The History of School Counseling

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The History of School Counseling

  1. 1. School CounselingPowerPoint produced by Melinda Haley, M.S., New Mexico State University.“This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited bylaw:• any public performance or display, including transmission of an image over a network;• preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images;• any rental, lease, or lending of the program.” “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” 1
  2. 2. History and Development of School Counseling • School Counseling began as a vocational guidance movement and emerged from the Industrial Revolution. • 1895 George Merrill began to experiment with vocational guidance at the California School of Mechanical Arts in San Francisco. • Jesse B. Davis is thought to be the first to implement a systematic guidance system in public schools. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” 2
  3. 3. History and Development of School Counseling • Eli Weaver: In 1908, he organized guidance services for the city of New York. • Frank Goodwin: In 1911, he organized a system wide guidance program for the schools of Cincinnati. • Anna Y. Reed: Developed a guidance program in the city of Seattle in the early 1900’s, which focused on employability of students. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” 3
  4. 4. History and Development of School Counseling Frank Parsons the “Father of Guidance.” Stressed the scientific approach to selecting a career. In selecting a vocation: •One must have a clear self-understanding of one’s aptitudes, abilities, interests, resources and limitations. • Knowledge of the requirements, advantages, and disadvantages of different employment. • An understanding of how these two are related. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” 4
  5. 5. History and Development of School Counseling Emergence of Guidance and Counseling in the Schools Before WWII • Intelligence Testing (Binet, Terman and Otis). • Progressive education (John Dewey). • Psychological trait measurement (E. G. Williamson). “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” 5
  6. 6. History and Development of School Counseling Emergence of Guidance and Counseling in the Schools World War II to the Space Age: • Carl Rogers • Governmental Influence (Veterans Administration, George Bearden Act, Sputnik I, National Defense Education Act). • Organizational Changes and Professional Influences The development of professional organizations. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” 6
  7. 7. History and Development of School Counseling Emergence of Guidance and Counseling in the Schools Post 1960’s: • Development of technology • Changing roles of women and families • Elementary and Secondary Education Act •“Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” 7
  8. 8. History and Development of School Counseling Emergence of Guidance and Counseling in the Schools Post 1960’s: • Redefining the role of the school counselor • Education Act for All Handicapped Children of 1975 • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” 8
  9. 9. School Counseling Presentation ResourcesSchmidt, J. J. (2003). Counseling in schools: Essential services and comprehensive programs, 4th ed. Boston, MA.: Allyn & Bacon. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” 9

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