Critical Thinking May Faculty Meeting


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preso given by science teacher on use of Socratic questioning

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Critical Thinking May Faculty Meeting

  1. 1. Questions have a 3 part answer <ul><li>What would a tax increase on tobacco due? Most students simply state the 1 part outcome: Tobacco use falls. </li></ul><ul><li>1) Since there is an increase in tobacco taxes, (restating the question) </li></ul><ul><li>2) the cost of using tobacco would rise </li></ul><ul><li>(the causal change) </li></ul><ul><li>3) therefore tobacco use would fall </li></ul><ul><li>(the outcome) </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Another example: What would happen to US tourism to Europe if the dollar depreciated (weakened) against the Euro? </li></ul><ul><li>The lazy one word answer they give is it would fall. </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 part answer: </li></ul><ul><li>1) since the dollar has weakened against the euro, </li></ul><ul><li>2) it is now more expensive for American tourists to buy things in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>3) so US tourism to Europe will decrease. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Critical Thinking Socratic Questioning
  4. 4. <ul><li>Critical Thinking workshop hosted by the Foundation for Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>February 27- March 1, 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attended by: Christina Engen, Micki Newland,and Denise Pogroszewski </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Resources <ul><li>Dr. Linda Elder and Dr. Richard Paul. The Thinker’s Guide to Analytic Thinking. How to take Thinking Apart and What to Look for When You Do . 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Linda Elder and Dr. Richard Paul. The Thinker’s Guide to The Art of Socratic Questioning . 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Paul, A.J.A. Binker, Dougals Martin, and Ken Adamson. Critical Thinking Handbook: High School A Guide for Redesigning Instruction .1995 </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is critical thinking? <ul><li>The art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to improving it. </li></ul><ul><li>The result: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Critical thinking is <ul><li>Self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use </li></ul><ul><li>It entails effective communication and problem solving abilities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Thinking is driven by questions <ul><li>No questions = No understanding </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not enough for us to be good at asking the questions. The students need to be asking the questions. </li></ul><ul><li>How do you get students to ask questions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide students with the tools! </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How can we guide critical thinking? <ul><li>The use of Socratic questioning is one tool that we have that we can refine and be intentional about using. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not have to be used every day. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a great way to start and wrap-up lessons or units. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Socratic Questioning <ul><li>To formulate questions that probe thinking in a disciplined and productive way </li></ul>
  11. 11. Socratic Questioning <ul><li>Raises basic issues </li></ul><ul><li>Probes beneath the surface of things </li></ul><ul><li>Pursues problematic areas of thought </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Helps students discover the structure of their own thought </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students develop sensitivity to clarity, accuracy, relevance, and depth </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students arrive at judgments through their own reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students analyze thinking- its purposes, assumptions, questions, points of view, information, inferences, concepts and implications </li></ul>
  13. 13. What kinds of questions? <ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you elaborate further? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you give me an example? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you illustrate what you mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you put that another way? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you mean by…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do you say that? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Jane, would you summarize in your own words what Richard has said? Richard is that what you meant? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How could we check on that? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How could we find out if that is true? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How could we verify or test that? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Precision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you be more specific? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you give me more details? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you be more exact? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does all this make sense together? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does your first paragraph fit together with your last? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does what you say follow from the evidence? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Questions lead to discussion <ul><li>Socratic discussion, guided by the teacher, in which students’ thought is elicited and probed, allows students to develop and evaluate their thinking by making it explicit. </li></ul><ul><li>This gives students an opportunity to develop and test their ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Through this process students can synthesize their beliefs into a more coherent and better-developed perspective. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Socratic questioning requires teachers to take seriously what their student say and think. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What they mean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its significance to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its relation to other beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How it can be tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent and in what way is it true or makes sense </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Socratic questioning has distinctive goals and ways to achieve them </li></ul><ul><li>It is structured and disciplined </li></ul><ul><li>The discussion is structured to take student thought from the unclear to the clear, from the implicit to the explicit </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>To learn how to participate in Socratic questioning, one has to learn how to listen carefully to what others say. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Guidelines for Socratic Questioning <ul><li>Think along with the class </li></ul><ul><li>There are always a variety of ways you can respond </li></ul><ul><li>Do not hesitate to pause and reflect quietly </li></ul><ul><li>Keep control of the discussion </li></ul>
  22. 22. Guidelines continued <ul><li>Periodically summarize where the discussion is: what questions have been answered; what questions are yet unresolved </li></ul><ul><li>Think of yourself as a kind of intellectual orchestra leader </li></ul><ul><li>Keep control of the question on the floor </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Ultimately we want our students to walk away from here not needing us. </li></ul><ul><li>We want our students to be self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinkers. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Practice <ul><li>Read Transcript Four: Helping students think seriously about complex social issues. </li></ul><ul><li>As you read, think and ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does this example clarify what Socratic questioning is? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I see the goal or purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the teacher the “intellectual orchestra leader”? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. In groups of three <ul><li>A- you are the questioner – use the list of questions </li></ul><ul><li>B- you are the person answer ing the questions </li></ul><ul><li>C- you are the observer - the good listener </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Pick a topic- it’s even better if person A doesn’t know that much about the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Person A- ask a question about your topic </li></ul><ul><li>B answers </li></ul><ul><li>Continue this process for a couple of minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Person C- carefully listens and will report back to A and B about what s/he saw in their conversation related to their use of Socratic questioning. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Did You… <ul><li>Listen carefully to what others say? </li></ul><ul><li>Think about a variety of ways you can respond </li></ul><ul><li>Hesitate to pause and reflect quietly </li></ul><ul><li>Keep control of the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Periodically summarize where the discussion is: what questions have been answered; what questions are yet unresolved </li></ul><ul><li>Think of yourself as a kind of intellectual orchestra leader </li></ul><ul><li>Keep control of the question on the floor </li></ul>