Bighistory powerpoint 140


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Bighistory powerpoint 140

  1. 1. Big History Patricia Bigler History 140
  2. 2. Big History… What is it? <ul><li>“ A field of historical study that examines history on a large scale across long time frames through a multidiciplinary approach…” [1] </li></ul><ul><li>Big History looks at history through many different aspects from geology, biology, anthropology, even astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved in the mid-20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Became a distinct field in the 1980’s, looks at history from the very beginning of time, to the present day. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Journey of a Man <ul><li>130,000 years ago- First evidence of humans found in Africa. Although the brain is full size, the behavior is still premodern. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neanderthals thrive in Europe. They have a different physique, and are also premodern. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>50,000-40,000 years ago- The first clear evidence is found showing fully modern humans. </li></ul><ul><li>40,000-35,000 years ago- Evidence of migration from Africa to Europe. Neanderthals eventually die and those left are fully modern . </li></ul><ul><li>11,000-10,000 years ago- Agriculture began. People began to herd animals and cultivate plants. </li></ul><ul><li>6,000 years ago- Cities began to emerge. The first were in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Journey of Man… <ul><li>Beads were among humanities very first symbols. They are thought to have been given and exchanged as ritual gifts. [2] </li></ul><ul><li>According to Klein, “they represent one of the most important revolutions in our species’ career; the dawning of modern human behavior.” [2] </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Journey of a man <ul><li>Symbols were a major development in human development. Once we started using symbols it showed we had the use of advanced cognitive skills and could use those skills for further advances such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inventing tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inventing weapons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing social networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming self aware </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Journey of a Man <ul><li>Anthropologists believe human culture grew around 45,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>They believe this because of cave paintings, huts, and the first fishing poles. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists argue over the cause of the sudden innovation. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ most favor cultural, social or demographic explanations…” [2] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A few believe it was a slow cultural evolution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Klein offers another possibility, that it was not an increase in brain size, but the quality of the brain. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Catastrophe!!!! <ul><li>There is speculation that the erruption of the Krakatay Volcano was to blame for the drastic changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused bad weather for a period extending for about 1year and a half to 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight was blocked because of the volcanic cloud that formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the bad weather there was drought, famine, diseases, dropping temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of the population died because of this. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Guns, Germs, & Steel <ul><li>Written by Jared Diamond. </li></ul><ul><li>He believes there is not a superiority among different groups, he believes the dominance was due to what was available to different areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans and Asians had access to plants and domesticated animals not available to North America and other areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Fertile Crecent” (area of Southwest Asia including Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Turkey) had 6 of the 8 “founder crops” and they also had the cow, goat, pig and sheep. </li></ul><ul><li>The only domesticated animal North America had was the llama. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Guns, Germs, & Steel <ul><li>The animals provided fertilizer and dairy. They used the animals to pull plows, and they also helped to win wars. Even though North America had a similar climate they did not have mammals to domesticate. </li></ul><ul><li>With the domesticated animals also came disease. Diamond estimates that 95% of the Europeans pre-colombian population died because of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemic diseases started with domesticated animals, because North America did not have these animals they did not have the diseases or the immunities . </li></ul><ul><li>According to Diamond, “Chance Advantages” are the reason for advancement. Technical advances began with the availability of plants and animal, and the advantage of having a huge land mass. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The World and Trade <ul><li>Europeans got ahead of their rivals by using their natural resourses. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed complex societies. </li></ul><ul><li>By maintaining close relationships with eachother, they had an advantage over parts of the world that were more isolated. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The World and Trade <ul><li>Portuguese, was the first to leave Europes isolation in the 1400’s. </li></ul><ul><li>They set up churches, ports and trading communites along the coast of Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>They later entered India and found gold. They continued to search for resources that they could accumulate and combine. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans had a big advantage when they improved their shipping, allowing them to sail anywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>With the improvements in cannonry came the creation of more powerful gunships. </li></ul><ul><li>Having ships that were able to sail further and longer than before opppened up the opportunity to explore uninhabited areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus was an important expedition in history </li></ul>
  12. 12. The World & Trade The world that trade created… <ul><li>China began replacing their paper and copper currency with silver. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese traded silks to the dutch and British, they in turn bought them with spanish pesos. </li></ul><ul><li>Silver made its way east through coffee purchases. </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee was introduced to Morocco, Egypt, Persia, India, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>The Aztec Cacao beans were so precious that they could be used as money. </li></ul><ul><li>There were issues when it came to trade and not coming to terms with trading. Some areas were unable to sell or trade certain items. </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee, cacao, Luxury goods, gold, cotton, food, tobacco, furniture, and many other items were used for trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Ports were built, and monopolys on certain items were also formed. </li></ul><ul><li>By the mid 1600’s the Portuguese empire in Asia was declining , and trade wars were just beginning. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The World & Trade <ul><li>Addictions formed to coffee, tea, tobacco, and cocoa. Most of these items were indigenous to specific areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial empires were formed on the foundation of drug trades. </li></ul><ul><li>Tarrifs on tea, sugar and tobacco were a huge revenue in a lot of the 17 th and 18 th century states. </li></ul><ul><li>Most drugs became acceptable and were even tied to certain events. </li></ul><ul><li>As the drugs became more popular they lost the history of their origins. They no longer had anything to do with where they came from but rather they became central to the culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Chocolate was considered to be for women and children, and tobacco and coffee with men. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sources <ul><li>[1] </li></ul><ul><li>[2] “Suddenly Smarter” written by Richard Klein for Stanford magazine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>[3] Catastrophe! </li></ul><ul><li>[4] Guns, Germs,& Steel </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The World and Trade= Documents from both folder A and B. </li></ul>