16. Components of CPS Information HCI/HRI A/D converter Sample-and- D/A Sensors Physical environment Actuators Information processing Sample-and- hold D/A converter
  17. 17. Component of CPS – networking perspective
  18. 18. Traditional control system
  19. 19. An extreme view of cyber-physical system Cyber Physical
  20. 20. Components of CPS – Control theoretic perspective ZoH : practical signal reconstruction done by a conventional digital-to-analog converter (DAC , holding each sample value for one sample interval.
  21. 21. Characteristics of Cyber-Physical SystemsSystems
  22. 22. Reactive Cyber-Physical SystemSystem Typically, CPS are reactive systems: “A reactive system is one which is in continual interaction with its environment and executes at a pace determined by that environment“ [Bergé, 1995]
  23. 23. Hybrid Cyber-Physical System Hybrid systems (analog + digital parts)
  24. 24. Characteristics of cyber-physical systems Dedicated Cyber-Physical System Dedicated towards a certain application Knowledge about behavior at design time can be used to minimize resources and to maximize robustness • Dedicated user interface
  25. 25. Characteristics of cyber-physical systems Dynamic Cyber-Physical System Dynamics •Frequent changes of environment •High volume of (sensored) data traffic; fluctuation •Delay, delay fluctuation
  26. 26. Characteristics of cyber-physical systems Reactive Dedicated Hybrid Dynamic Cyber-Physical System
  27. 27. Broad challenges for cyber- physical systemsphysical systems
  28. 28. Scientific and technical challenges • Integrating complex, heterogeneous larg-scale systems • Interaction between humans and systems • Dealing with uncertainty• Dealing with uncertainty • Measuring and verifying system performance • System design
  29. 29. Design process of CPS Phase 1 • Application knowledge Phase 2 • Specification • Hardware/Software componentsPhase 2 • Hardware/Software components Phase 3 • Design repository • Application mapping Phase 4 • Design • Test
  30. 30. Challenges for CPS software design • Dynamic environments • Capture the required behaviour • Validate specifications • Efficient translation of specifications into implementationsimplementations • How can we check that we meet real-time constraints? • How do we validate embedded real-time software? – large volumes of data – testing may be safety-critical
  31. 31. Operating system requirements for CPS • General requirements for embedded operating systems • Configurability • I/O • Interrupts• Interrupts • General properties of real-time operating systems • Predictability • Time services • Synchronization • Classes of RTOSs, • Device driver embedding
  32. 32. Expectations and design challenges of CPS • Dependability • Efficiency • Meeting real-time requirements • Hardware properties, physical environment• Hardware properties, physical environment
  33. 33. Dependability • Reliability R(t) = probability of system working correctly provided that it was working at t=0 • Maintainability M(d) = probability of system working correctly d time units after error occurred. • Availability A(t): probability of system working and• Availability A(t): probability of system working and available at time t • Safety: no harm to be caused • (Security: confidential and authentic communication)
  34. 34. Efficiency • Code-size efficient (especially for systems on a chip) • Run-time efficient • Weight efficient • Cost efficient • Energy efficient
  35. 35. Real-time constraints • A real-time system must react to stimuli from the controlled object (or the operator) within the time interval dictated by the environment. • “A real-time constraint is called hard, if not meeting that constraint could result in ameeting that constraint could result in a catastrophe“ [Kopetz, 1997]. • All other time-constraints are called soft. • A guaranteed system response has to be explained without statistical arguments [Kopetz, 1997].
  36. 36. Intellectual Property (IP) in CPS design © Fujitsu Corporations • Increasing design complexity • Lack of internal capabilities/sharing risks • Narrow time-to-market • Budget constraints – lower development/maintenance costs • Better development infrastructure available outside
  37. 37. © Fujitsu Corporations The initial stage involves creation of Architecture and Specification, design partitioning and budgeting • In coordination with the techno-marketing team • Decide on the features to be supported, window of production and release to market.
  38. 38. © Fujitsu Corporations The engineering and procurement team, depending on the internal expertise and funding, scope out the effort to meet the production timeline.
  39. 39. © Fujitsu Corporations In partnership with IP vendors and other vendors (e.g. for semiconductor businesses, the EDA vendors, Design Services vendors, Foundry, Packaging and Assembly vendors) to develop the final product/chipset.
  40. 40. An IP example from the semiconductor sector IP enabled servicesIP ecosystem Source: Design & Reuse Value proposition from IP vendor •Silicon proven •Interoperable •One-stop-shop •Partnerships •Alliances Value to customers •Customization services •Integration services •Vertical knowledge based Value Added Services •Testing and deployment •Support
  41. 41. Institutional, societal, and other challenges • Trust, security, and privacy • Effective models of governance • Creation of CPS business models • Understanding the value of CPS• Understanding the value of CPS
  42. 42. Security and Privacy Issues in Cyber-Physical SystemsCyber-Physical Systems
  43. 43. “The Internet of Things is a security nightmare” - EFFsecurity nightmare” - EFF
  44. 44. "One way of protecting data is to not collect it in the first place."not collect it in the first place."
  45. 45. Differences between corporate IT security and CPS security • Software patching and frequent updates, are not well suited for control systems – economically difficult to justify suspending the operation of an industrial computer on a regular basis to install new security patches – Some security patches may even violate the certification of control systemscontrol systems • While availability is a well studied problem in information security, real-time availability provides a stricter operational environment than most traditional IT systems • Large industrial control systems also have a large amount of legacy systems – most of the efforts done for legacy systems should be considered as short-term solutions; underlying technology must satisfy some minimum performance • Network dynamics
  46. 46. New security problem in CPS/Control systems • Authentication, access control, message integrity, separation of privilege, etc. can all help – Traditionally focused on information (security) • How attacks affect the estimation and control algorithms? – Ultimately, how attacks affect the physical world • Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) have not considered• Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) have not considered algorithms for detecting deception attacks launched by compromised sensor nodes against estimation and control algorithms – Dynamics of physical systems bring more challenges and set of problems • Information awareness to operators of control systems
  47. 47. Countermeasures • Most of the effort for protecting control systems has focused on reliability (the protection of the system against random faults) – urgent growing concern for protecting control systems against malicious cyberattacksagainst malicious cyberattacks • Dimensions – Prevention – Detection and recovery – Resilience – Deterrence
  48. 48. Prevention • Introduction of cybersecurity standards – North American Electric Corporation (NERC) cybersecurity standards for electric systems • NERC is authorized to enforce compliance to these standards, and it is expected that all electric utilities are fully compliant with these standards – NIST • SP 800-53—the guideline for security best practices which federal agencies should meetagencies should meet • Guide to Industrial Control System (ICS) Security – ISA (International Society of Automation) • ISA SP 99: a security standard to be used in manufacturing and general industrial controls – ETSI • SCADA - Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition – Standardisation efforts with respect to access control and key management in wireless sensor networks NIST Special Publication 800-53, "Security and Privacy Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations,"
  49. 49. Detection and recovery • Utilizing our knowledge of the physical systems, control systems can provide a paradigm shift for intrusion detection – e.g. by monitoring the physical system for anomalies we may be able to detect attacks that are undetectable from the IT side, e.g. against resonance attack • Identify deception attacks launched by compromised controllers and/or sensors • Identify deception attacks launched by compromised controllers and/or sensors • Implement a model-based detection scheme, e.g. as game between the detector and the attacker • Utilizing ideas from control theory such as reconfiguration or fault-detection and isolation, to design autonomous and real-time detection and response algorithms for safety-critical applications that require real-time responses
  50. 50. Resilience and deterrence • Useful principles – Redundancy as a way to prevent a single-point of failure – Diversity as a way to prevent that a single attack vector can compromise all the replicas (the added redundancy) – Principle of least-privilege, and the separation of privilege (also known as separation of duty) principle(also known as separation of duty) principle • In CPS, physical and analytical redundancies should be combined with security principles (e.g., diversity and separation of duty) to adapt or reschedule its operation during attacks • Design novel robust control and estimation algorithms that consider more realistic attack models from a security point-of-view, e.g. Game Theory • Deterrence
  51. 51. Strategic R&D opportunities for cyber-physical systemscyber-physical systems
  52. 52. Robust, Effective Design and Construction of System and Infrastructure Science and Engineering Develop cost-effective system design, analysis, and construction Create domain-specific frameworks for design Manage the role of time and synchronisation in Science and Engineering Foundations (NIST) Manage the role of time and synchronisation in architecture design Enable natural, more seamless human-CPS interactions Develop systematic inter-process and inter-personal communication for sensors and actuators
  53. 53. Improve Performance and Quality Assurance of Computational and Physical Systems System Create methods for system-level evaluation, verification, and validation of cyber-physical systems Develop science-based metrics (e.g. security, privacy, safety, resilience, adaptability, flexibility, reusability, dependability) System Engineering Effectively characterize and quantify reliability amidst uncertainty
  54. 54. Effective and Reliable System Integration and Interoperability Applied Development & Create universal definitions for representing ultra- large scale heterogeneous systems Build and inter-connected and interoperable shared Development & Deployment Build and inter-connected and interoperable shared infrastructure Develop abstraction infrastructure to bridge digital and physical system components
  55. 55. Usecases (See: enclosed slides) 1. CPS for green future mobile networks 2. CPS for Smart Home – Smart Grid
  56. 56. Motivation: forces behind recent proliferation of robots • Ever faster processors • Cheaper sensors • Abundant open-source code • Ubiquitous connectivity • Advent of 3D
  57. 57. Make it easier and safer for humans to work side-by-side Giving robots the tools to learn the preferences of a human coworker Solving the problem of scheduling a team of heterogeneous agents to complete a set of tasks with (MIT, 2012) complete a set of tasks with upper and lower bound temporal constraints and shared resources (e.g., spatial locations)
  58. 58. Robotics applications • Monitoring (environmental, security) • Medical, e.g. tele-surgery, elderly care, drug delivery, remote, non-invasive examination • Personal robotics • Factory automation • Agricultural robotics, critical infrastructure systems
  59. 59. Robotics applications • Monitoring (environmental, security) • Medical, e.g. telesurgery, elderly care, drug delivery, remote, non-invasive examination • Personal robotics • Factory automation • Agricultural robotics, critical infrastructure systems China wants to replace millions of workers with robots, unprecedented in scale! BRAIN SCIENCE PROJECT
  60. 60. Robotics: Myths and Facts Robots are intended to eliminate jobs MYTH Manufacturing and logistics must adopt robots to survive FACT robots to survive Autonomous robots are still too slow FACT Robots are too expensive MYTH Robots are difficult to use FACT IEEE Spectrum
  61. 61. SUMMARY
  62. 62. Applications of cyber-physical systems and robotics (1) Innovative Products or Applications Cyber-Physical Systems and Robotics Impacts Smart manufacturing and Production • Agile manufacturing • Supply chain connectivity • Intelligent control • Process and assembly automation • Robotics working safely with humans • Enhanced competitiveness • Greater efficiency, agility, and reliability with humans Innovative Products or Applications Cyber-Physical Systems and Robotics Impacts Transportation and Mobility •Autonomous or smart vehicles (surface, air, water, and space) • Vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication • Drive by wire vehicle systems • Plug ins and smart cars • Interactive traffic control systems • Next-generation air transport control • Accident prevention and congestion reduction (e.g. zero-fatality highways) • Greater safety and convenience of travel
  63. 63. Applications of cyber-physical systems and robotics (2) Innovative Products or Applications Cyber-Physical Systems and Robotics Impacts Energy • Electricity systems • Renewable energy supply • Oil and gas production • Smart electricity power grid • Plug-in vehicle charging systems • Smart oil and gas • Greater reliability, security and diversity of energy supply • Increased energy efficiency• Smart oil and gas distribution grid efficiency Innovative Products or Application Cyber-Physical Systems and Robotics Impacts Civil infrastructure • Bridges and dams • Municipal water and wastewater treatment • Active monitoring and control system • Smart grids for water and wastewater • Early warning systems • More safe, secure, and reliable infrastructure • Assurance of water quality and supply • Accident warning and prevention
  64. 64. Applications of cyber-physical systems and robotics (3) Innovative Products or Applications Cyber-Physical Systems Impacts Healthcare • Medical devices • Personal care equipment • Disease diagnosis and prevention • Wireless body area networks • Assistive healthcare systems • Wearable sensors and implantable devices • Improved outcomes and quality of life • Cost-effective healthcare • Timely disease diagnosis and prevention Innovative Products and Applications Cyber-Physical Systems and Robotics Impacts Building and Structure • High performance residential and commercial building • Net-zero energy buildings • Appliances • Whole building controls • Smart HVAC equipment • Building automation systems • Network appliance systems • Increased building efficiency, comfort, and convenience • Improved occupant health and safety • Control of indoor air quality
  65. 65. Applications of cyber-physical systems and robotics (4) Innovative Products and Applications Cyber-Physical Systems and Robotics Impacts Defense • Soldier equipment • Weapons and weapon platforms • Smart (precision-guided) weapons • Wearable • Increased warfighter effectiveness, security, and agilityplatforms • Supply equipment • Wearable computing/sensing uniforms • Intelligent, unmanned vehicles • Supply chain and logistics systems agility • Decreased exposure for human warfiighters and greater capability for remote warefare
  66. 66. Applications of cyber-physical systems and robotics (5) Innovative Products or Applications Cyber-Physical Systems and Robotics Impacts Emergency response • First responder equipment • Communications • Detection and surveillance systems • Resilient communications • Increased emergency responder effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and• Communications equipments • Fire-fighting equipments • Resilient communications networks • Integrated emergency response systems safety, efficiency, and agility • Rapid ability to respond to natural and other disaster National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST)
  67. 67. How to efficiently implement Smart CPS/Robotics in my company? • Technology transfer • Standardization aspects • Other aspects

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