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Today, many children are
diagnosed with learning
disabilities at school when it is
discovered that they are having
difficu...
It is essential to know about
Learning Disabilities as
sometimes, what is brushed aside
as a childhood tantrum or simply
a...
Focusing on the unfocused & invisible
Learning disability (LD) is a
processing disability.
It has nothing to do with
senso...
Various Types of Learning Disabilities
• Dyslexia
• Dyscalculia
• Dysgraphia
• Developmental Dyspraxia
Dyslexia
Dyslexia, or developmental reading disorder, is
characterized by difficulty with learning to
read fluently and wi...
Types of Dyslexia
1. Visual Dyslexia: It is marked by:
• Reversal of whole word / syllable / letters (e.g.
now / won, was ...
Types of Dyslexia
2. Auditory Dyslexia: It is characterized by the
child
• having difficulty in processing and understandi...
Dyscalculia
Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or
comprehending arithmetic, such as
• difficulty in understanding numbe...
Dysgraphia
This is a disorder which expresses itself primarily
through writing or typing, although in some cases
it may al...
Developmental Dyspraxia
This is a neurological condition characterized
by a marked difficulty in carrying out routine
task...
Stereotypes
Since Learning Disabilities have only
recently been classified as a type of
disability, there are several
misc...
MYTH
Learning
Disabilities
can be cured.
REALITY
Learning disabilities
cannot be cured.
However, with
proper intervention
...
Corrective
eyewear is an
effective
treatment for
Learning
Disabilities.
REALITY
Learning disabilities
are a disorder of th...
Watching too
much television
causes Learning
Disabilities
REALITY
While there are
harmful effects of
watching too much
tel...
Vaccinations
cause Learning
Disabilities.
REALITY
While the exact
causes of Learning
Disabilities are still
unknown, there...
Learning
Disabilities are
a measurement
for a person’s
intelligence.
REALITY
There is no
correlation between
Learning Disa...
Some Greats who had Learning Disabilities
Albert
Einstein
George
Washington
Agatha
Christie
Leonard
Da Vinci
Services needed / available for children with
Learning Disabilities and their families are:
• assessment,
• certification,...
.All Remedial Services today are however available
only for English medium / speaking population.
So, there is a gap in se...
What we need is...
• Inclusive Education: This means School
Education which is in tune with diverse needs
of ALL children ...
For Inclusive Education to be
possible, teachers need to be aware
of Learning Disabilities (LD) and how
to best teach stud...
When teaching students who have
Dyslexia:
• Adding new words, word definitions and
practicing to use those words appropria...
Use “The Cloze Technique”
when teaching students who have
Dyslexia:
The child uses the context of the sentence to
understa...
When teaching students who have
Dyscalculia
• It is important to introduce concepts
systematically and logically.
• The to...
Some more tips for students with
Dyscalculia
• Each topic should be taught with the help of
familiar objects and situation...
For students with Dysgraphia.
Encourage the child to practice:
• forming both capital and small cursive letters,
• then, f...
When teaching students who have
Dyspraxia:
• Seat the child away from the doors and windows
and let him have a clear view ...
To teach students with Dyspraxia:
• Each topic should be taught with the help of
familiar objects and situations. The pict...
Remember...
We would like to thank
• Dr. Asmita Huddar, Principal of Hashu Advani
College of Special Education for providing us
with t...
Knowing More about Learning Disability
Knowing More about Learning Disability
Knowing More about Learning Disability
Knowing More about Learning Disability
Knowing More about Learning Disability
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Knowing More about Learning Disability

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In today's educational system, we have reached a stage where we can differentiate between a child's temper tantrum and a learning disability. However, it is still imperative to know more about learning disabilities so as to facilitate their inclusion in mainstream education.

Published in: Education

Knowing More about Learning Disability

  1. 1. Today, many children are diagnosed with learning disabilities at school when it is discovered that they are having difficulty in some part of their education.
  2. 2. It is essential to know about Learning Disabilities as sometimes, what is brushed aside as a childhood tantrum or simply as a child being “slow”, may be due to a learning disability.
  3. 3. Focusing on the unfocused & invisible Learning disability (LD) is a processing disability. It has nothing to do with sensory impairment (Children with LD have no hearing or visual difficulty) It has nothing to do with less IQ. CWLD are NOT mentally retarded. It has nothing to do with culture and environment in early childhood. Yet children have difficulties in:
  4. 4. Various Types of Learning Disabilities • Dyslexia • Dyscalculia • Dysgraphia • Developmental Dyspraxia
  5. 5. Dyslexia Dyslexia, or developmental reading disorder, is characterized by difficulty with learning to read fluently and with accurate comprehension despite normal or above- average intelligence. Dyslexia is the most common learning difficulty and most recognized reading disorder.
  6. 6. Types of Dyslexia 1. Visual Dyslexia: It is marked by: • Reversal of whole word / syllable / letters (e.g. now / won, was / saw, b / d). • Substitution (e.g. house / home) • Addition of sounds (e.g. ischool / school) • Omission of letters, syllables, words or word endings (e.g. sed / said). It arises due to a child’s short memory span and difficulty in interpreting and recalling visual images.
  7. 7. Types of Dyslexia 2. Auditory Dyslexia: It is characterized by the child • having difficulty in processing and understanding what has been said to him. • not being able to distinguish subtle differences in sound (e.g. bit/bet, pig/peg). • having difficulty in filtering out the extraneous sound. It is quite likely that a child with auditory dyslexia becomes very tense or hyper-active in a noisy room.
  8. 8. Dyscalculia Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as • difficulty in understanding numbers • learning how to manipulate numbers • and learning facts in Mathematics
  9. 9. Dysgraphia This is a disorder which expresses itself primarily through writing or typing, although in some cases it may also affect hand–eye coordination, direction or sequence-oriented processes such as tying knots or carrying out a repetitive task.
  10. 10. Developmental Dyspraxia This is a neurological condition characterized by a marked difficulty in carrying out routine tasks involving balance, fine-motor control and kinesthetic coordination. Difficulty in the use of speech sounds, problems with short-term memory and organization are typical of persons with dyspraxia.
  11. 11. Stereotypes Since Learning Disabilities have only recently been classified as a type of disability, there are several misconceptions about them which several of us believe. In the following slides, we shall try and break some of these myths.
  12. 12. MYTH Learning Disabilities can be cured. REALITY Learning disabilities cannot be cured. However, with proper intervention and support, persons living with learning disabilities can succeed in school, work and life.
  13. 13. Corrective eyewear is an effective treatment for Learning Disabilities. REALITY Learning disabilities are a disorder of the brain wherein there is problem with language processing. It is not a disorder of the eye. MYTH
  14. 14. Watching too much television causes Learning Disabilities REALITY While there are harmful effects of watching too much television, Learning Disabilities are not among them. MYTH
  15. 15. Vaccinations cause Learning Disabilities. REALITY While the exact causes of Learning Disabilities are still unknown, there is no evidence that vaccinations have caused Learning Disabilities. MYTH
  16. 16. Learning Disabilities are a measurement for a person’s intelligence. REALITY There is no correlation between Learning Disabilities and IQ. In fact, there are many men and women who have Learning Disabilities who have achieved greatness in their fields . MYTH
  17. 17. Some Greats who had Learning Disabilities Albert Einstein George Washington Agatha Christie Leonard Da Vinci
  18. 18. Services needed / available for children with Learning Disabilities and their families are: • assessment, • certification, • family counseling, • teacher training, • short term courses, • remedial coaching, • exemption/ concessions, • teaching learning material etc.
  19. 19. .All Remedial Services today are however available only for English medium / speaking population. So, there is a gap in services deserved by rural, lower socio economic and non English speaking population. The hopeful fact is that The Right to Education Act seeks to enroll and sustain all children between 6 to 14 in nearby mainstream (regular)schools.
  20. 20. What we need is... • Inclusive Education: This means School Education which is in tune with diverse needs of ALL children including Children with Disabilities, ALL under one roof for diverse needs. • Greater awareness about LDs: If more people, especially teachers, are made aware of Learning Disabilities, proper steps can be taken to make education more inclusive.
  21. 21. For Inclusive Education to be possible, teachers need to be aware of Learning Disabilities (LD) and how to best teach students who have LD.
  22. 22. When teaching students who have Dyslexia: • Adding new words, word definitions and practicing to use those words appropriately should be built into reading programs. • Encourage your child to write stories about events using new words he/she has learnt. • Regular testing, monthly or quarterly, using informal measures will determine progress in reading and spelling.
  23. 23. Use “The Cloze Technique” when teaching students who have Dyslexia: The child uses the context of the sentence to understand the unknown words. This strategy can also be used as a test of comprehension of the text being read. It is basically a fill in the blank activity. This technique should be encouraged by teachers.
  24. 24. When teaching students who have Dyscalculia • It is important to introduce concepts systematically and logically. • The topics and presentation should begin from simple concepts and progress to difficult things. • The lessons must be such that they draw upon the student’s concepts and experiences and then gradually help him towards abstract mathematical thinking.
  25. 25. Some more tips for students with Dyscalculia • Each topic should be taught with the help of familiar objects and situations. The pictures and stories you use must kindle the young student’s imagination, interest and reading level. • Provide him with opportunities to practice so that he not only gains important skills but also masters an understanding of concepts and becomes confident.
  26. 26. For students with Dysgraphia. Encourage the child to practice: • forming both capital and small cursive letters, • then, forming both the capital and small cursive letters in words, • using the capital and small cursive letters in a phrase, • then, using cursive writing in a variety of creative writing situations.
  27. 27. When teaching students who have Dyspraxia: • Seat the child away from the doors and windows and let him have a clear view of the blackboard. • Do not ask him to copy from the blackboard. Provide him with printed matter instead. • Write the day’s timetable on a strip of chart paper using different columns and place/stick it on his desk. (For young children, you can make a visual agenda)
  28. 28. To teach students with Dyspraxia: • Each topic should be taught with the help of familiar objects and situations. The pictures and stories you use must kindle the young student’s imagination, interest and reading level. • Provide him with opportunities to practice so that he not only gains important skills but also masters an understanding of concepts and becomes confident.
  29. 29. Remember...
  30. 30. We would like to thank • Dr. Asmita Huddar, Principal of Hashu Advani College of Special Education for providing us with the necessary information and expertise to complete this presentation. • Our other sources were: 1. National Centre for Learning Disabilities (http://ncld.org/types-learning- disabilities/what-is-ld/top-10-ld-myths-misconceptions ) 2. Wikipedia (https://www.wikipedia.org/)

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