Safe and Orderly SchoolEnvironment, Faces of Violence
Schools Can’t Do The Job Alone;Everybody must Get Involved! In his (2005) State of The Union address, President G.W. Bush emphasized, “Statistics show that boys are at greater risk than girls for learning disabilities, dropping out of school, violence, juvenile arrest, and early death caused by violent behavior. Boys often begin to fall behind girls in elementary school, which leads to higher dropout rates and juvenile delinquency, and they often show signs of behavioral problems early in life. As boys grow older, risk behaviors such as alcohol and drug abuse become more prevalent, and gang involvement increases (Archived Information: Sec. 102. National Education Goals)
Students Threatened or Injured with a Weapon at School
Students Threatened or Injured with a Weapon at School The overall percentage of students who report being threatened or injured with a weapon at school has remained relatively stable since 1993. Boys experience almost twice as many incidents as girls. Youth Violence Project (2011)
Percentage of Students Who Feel Afraid at School or on the Way to School,By Ethnicity
Fear lIn general, ethnic minority students report morefear at school. However, reports of feeling afraidhave declined in all groups Youth Violence Project (2011)
Rates of Bullying and other School Discipline Problems
Rates of Bullying and other School DisciplineProblems Student bullying is one of the most frequently reported discipline problems at school: 21% of elementary schools, 43% of middle schools, and 22% of high schools reported problems with bullying in 2005-06. This data was provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable of crime in the school.
The Bush Initiative The Focus on Young Americans Initiative included support for programs that would help youth overcome specific risk of gang influence and involvement. Bush proposed a three-year, $150-million initiative, that was supposed to help youth at risk of gang influence and involvement.
School Safety and Orderliness:The Most Fundamental Elementof Effectiveness President Bush’s initiative declared, “By the year 2000, every school in the United States would be free of drugs, violence, and the unauthorized presence of firearms and alcohol and would offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning.” However, that has not happened from then to now -- 2011. Archived Information: Sec. 102. National Education Goals
The National Initiative: Can Safety Be Legislated?In 2005, President Bush announced his new outreach effort,led by Mrs. Laura Bush, that was to focus on youngAmericans, especially young men, to help ensure a successfulfuture. What happened?
What Happened? The InitiativeThrough grants to faith-based and communityorganizations, those organizations were to providepositive models for youth - one that respectswomen and rejects violence.” The initiatives havenot been effective at stopping or preventing peerto-peer conflicts that happen in and around schools
The National Initiative: Can Safety Be Legislated? During George Bush’s presidency, he and Mrs. Bush were purportedly committed to highlighting the importance of focusing on at-risk youth, especially boys; however, 911 and the “War on Terrorism” averted attention and prevented finding a panacea for this national problem.
Legislation Alone Has Not Shown Enough Protection Against Conflict & ViolenceLegislation for “Safe and Orderly Environments Conducive toLearning” has not eliminated the vital role schools, students,parents, and communities serve in combating violence in ourschools
Community & Faith Based OrganizationsHave not been effective environments:How many gang members go to communitycenters except to recruit and increase theirnumbers?Legislation is effective; however, audience andenvironmental factors should meet commonsense practicalities for implementation thatwould apply treatment to appropriate targetedaudience.
Cotton’s Number One Idea of Safe and Orderly School Environments Effective Principals demonstrate the following practices in things they do: Promote and open door policy and open lines of communications with deep empathic listening Exhibit personal warmth and accessibility Ensure broad-based agreement of standards for student behavior Communicate high behavioral standards to students
Safe And Orderly Environment: What We See Excellent Principals Do In School Infrequent use of actual punishments Focus is on embedding an understanding appropriate rules of conduct Fair, equal, and loving disciplinary actions for both adults and children fixed into the school’s culture Foster a sense of student responsibility for appropriate behavior Create the environment where students’ want to behave well Implement various approaches for helping students learn to behave responsibly
Empathetic Listening For Discipline Used by Effective PrincipalsHow many times have you heard achild/student say, “Nobody ever Listens tome?Involves listening, clarifyingInvolves keeping good order,Consistently enforcing fair, clear, andwell-understood rules of conduct (Cotton, 2003)
Empathetic Listening for Conflict Resolution: Using the Q & A Why did this conflict escalate? What could have been done differently? What could have been done differently? What can teens do to avoid violent confrontations? Have you heard of any ideas how you can protect yourself? What have you seen done that was successful or unsuccessful?
Safe and Orderly School Practices Seek input from students about behavior policies Consistently apply rules from day to day from student to student Delegate disciplinary authority to teachers Provide in-school suspension Support for seriously disruptive students (Cotton, 2003)
Correlation Between Behavior & Learning According to Marzano, an unsafe, disorderly Environment has Psychological influences which: Interferes with learning, Affect students’ achievement levels, which in turn, Affect schools’ AYP status (Marzano, 2003)
Procedures Educators/Administrators Can Do Observation by recognizing early warning signs, Listening and Clarifying, Intervening, Take Appropriate Action, Develop a Model, Assessment Referral Procedures
Empathetic Listening For Conflict Resolution Builds trusting, loving, and caring environments Helps resolve problems before chance to take root Helps curb disciplinary problems
Empathetic Listening For Conflict ResolutionProduces conducive learning conditionsSets high expectations for students’ behaviorResults in high student achievementGreater learning and working conditions for all
Marzano: Safe and Orderly EnvironmentUnlike Cotton, Marzano classifies “Safe and OrderlyEnvironment” as fourth on his list of most important elementsof highly effective schools.Cotton’s illustration of “Safe and Orderly” is his first element ofwhat he considers what highly effective school should striveand concentrate attention, which addresses the authenticissues of peer-to-peer violence
Action Step 11. Establish rules and procedures for behavioral problems that might be cause by the School’s physical characteristics , school’s routines, or culture get to know the history of the school anticipate problems before they happen discussions and planning, planning, planning
Action Step 22. Establish clear school-wide rules and procedures for general behavior bullying, verbal harassment, drug use, obscene language and gestures, gang behavior sexual harassment repeated class disruptions etc.
Action Step 33. Establish and enforce appropriate consequences of violations of rules and procedures Verbal reprimands, Disciplinary notices to parents, Conferences, After-school and/or Saturday detention Out of school suspension, and Expulsion
Action Step 44. Establish a program that teaches self- discipline and responsibility to students Stop being reactive be proactive Include students in the design and execution of school-wide discipline policies this creates and fosters a sense of belonging, ownership, and responsibility
Action Step 55. Establish a system that allows for the early detection of students who have high potential for violence and extreme behaviors Longitudinal research studies indicate a “high correlation between violent behavior in grade 8 and certain types of referrals in grade 6.” (Marzano, 2003)
U.S. Departments of Justice & Education Describe Profile of Violent StudentsTraits for violent behavior: have one or more confidants they confide in before acting out aggressions behave strangely access to weapons at home Makeup a plan for violence
ReferencesCotton, K. (2003). Principals and student achievement: What the research says. Alexandra, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Marzano, R., (2003). What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action:Marzano, R., Waters, T., and McNulty, B. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Alexandra, VA: ASCD.National Education Goals. (n.d.). Retrieved, February 3, 2011, from http://www2.ed.gov/legislation/GOALS2000/TheAct/sec102.html
ReferencesSources: Cited in Tables in Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2009; National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education (http://nces.ed.gov/) . U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, various years, 1995–2007. (n.d.). Retrieved February 4, 2011, from http://youthviolence.edschool.virginia.edu/violence-in-schools/national- statistics.htmlYouth Violence Project Homepage. (n.d.). Retrieved, February 2, 2011, from http://youthviolence.edschool.virginia.edu/violence-in-schools/national- statistics.html