Business communication 7

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Business communication 7

  1. 1. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION LECTURE 7 THE WRITING PROCESS By Ms. Glynnis
  2. 2. The writing process has 3 parts : 1. Pre-writing 2. Writing 3. Revising
  3. 3. 1. Pre-writing  Analyzing  Analyzed your audience  analyzed purpose of writing  Anticipating  how audience will react to your message  Adapting  try to think of the right words and right tone to win approval
  4. 4. 2. writing  researching  investigate your customer or audience Organizing  how you want your letter Composing  save your writing in your computer
  5. 5. 3. Revising  revising  check clarity, conciseness, tone and readability Proofreading  ensure correct spelling, grammar, punctuation and format. Evaluating  decide whether it accomplishes your goal
  6. 6. SELECTING THE BEST CHANNEL  Face to face conversation  Telephone call  Voicemail messages  Fax  Email  Face to face group meeting  Video or teleconference  Memo  Letter  Report or proposal
  7. 7. Choosing the best channel depends on some of the following factors :  importance of the message  Amount and speed of the feedback required  Necessity of a permanent record  Cost of the channel  Degree of formality desired
  8. 8. In preparing business messages and oral presentations, you’ll find that your writing need to be :  Audience – oriented  concentrate on looking at a problem from the receiver’s perspective instead of seeing fron your own.  Purposeful  to solve problem and convey information  Economical  try to present ideas clearly but concisely.  length is not rewarded
  9. 9. IMPORTANCE OF PROOFREADING  Proofreading before a document is completed is generally a waste of time.  What to watch for in proofreading :  spelling  Grammar  Punctuation  Names  Numbers  format
  10. 10.  How to proofread routine documents  needs a light proofreading  How to proofread complex documents  Techniques : • print a copy, double spaced • allow adequate time to proofread carefully • Be prepared to find errors • read message at least twice • reduce your reading speed • use standard proofreading marks to indicate changes
  11. 11. ESTABLISHING CREDABILITY AND REVIEWING THE WRITING 1. EFFECTIVE SENTENCES  Sentence must have subject and make sense  Clauses have subject and verbs, but phrases do not.  Independent clauses may stand alone but dependent could not.  Fragment are broken-off parts of sentences and should not be punctuated as sentences.  When two independent clauses are joined by a comma without conjunction, a comma splice result.  Sentences with 20 or fewer words have the most impact.
  12. 12. 2. Emphasis  emphasize an idea mechanically by using underlining, italics, boldface, font changes, all caps, dashes and tabulations.  emphasize ideas stylistically by using vivid words, labeling the main idea, and positioning the main idea strategically.  deemphasize ideas by using general words and placing the idea in dependent clauses.
  13. 13. 3. Active and passive voice  active –voice sentences are preferred because the subject is the doer of the action.  although active-voice verbs are preferred, passive-voice verbs perform useful function.
  14. 14. 4. Parallelism  balanced wording helps the reader anticipate and comprehend your meaning  all items in the list should be expressed in balanced constructions.
  15. 15. 5. unity united sentences contain only related ideas. 6. Zigzag writing  sentences often should be broken into two sentences 7. Mixed constructions  mixed grammatical constructions confuse readers 8. Dangling and misplaced modifiers  modifiers must be close to the words they describe or limit
  16. 16. 9. Paragraph coherence  three ways to create paragraph coherence are :  repetition of key ideas  use of pronouns  use of transiti  onal expressions  used wisely, transitional expressions guide readers smoothly from idea to idea the most readable paragraphs contain eight or fewer printed lines.

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