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FCTE Lecture/PowerPoint Presentation


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FCTE Lecture/PowerPoint Presentation from Cutting Edge presentation on Friday Dec 6, 2014.

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FCTE Lecture/PowerPoint Presentation

  1. 1. Effective Lectures • When lecturing can be an effective pedagogical tool and how to build it into course design • What cognitive principles should be considered (e.g., attention, cognitive load theory) when creating PowerPoint slides • Effective principles for utilizing PowerPoint slides
  2. 2. Lecture as a tool
  3. 3. The Lecture • According to McKeachie, the lecture is the oldest teaching method and still the most widely (badly?) used in universities throughout the world. • Don’t believe it is the oldest?
  4. 4. The Lecture • Effective lecturers combine the talents of the scholar, writer, producer, comedian, entertainer and teacher to promote student learning. • If you are one dimensional so is your teaching when using the lecture. • No, the lecture is not the most effective teaching method available to teachers but when a curriculum is focused on covering the most content in the shortest amount of time, the lecture tends to be the pedagogy du jour. So, lets’ focus on it. • For future reference, discussion methods are superior to lectures in: • • student retention of information after the end of the course; transfer of knowledge to new situations;
  5. 5. The Lecture • Strengths of lecture according to Cashin: • Some other advantages attributed to lectures are perhaps more relevant to graduate instruction, especially for majors. Lectures can show how experts in a field think, how they approach questions, and how they try to solve a problem. A lecture can summarize scattered material, or describe latest discoveries or issues.
  6. 6. The Lecture • Limitations of lecture according to Cashin: • However, lecturing also has some serious limitations when it becomes the primary means of instruction. The most serious is that lecturing is not suited for higher levels of learning: comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation (Bloom et al., 1956), and creativity (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001). • Perhaps equally limiting, in a traditional lecture, the students are mostly passive. This results in learners’ attention waning quickly. If a lecture consists solely of the teacher talking, lack of student feedback can be a big problem.
  7. 7. Try those first 4 slides again
  8. 8. The Lecture: the oldest and most used teaching method
  9. 9. The Lecture: Most common but not most effective Teaching method Discussion Lecture Higher in retention & transfer Lower in retention & transfer
  10. 10. The Lecture • Strengths of lecture according to Cashin: • • • • • Lectures can show how experts in a field think, How they approach questions How they try to solve a problem Summarize scattered material Describe latest discoveries or issues
  11. 11. The Lecture • Limitations of lecture according to Cashin: • Not suited for higher levels of learning: comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evalu ation and creativity • Passive student • Waning attention
  12. 12. Think-Pair-Share Compare & Contrast the two styles
  13. 13. How are most lectures Given today?
  14. 14. What do student think of this?
  15. 15. Things people would rather do than encounter a PowerPoint • Forego sex tonight • Do their taxes • Go to the dentist • Work on Saturday
  16. 16. Things to Consider Cognitive Brain Effective Lecture Design Presentation Techniques
  17. 17. Cognitive Considerations
  18. 18. “Whatever you think about, that’s what you remember. Memory is the residue of thought.” -Cognitive Psychologist Daniel Willingham
  19. 19. Cognitive Considerations Learning Attention Active Processing Cognitive Load Working Memory
  20. 20. Sweller’s Cognitive Theory Limited space in working memory!
  21. 21. Sweller’s Cognitive Load Theory Type Description Extraneous Cognitive processing that does not serve the instructional goal; caused by confusing instructional design. Intrinsic (Sometime called Essential) Cognitive processing required to represent the essential material in working memory; cause by the complexity of material. Germane (Sometime called Essential Generative) Cognitive processing required for deeper understanding; caused by motivation of the learner. Germane Load Intrinsic Load Extraneous Load Total Cognitive Load
  22. 22. Brain Considerations
  23. 23. Brain Likes Novelty Are your lectures engaging or sleep inducing?
  24. 24. Brain Considerations • Passive brains + Passive body learning • Brain Guru John Medina explains
  25. 25. Presentation Considerations
  26. 26. Death by PowerPoint • Dead Words on Screen • Black and White • Lots of text! • Read most or all dead words to your student • Student 17-30 years old easily bored and impatient
  27. 27. Lecture or Target Practice? Learning
  28. 28. Conclusion
  29. 29. Problems with Lectures • Why don’t students read the text? • It will be “covered” in lecture • Flawed Assumption: I have to “cover” the material or students won’t know it. Passive learning equals superficial learning • Active learning = lasting learning
  30. 30. Any Use for Lectures? Yes • Mini/micro lectures – 10-15 min. long • Clarification, examples • Separate with engaged learning activities • Brain Guru John Medina again
  31. 31. • Targeted lectures – not to “cover” material • Purpose: to expand, address confusions, or illustrate applications • Test comprehension and promote critical thinking • E.g. present case study, scenario, realistic simulation
  32. 32. Techniques to make Lectures more engaging Next Time Friday January 17 “Core Services: Engaging Lecture”