Week Two Part I


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Week Two Part I

  1. 1. COMM 401Interpreting Strategic DiscourseWeek Two<br />Rhetor/Intent<br />
  2. 2. The Rhetor in Aristotle’s Rhetoric<br />3 means of persuasion<br />Ethos<br />Pathos<br />Logos<br />Ethos = speaker credibility as demonstrated by the speaker during the speech. <br />Rooted in demonstrations of goodwill, character, trust, expertise.<br />
  3. 3. The Rhetor in Isocratean Rhetoric<br />Remember that Isocrates was dedicated to educating the ideal citizen through rhetoric.<br />Focus on epideictic and style all spoke to the importance placed on the speaker.<br />
  4. 4. Early Roman Rhetoric<br />The role of the rhetor in rhetorical understanding increases with the rise of the Roman civilization.<br />Differences with Greece:<br />Development of lawyers and legal patrons.<br />Popular democracy was replaced by Republican democracy.<br />Forensic and deliberative oratory rose in importance.<br />
  5. 5. Early Roman Rhetoric<br />Early Roman rhetoric established the importance of virtue and character.<br />Cato was an early Roman rhetorician who gave many different speeches in a range of roles within Roman society.<br />Cicero says that all oratorical virtues are found in his speeches.<br />Quintilian calls him the first Roman rhetorician.<br />
  6. 6. Early Roman Rhetoric—Cicero <br />Born in Arpinum on January 3, 106 BCE.<br />Moved to Rome in early teens to study and learn.<br />Wrote extensively on rhetoric—including an incomplete early work On Invention.<br />May also have been the author of Rhetorica ad Herennium.<br />Written about the same time as De Inventione—from the 2nd decade of the 1st century, BCE.<br />Oldest Latin rhetorical treatise preserved in entirety.<br />
  7. 7. Cicero and Roman Rhetoric<br />3 means of acquiring rhetorical competence:<br />Theory<br />Imitation<br />Practice<br />Rhetorica ad Herennium<br />Cicero sought to preserve the Roman Republic.<br />He feared several threats:<br />demogogues<br />administrative corruption<br />foreign and civil war<br />economic chaos<br />Became the leading spokesman of the optimates, upholding what was best for the Republic.<br />He advocated concordiaordinum, or responsible cooperation among different groups.<br />
  8. 8. Cicero’s On the Orator<br />In 55 BCE, Cicero wrote On the Orator, a dialogue discussing the nature of a perfect speaker.<br />Less a handbook than a philosophy of rhetoric.<br />Major issues in On the Orator: <br />Is rhetoric an “art”?<br />The relative importance of natural ability, theory, and training.<br />The kinds of knowledge required for successful oratory.<br />On the Orator blends:<br />Isocratean rhetoric<br />Aristotlian rhetoric<br />Functions of the traditional Roman orator<br />
  9. 9. Quintilian<br />The greatest teacher of rhetoric in Rome.<br />Born late 30s AD in Spain.<br />A life-long educator, who wrote his account of rhetoric and rhetorical education in InstitutioOratoria. <br />His rhetorical theories weren’t very original, but he contributed to the rescue of Ciceronian standards of style, in opposition to the declaimers.<br />The concept of nature is important to Quintilian’s system—he seeks a natural style of rhetoric, where speeches grow naturally and organically.<br />
  10. 10. The Second Sophistic<br />Second Sophistic<br />Lasted from 50 A.D. to 400 A.D.<br />Term was coined by the orator Aeschines<br />“a period of oratorical excess in which the subject matter became less important than the interest in safer matters like the externals of speech, especially style and delivery.”<br />Rhetoric undergoes many transitions between the fall of the Roman Empire and the British/Continental period<br />12+ centuries<br />Two main forces<br />Erosion of democratic spirit<br />Rise of Christianity<br />
  11. 11. The Second Sophistic<br />Declamation<br />Oratory based on innocuous, apolitical topics that would not cause public harm to the speaker.<br />Forms of entertainment speaking:<br />Declamation<br />Panegyric (festival)<br />Gamelion (marriage)<br />Genethliac (birthday)<br />Prosphonetic (to a ruler)<br />Epitaphios (funeral)<br />Leading figures:<br />Hermogenes—On Types of Style<br />Seven qualities of style: clarity; grandeur; beauty; rapidity; character; sincerity; force<br />The Encomium as rhetorical form/exercise<br />Longinus—On the Sublime<br />
  12. 12. Rhetoric & Christianity<br />St. Augustine<br />Most formidable opponent of the Second Sophistic<br />De Doctrina Christiana “begins rhetoric anew”…adapts classical understanding (Cicero) to preaching.<br />Ignores the sophistic excesses and argues for a blending of eloquence and wisdom—reconnected rhetoric to its classical roots.<br />Christian suspicion of classical rhetoric:<br />Rooted in pagan culture/mythology<br />Reliance on probability<br />Tension between persuasion and discovery/instruction<br />
  13. 13. Focus on Rhetor in Belles Lettres<br />Neoclassicism in British rhetorical thought<br />From 1700-1740, British thought experienced a neoclassical revival<br />Called the “Augustan Age”<br />Study of English language must be patterned after the ancients—imitatio is again important.<br />Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, John Lawson, John Ward<br />The Belletristic Movement<br />Taste = the human capacity to both critically appreciate and receive pleasure from everything that was beautiful<br />Sublime = feeling of awe and inspiration in the presense of natural or artistic greatness<br />Genius = ability to see relationships and perform or create worthy objects<br />
  14. 14. Focus on Rhetor in Kenneth Burke’s Theory<br /><ul><li>A key part of any rhetorical activity is the agent—the rhetor or speaker.</li></ul>3 ways to use identification:<br />As a means to an end<br />To create antithesis against a common foe<br />Unconscious awareness of the sender and/or receiver<br />Identification:<br />A supplement to persuasion; a replacement for persuasion<br />“You persuade a man only insofar as you can talk his language by speech, gesture, tonality, order, image, attitude, idea, IDENTIFYING your ways with his.“<br />Related to consubstantiality: creating substantial connections between individuals<br />
  15. 15. Rhetors & Rhetorical Ethics<br />Morality of Rhetoric<br />Plato<br />Cicero/Quintilian<br />Meaning-Centered approach to morality:<br />Responsibility<br />Accountability<br />Toleration<br />Freedom<br />Honesty<br />A Rhetoric of Ethics<br />Language is sermonic<br />Rhetoric exists to communicate values<br />End of rhetoric is the realization of justice and order<br />Justice = synthesis of democratic ideals<br />Liberty<br />Equality<br />fraternity<br />
  16. 16. COMM 401Interpreting Strategic DiscourseWeek Two<br />Audience/Effect<br />
  17. 17. Early Senses of Audience<br />Aristotle conceptualized the enthymeme—a form of argument reliant upon audience analysis and participation.<br />Christian oratory became more audience centered; Four types of Christian oratory—<br />Apologies—oratory aimed at non-believers that sought to defend the legitimacy of the faith.<br />Justin<br />Polemics—oratory aimed at splinter groups designed to bring them back to the faith.<br />St. Irenaeus; Hippolytus; Augustine<br />Sermons—oratory to reinforce belief.<br />John (Chrysostom)<br />Panegyrical sermons—sermons that were excessive and stylistically ornamental.<br />Gregory of Nazianzus<br />
  18. 18. Focus on Audience—Epistemologists<br />Francis Bacon (1561-1626) articulated a theory of the faculties of the mind:<br />Memory<br />Imagination<br />Reason<br />Will<br />Appetite<br />Rhetoric’s duty is “to apply Reason to Imagination for the better moving of the will.”<br />
  19. 19. Other Epistemologists<br />John Locke (1632-1704)—two faculties of the mind (understanding & will); worried about rhetoric as a tool of deceit and error; theorized about the role of emotion.<br />David Hume (1711-1776)—audiences have two levels of perception (ideas & impressions); four faculties of the mind (understanding, imagination, passions, & the will)<br />
  20. 20. Hume on Audiences<br />Moral reasoning: principal source of human knowledge; moving force of behavior and action; consists of factual data related to existence<br />Experience<br />Testimony<br />Analogy<br />Calculation of probability<br />Hume on Audience<br />Discourse need be adapted to an audience<br />Particular vs. philosophical audiences<br />
  21. 21. George Campbell & Audiences<br />Campbell is the author of the Philosophy of Rhetoric, published in 1776<br />This book, more than any other from the period, synthesized all rhetorical knowledge and teaching<br />Persuasion is the end of a four-step process: instruction imagination passionsmotivates the will.<br />Campbell says speakers should know as much as they can about an audience: education, moral culture, occupation, politics<br />Audience analysis means that the speaker must use a lively style, provide organizational clarity, articulate arguments that can be understood, and use appeals to emotion.<br />
  22. 22. George Campbell & Audiences<br />Campbell’s understanding of audience and adaptation is his longest range influence on rhetorical theory.<br />For Campbell, audiences are motivated by passions:<br />Probability<br />Plausibility<br />Importance<br />Proximity of time<br />Connection of place<br />Related to persons addressed<br />Interest in consequences<br />
  23. 23. George Campbell & Audiences<br />Campbell’s understanding of audiences and the necessity of appealing to audiences leads him to argue for a theory of language—perspicuity.<br />Perspicuity supports the faculty of understanding<br />Three criteria for language use:<br />Reputable use: language that avoids vulgarisms and undesirable words/sentence constructions<br />National use: avoid provincial and foreign terms<br />Present use: language should be regulated by present use, not ancient practice<br />A stylistic standard is necessary to produce stability, accuracy, and propriety.<br />
  24. 24. Perelman & Audiences<br />Universal Audience: A construct defined by its divinity and perfection. Has the capacity for clear and absolute rationality. Exists in the mind of the rhetor. Useful as a tool that allows the rhetor to persuade a particular audience.<br />Particular Audience: is the actual group addressed. Very Aristotelian in that all argument must emanate from the particular audience.<br />
  25. 25. Studying Audiences & Effects<br />