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Module 02.Spreadable media


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Module 02.Spreadable media

  1. 1. Module 2: Spreadable Media
  2. 2. What is spreadable media? <ul><li>Henry Jenkins* coins the phrase spreadable media – to challenge the metaphor of viral media. </li></ul><ul><li>Viral = connotation is an infection or contagion you involuntarily give to others </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadable = media you find compelling and consciously make a choice to pass on to others via links, posts, social networks, microblogging, sharing widgets. Motivated circulation from the grassroots level. </li></ul>* Provost Professor of Communication, Journalism, and Cinematic Arts, USC Annenberg School for Communication
  3. 3. Spreadable media <ul><li>Power of word-of-mouse: Aggregators, curators, filters, communicators, evangelizers, influencers, messaging mavens, content spreaders, gossip-mongers, antagonizers, community organizers. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Earned media” - Content is shared voluntarily through email, chat, linking, blogs, forums and social networks (as opposed to paid media eg print ads, billboards, TVCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Pass-along value – News deemed of value to tell a friend, a relative, a follower, a fan. It has some contextual meaning – funny, political, geographical, historical, societal. “Do your best, link to the rest.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2.Connect 1.Listen 3.Add Value 4.Measure
  5. 5. Spreadable media: Connect + value
  6. 6. What’s next… <ul><li>10 tips on Google </li></ul><ul><li>Alerts </li></ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Short Links </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging, hashtags </li></ul><ul><li>Geotagging </li></ul><ul><li>Social bookmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing widgets </li></ul><ul><li>8 tips on Facebook </li></ul>
  7. 7. Google
  8. 8. 10 Google Tips <ul><li>Capitalization and quotation marks: Google searches are NOT case sensitive. Searches for najib razak, Najib Razak , and nAjiB rAzaK will all return the same results. </li></ul><ul><li>Use “quotes” or + or - sign to include/exclude words. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: “rotary ampang”, rotary +ampang, rotary -ampang </li></ul><ul><li>2. Limit to .my sites </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: “church arson” site:my </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: “najib razak” site: </li></ul><ul><li>Either OR. If you want to include either this or that in result list, use the OR operator ( must be upper-case ): </li></ul><ul><li>Example: rosmah OR najib site:my (Leave out the OR, Google returns pages that include both terms) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Try searching News, Images, Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Finding specific Filetypes </li></ul><ul><li>Go to Google > Advanced Search. </li></ul><ul><li>Try finding Acrobat (pdf), Powerpoint (pps), Word (doc) Excel spreadsheet (xls) files. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: filetype:xls </li></ul><ul><li>Older stuff and newer stuff </li></ul><ul><li>Old: Try Google Cached, or </li></ul><ul><li>New: Enter keyword, click Search, More, Updates </li></ul><ul><li>Find definitions, synonyms </li></ul><ul><li>eg: define:dodecagon </li></ul><ul><li>eg: ~ (tilde and keyword) or use </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Tools: Calculator, Dictionary, Metric/Currency Conversion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg 1: 233 square feet in square meter OR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>233 sq ft =? sq m </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg 2: define: dodecagon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg 3: currency of Brazil in Malaysian money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg 4: 3.578 USD in MYR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg 5: 5.6 million British pounds in MYR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg 6: half a cup in teaspoons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Showtimes </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: movie: inception (Change Location) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonebook </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Brad, Pitt, LA OR rphonebook: Brad Pitt LA </li></ul><ul><li>Bonus: Check flight status by typing flight code eg: mh 123 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Google: What’s new at <ul><li>Google Real-Time Search </li></ul><ul><li>Google Goggles </li></ul><ul><li>Google Social Search </li></ul><ul><li>Google “Near me now” </li></ul><ul><li>Google Trends </li></ul><ul><li>Google Fast Flip </li></ul><ul><li>Google Wave </li></ul><ul><li>Google Buzz </li></ul><ul><li>Google Voice </li></ul>
  12. 12. Monitor keywords using Alerts <ul><li>Monitor specific keyword with Alerts </li></ul><ul><li>Get an email everytime someone mentions a company, a personality, a subject matter, anything that interests you. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular alert services: </li></ul><ul><li>Google Alerts: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo Alerts: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter alerts: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 13. RSS <ul><li>Rich Site Summary/Really Simple Syndication is a method to syndicate your web content out to users. </li></ul><ul><li>RSS feeds benefit readers who want to subscribe to timely updates from their favourite blogs or websites or to aggregate feeds from many sites into one place. </li></ul><ul><li>Most blog software generates an automatic RSS feed for others to “subscribe” to that blog. </li></ul><ul><li>Subscribers can use a dedicated software called an RSS reader to scan updates quickly. Popular web-based RSS readers: Google Reader, Bloglines, Netvibes. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use iGoogle to build your own homepage of RSS feeds. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Using RSS <ul><li>1. Monitor News: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>2. Monitor Press Releases: </li></ul><ul><li>Intel: </li></ul><ul><li>IBM: </li></ul><ul><li>Dell: </li></ul><ul><li>3. Monitor Blogs: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. EXERCISE: RSS Aggregator <ul><li>Go to </li></ul><ul><li> (If no Google account, sign up) </li></ul><ul><li>Go to in another tab and copy RSS link of your choice by right clicking > Copy Link Location. </li></ul><ul><li>Go back to, and click on Add gadgets (top right) </li></ul><ul><li>Click “Add feed or gadget” (bottom left), paste RSS link (without http://) and click Add </li></ul>
  16. 17. Twitter in Plain English Copyright: Lee and Sachi LeFever, Commoncraft
  17. 18. Twitter in action: Plane crash!
  18. 20. From Twitter to Front page
  19. 21. Twitter in action: Mumbai Attacks
  20. 22. 960 tweets/min
  21. 23. Power of Twitter: Breaking News
  22. 24. Would you trust a surgeon who tweeted your operation?
  23. 25. Tweeting what you eat
  24. 27. “ Water me, please!”
  25. 28. “ People relate to people, not companies,” Tony Hsieh,, Shoevangelism
  26. 29. Case study: <ul><li>Free shipping, a 24/7 open call center, and 365-day return policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Turned an e-commerce shoe site into a US$1B business in 10 years . Sold to </li></ul><ul><li>Obsession with customer service, little advertising, organic word-of-mouth recommendations. </li></ul><ul><li>Five weeks of employee training on culture, core values, customer service. Uses Twitter as communications channel. </li></ul>
  27. 34. How are journalists using Twitter <ul><li>Posting breaking news </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring newsmakers, early warning system </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting stories </li></ul><ul><li>Providing insider views in parliament, court, disasters, major events </li></ul><ul><li>Doing interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Researching trends </li></ul><ul><li>Finding leads, tips, sources, angles, photos </li></ul><ul><li>Posting on-site photos </li></ul><ul><li>Community building, networking, tweetups </li></ul><ul><li>Posting updates to drive traffic to primary website or blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting with editorial team </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating, updating decentralized teams </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Work-related problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Event planning </li></ul><ul><li>Showing human side </li></ul><ul><li>Purely social </li></ul>
  28. 35. Twitter: Basics <ul><li>Upload pic in Settings >Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Set time and location in Settings > Account </li></ul><ul><li>Set email notifications when someone follows you </li></ul><ul><li>Post a tweet + shortlink using + hashtag </li></ul><ul><li>Follow others </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Message someone following you </li></ul><ul><li>Re-Tweet (RT) a tweet </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest people to follow (FF) </li></ul><ul><li>Create a List (with description) </li></ul><ul><li>Upload Pic and Tweet it using Twitpic. </li></ul><ul><li>Upload a video using TwitVid or YFrog </li></ul><ul><li>Link Tweets to Facebook status updates using Selective Tweets + #fb </li></ul><ul><li>Search topics and Save the search </li></ul><ul><li>Block spammers </li></ul>
  29. 36. Useful Twitter apps <ul><li>Twitter clients: Tweetdeck, Twitterfeed, Twitterrific, Twhirl, Seesmic, Ubertwitter, Hootsuite </li></ul><ul><li>TweetAlarm: Put in a keyword and get emails when others tweet it. </li></ul><ul><li>Twellow, Tweepsearch: Search for tweeple </li></ul><ul><li>Twitpic, Tweetphoto: Post photos, captions </li></ul><ul><li>Yfrog, Twitvid: Post videos </li></ul><ul><li>Twapperkeeper: Archives tweets </li></ul><ul><li>Tweetstats : Graphs your stats </li></ul><ul><li>Spy: </li></ul>
  30. 37. Twitter 101 <ul><li>A tweet is 140 characters long </li></ul><ul><li>RT : re-tweet other tweets you think are worth repeating </li></ul><ul><li>@username : used to reply to someone or engage in a conversation or as a hat tip. This a public tweet everyone can see. </li></ul><ul><li>dm or d followed by space, then name of person: a direct (private) message with someone who follows you. </li></ul><ul><li>#subject : hashtag used to refer to subject or topic of discussion. </li></ul>
  31. 38. Celebs on Twitter <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http://.../andersoncooper </li></ul><ul><li>http://.../kingsthings </li></ul><ul><li>List: </li></ul>
  32. 39. Media on Twitter <ul><li>Media on Twitter: </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers that Twitter: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Journalists on Twitter: </li></ul><ul><li>LA Times: </li></ul><ul><li>List of Malaysian journalists: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>List of Malaysian media </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>List of Malaysian politicians </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  33. 40. Star branded Twitter followers Sample Audit: As of June 20, 2011 3,929 @dailychilli 5,518 @thestarmetro 10,701 @parenthots 9,825 @ecentralmy 14,965 @mystartwo 17,066 @starbizmy 217 (not updating) @otakuzone 1,531 @allmalaysia 244 (not updating) @thestarcontests 14,847 @thestar_rage 10 ((protected) @thestaronlinetv 1,238 @starproperty 1,811 @starintech 3,829 @galaxiemag 9,338 @mstaronline 74,764 @staronline
  34. 41. Star staff Twitter followers leaderboard Sample Audit: As of June 2011 191 @thoxinyi 176 @limweywen 192 @setokityan 859 @shahanaazhabib 11,950 @chunwai09 229 @ronaldbyrne 603 @boo_licious 319 @ianyee 125 @tankithoong 185 @kellygoh 394 @davinarul 266 @gyap 175 @klangred 534 @nasamaria 2,935 @saiwanstar 7,659 @nikicheong
  35. 42. #hashtags <ul><li>The Hash Tag aka Pound Symbol [#] is used to categorize tweets into topics, events, trends </li></ul><ul><li>Hashtags are the Twitter equivalent of keywords. </li></ul><ul><li>Search at and you will find all the tagged tweets with matching words. </li></ul><ul><li>For eg: #followfriday or #ff is used by a majority to spotlight individuals they consider worth following. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg2: #haiti #haitiquake used during the Haiti quake, #ash used during Iceland volcano eruption </li></ul><ul><li>Eg 3 #neda, #iranelection was used during last Iran elections </li></ul>
  36. 43. Iran: Neda
  37. 44. Warning: Explicit video
  38. 45. Neda: Symbol of injustice in Iran
  39. 49. Neda’s impact <ul><li>Obama: “heartbreaking” </li></ul><ul><li>Viral video: 4.6m views </li></ul><ul><li>Trending topic hashtag: #neda </li></ul><ul><li>Protesters: Young, urban, self-motivated and angry </li></ul><ul><li>But armed with mobilephones and the power of social media </li></ul>
  40. 50. Twitter tips <ul><li>Listen: Follow popular tweeters first </li></ul><ul><li>Lists: Set up your own lists </li></ul><ul><li>Share: Find great stuff to share – use </li></ul><ul><li>shortened links:, </li></ul><ul><li>Be active! No one is interested if your </li></ul><ul><li>last tweet was from several months ago </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t hard sell: If you are plugging your own story, event, product, contest or service, say so </li></ul>
  41. 51. Watch out for spammers, scammers, porn pushers, virus attackers
  42. 52. Twictionary <ul><li>tweet: Posting on Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>twitterer/tweeter: One who tweets </li></ul><ul><li>re-tweet: Repeating someone else’s tweet </li></ul><ul><li>eg: RT @trinetizen </li></ul><ul><li>twitterati: Twitter + literati </li></ul><ul><li>twitterverse: Twitter + universe </li></ul><ul><li>twitterholic: One addicted to Twitter. </li></ul><ul><li>twitterrhea: Posting inane stuff too often. </li></ul><ul><li>twittermentia: Unable to remember last tweet </li></ul><ul><li>tweetheart: One you may have a crush on </li></ul>
  43. 53. Exercise: Twitter <ul><li>Go to Twitter (set up account, if you don’t already have one) </li></ul><ul><li>Create 140-character blurb with a short link of the most emailed story in The Star Online </li></ul><ul><li>Find people or a list to follow </li></ul><ul><li>Create a list </li></ul><ul><li>Re-tweet another person’s tweet </li></ul>
  44. 54. Short links <ul><li>Helps reduce character space. Became popular with rise of Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Popular services:, </li></ul><ul><li>Others:,, </li></ul><ul><li>When posting a link, use to find out how popular/timely the link already is and whether your friends have already tweeted/posted it. </li></ul>1. 2.
  45. 55. Exercise 2: Twitter <ul><li>Find a story in The Star, create a short link using , tweet it in these voices: </li></ul><ul><li>Professional </li></ul><ul><li>Casual </li></ul><ul><li>Commentary </li></ul><ul><li>Quotable </li></ul><ul><li>Inside story </li></ul><ul><li>Funny </li></ul>
  46. 57. Tagging and tag clouds <ul><li>Tags help describe a piece of information and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise: Go to, create your own tag cloud using a story or a speech.Tip: Use tilde sign (~) for phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise: Go to Flickr and search photos via tags </li></ul>
  47. 58. Geotagging <ul><li>Adds geographical identification metadata to various media such as photographs, video, websites. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Helps readers follow an event in real-time, locate restaurant reviewed, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nike Human Race </li></ul></ul>
  48. 59. Bookmarking and sharing widgets <ul><li>Help your users share content everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Generates traffic back. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases site's ranking. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>, Tweet This </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facebook Like Button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  49. 61. Set up Facebook account (if you haven’t already)
  50. 62. Journalism and Facebook <ul><li>Find leads : conversations and topics that intrigue you that you can turn into stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow friends , companies, events, groups, fan pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit for ideas, sources, interview subjects, questions for upcoming interview subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach out to friends of friends - you never know when someone can connect you to what you are looking for. </li></ul>
  51. 63. Facebook: Basics <ul><li>Status Update </li></ul><ul><li>Send a Message </li></ul><ul><li>Post on Your Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Like, Comment or Share </li></ul><ul><li>Upload photo as a profile pic </li></ul><ul><li>Create a photo album </li></ul><ul><li>Upload a video </li></ul><ul><li>Post a Note </li></ul><ul><li>Tag a photo, video or Note </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Create an Event Page </li></ul><ul><li>Create a Fan Page </li></ul><ul><li>Create a Group </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy Settings </li></ul>
  52. 64. Searching Facebook in real-time Other methods: (searchword
  53. 65. Tips on Facebook <ul><li>Share: Be useful , offer tips, guides, timely information. Link to interesting stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Be generous. Answer questions of those in need, don’t just take. </li></ul><ul><li>Do promote your own stories, but provide some other value-add , this is not just a broadcast medium. Avoid shameless plugs on how wonderful you are. </li></ul><ul><li>Be human : Show you care, be witty, disclose your personal interests, it helps to get to know you better. </li></ul>
  54. 66. <ul><li>Don’t overdo the silly things or clog up your wall with YouTube videos </li></ul><ul><li>Start a page : Keep it public, you have option to kick out members </li></ul><ul><li>Have two or three admins as backups for events/fan pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Use apps to automate stuff, but don’t overdo it: Blogposts, Twitter updates ( </li></ul>Tips on Facebook
  55. 67. A word of caution… <ul><li>Don’t sign up for every game/quiz and poke people constantly. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t post updates in anger and in spite. Nothing is private on Facebook. </li></ul><ul><li>Your personal views are your own, preface that if you think it may offend your management. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not disclose confidential information obtained through work that may bring the company into disrepute. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t undermine your effectiveness at work. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Friending” should not be taken literally – but others may misconstrue this as being partisan or biased. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid racial, religious slurs and personal attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>You are still a reporter 24/7: Verify facts, identify sources before passing along news. Make it clear if you are skeptical of veracity of information, if you are. </li></ul>
  56. 68. Exercise: Facebook <ul><li>Add a Note to your Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Add photos, videos to your Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Set up an Events page on Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Add photos, videos to an Event </li></ul><ul><li>Tip: Pages vs Groups: Pages are better for a long-term relationships with your fans, readers or customers; Groups are better for hosting an active discussion and attracting quick attention. Community </li></ul><ul><li>pages are for generic causes or topics. </li></ul>