BIOCHEMISTRY   Note Outline
I. Learning Targets• I can identify the elements commonly found in living things (C,  H, O, and N).• I can describe how at...
II. Features of Life A. What is Biology?
II. Features of Life A. What is Biology?       1. Definition: the study of the          diversity of life
II. Features of Life A. What is Biology?       1. Definition: the study of the          diversity of life       2. More sp...
a. Study interactions of the environment
b. Propose solutions to problems
B. What Constitutes Life? The term living is not easy to define. Living things MUST contain ALL 5 of the following to be c...
Living things…
1) Reproduce
2) Are Organized (Cells)
3) Grow and Develop
4) Use Energy / Evolve
5) Respond to their Surroundings
III. Atoms and theirInteractions   A. Elements     1. Everything is made of substances        called elements.
III. Atoms and theirInteractions   A. Elements     1. Everything is made of substances        called elements.     2. Most...
Comparing the composition of the Earth’s crust to the human body
B. Atoms are the basic building block of  all matter.     1. Definition: an atom is the        smallest particle of an ele...
C. Structure of an Atom
C. Structure of an Atom     1         2
C. Structure of an Atom    1. Nucleus:
C. Structure of an Atom    1. Nucleus:         a. protons (+ charge)
C. Structure of an Atom    1. Nucleus:         a. protons (+ charge)         b. neutrons (0 charge)
C. Structure of an Atom   1. Nucleus:        a. protons (+ charge)        b. neutrons (0 charge)        c. Overall charge ...
C. Structure of an Atom   1. Nucleus:        a. protons (+ charge)        b. neutrons (0 charge)        c. Overall charge ...
C. Structure of an Atom 1. Nucleus: a. protons (+ charge) b. neutrons (0 charge) c. Overall charge of the nucleus     = + ...
C. Structure of an Atom  Nucleus Electron cloud
D. Atoms become stable by bonding   with other atoms.
D. Atoms become stable by bonding   with other atoms.    1. When atoms bond together, they       form new compounds, which...
D. Atoms become stable by bonding   with other atoms. 1. When atoms bond together, they    form new compounds, which    ha...
2. Some compounds contain just one   or two atoms (H2O or CO2), whereas  others contain tens, hundreds, or  even thousands...
2. Some compounds contain just one   or two atoms (H2O or CO2), whereas  others contain tens, hundreds, or  even thousands...
b. Macromolecules are formed by   bonding together small molecules   to form chains called polymers.
b. Macromolecules are formed by   bonding together small molecules   to form chains called polymers.     poly = many     m...
b. Macromolecules are formed by   bonding together small molecules   to form chains called polymers.     poly = many     m...
3. Macromolecules chains are controlled   by water.
3. Macromolecules chains are controlled   by water.     a. When H2O is added, hydrolysis       breaks apart chains.
3. Macromolecules chains are controlled   by water.     a. When H2O is added, hydrolysis       breaks apart chains.
3. Macromolecules chains are controlled   by water.     a. When H2O is added, hydrolysis       breaks apart chains.      h...
3. Macromolecules chains are controlled   by water.     a. When H2O is added, hydrolysis       breaks apart chains.    b. ...
Hydrolysis (water is added)
Hydrolysis (water is added)
Condensation (water is lost)
Condensation (water is lost)
Hydrolysis vs. Condensation
Hydrolysis vs. CondensationWater added,Chain breaks
Hydrolysis vs. CondensationWater added,Chain breaks
Hydrolysis vs. CondensationWater added,     Water lost,Chain breaks    Chain forms
IV. Organic Biomolecules   A. You are what you eat!
1. Food Pyramid
2. The foods we consume have   carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and   proteins in them.
2. The foods we consume have   carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and   proteins in them. a. Carbohydrates give us energy    (e...
2. The foods we consume have   carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and   proteins in them. a. Carbohydrates give us energy    (e...
2. The foods we consume have   carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and   proteins in them. a. Carbohydrates give us energy    (e...
3. A healthy diet of foods containing  each of these macromolecules  insures proper function of all the  body’s cells, tis...
B. Carbohydrates
B. Carbohydrates1. Purpose: store and release energy
B. Carbohydrates1. Purpose: store and release energy2. Compound structure:   a. Composed of carbon, hydrogen,      and oxy...
B. Carbohydrates1. Purpose: store and release energy2. Compound structure:   a. Composed of carbon, hydrogen,      and oxy...
B. Carbohydrates3. Monomer subunits:   a. Monosaccharide: one sugar      Monosaccharide   molecule      (ex. glucose or fr...
B. Carbohydrates3. Monomer subunits:   a. Monosaccharide: one sugar      Monosaccharide   molecule      (ex. glucose or fr...
+
+
+
+
B. Carbohydrates  b. Disaccharide: two sugar molecules     Disaccharide     combined (ex. glucose + fructose =     sucrose...
B. Carbohydrates  c. Polysaccharide: many sugars     Polysaccharide     combine to form the molecule    (ex. starch, glyco...
C. Lipids
C. Lipids1. Purpose: energy storage, insulation,   and protective coatings
C. Lipids1. Purpose: energy storage, insulation,   and protective coatings2. Compound structure:   a. Composed of C, H, an...
C. Lipids1. Purpose: energy storage, insulation,   and protective coatings2. Compound structure:   a. Composed of C, H, an...
C. Lipids2. Structure:    b. Insoluble in water (doesn’t dissolve)
C. Lipids2. Structure:    b. Insoluble in water (doesn’t dissolve)
C. Lipids3. Insoluble in   water
C. Lipids3. Insoluble in    Water-loving   water                  Water-fearing
C. Lipids2. Structure:    b. Insoluble in water (doesn’t dissolve)3. Monomer subunit:   a. Fatty acids and a glycerol
Creation of a fat molecule
Creation of a fat molecule 1 2 3
Creation of a fat molecule
C. Lipids4. Forms:    a. Saturated fat: no double bonds                 fat       between carbons, solid at room       tem...
C. Lipids4. Forms:    b. Unsaturated fat: double bonds                   fat       between some of the carbons, liquid at ...
Comparing Saturated and   Unsaturated Fats
D. Proteins
D. Proteins1. Purpose: provide structure, motion,   and immunity
D. Proteins1. Purpose: provide structure, motion,   and immunity   a. Enzyme = catalyst to speed up      chemical reactions
D. Proteins1. Purpose: provide structure, motion,   and immunity   a. Enzyme = catalyst to speed up      chemical reaction...
D. Proteins3. Monomer subunit:  a. Amino acid = Basic building block of     protein
D. Proteins3. Monomer subunit:  a. Amino acid = Basic building block of     protein      • 20 total amino acids      • Our...
D. Proteins  b. Many amino acids bond together in a     chain using peptide bonds and form a     protein
+
+
+
D. Nucleic Acids
D. Nucleic Acids1. Purpose: store genetic   information in the form   of a code
D. Nucleic Acids1. Purpose: store genetic   information in the form   of a code2. Compound structure:   a. Composed of C, ...
D. Nucleic Acids3. Monomer subunit:   a. Arranged as a nitrogen base, sugar,      and a phosphate group
D. Nucleic Acids4. Forms:   a. DNA: contains instructions to form all      DNA      of an organism’s enzymes and      stru...
DNA versus RNA
V. Revisions to the FoodPyramid
A. Observations:
B. Facts:
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint
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Biochemistry Introductory Powerpoint

  1. 1. BIOCHEMISTRY Note Outline
  2. 2. I. Learning Targets• I can identify the elements commonly found in living things (C, H, O, and N).• I can describe how atoms bond together to form molecules.• I can compare the chemical structures of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids by describing how they form and are broken down.• I can relate the importance of the 4 biomolecules to living things.• I can describe the function of an enzyme and factors that influence enzyme activity.
  3. 3. II. Features of Life A. What is Biology?
  4. 4. II. Features of Life A. What is Biology? 1. Definition: the study of the diversity of life
  5. 5. II. Features of Life A. What is Biology? 1. Definition: the study of the diversity of life 2. More specifically, biologists…
  6. 6. a. Study interactions of the environment
  7. 7. b. Propose solutions to problems
  8. 8. B. What Constitutes Life? The term living is not easy to define. Living things MUST contain ALL 5 of the following to be considered alive.
  9. 9. Living things…
  10. 10. 1) Reproduce
  11. 11. 2) Are Organized (Cells)
  12. 12. 3) Grow and Develop
  13. 13. 4) Use Energy / Evolve
  14. 14. 5) Respond to their Surroundings
  15. 15. III. Atoms and theirInteractions A. Elements 1. Everything is made of substances called elements.
  16. 16. III. Atoms and theirInteractions A. Elements 1. Everything is made of substances called elements. 2. Most common elements are… Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
  17. 17. Comparing the composition of the Earth’s crust to the human body
  18. 18. B. Atoms are the basic building block of all matter. 1. Definition: an atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the same characteristics of that element.
  19. 19. C. Structure of an Atom
  20. 20. C. Structure of an Atom 1 2
  21. 21. C. Structure of an Atom 1. Nucleus:
  22. 22. C. Structure of an Atom 1. Nucleus: a. protons (+ charge)
  23. 23. C. Structure of an Atom 1. Nucleus: a. protons (+ charge) b. neutrons (0 charge)
  24. 24. C. Structure of an Atom 1. Nucleus: a. protons (+ charge) b. neutrons (0 charge) c. Overall charge of the nucleus = + charge
  25. 25. C. Structure of an Atom 1. Nucleus: a. protons (+ charge) b. neutrons (0 charge) c. Overall charge of the nucleus = + charge 2. Electron Cloud
  26. 26. C. Structure of an Atom 1. Nucleus: a. protons (+ charge) b. neutrons (0 charge) c. Overall charge of the nucleus = + charge 2. Electron Cloud a. electrons (- charge and move rapidly)
  27. 27. C. Structure of an Atom Nucleus Electron cloud
  28. 28. D. Atoms become stable by bonding with other atoms.
  29. 29. D. Atoms become stable by bonding with other atoms. 1. When atoms bond together, they form new compounds, which have different properties than the individual atoms had.
  30. 30. D. Atoms become stable by bonding with other atoms. 1. When atoms bond together, they form new compounds, which have different properties than the individual atoms had. C + O2  CO2 +
  31. 31. 2. Some compounds contain just one or two atoms (H2O or CO2), whereas others contain tens, hundreds, or even thousands of atoms.
  32. 32. 2. Some compounds contain just one or two atoms (H2O or CO2), whereas others contain tens, hundreds, or even thousands of atoms. a. Large molecules = macromolecules
  33. 33. b. Macromolecules are formed by bonding together small molecules to form chains called polymers.
  34. 34. b. Macromolecules are formed by bonding together small molecules to form chains called polymers. poly = many meros = parts
  35. 35. b. Macromolecules are formed by bonding together small molecules to form chains called polymers. poly = many meros = parts mono = one meros = part
  36. 36. 3. Macromolecules chains are controlled by water.
  37. 37. 3. Macromolecules chains are controlled by water. a. When H2O is added, hydrolysis breaks apart chains.
  38. 38. 3. Macromolecules chains are controlled by water. a. When H2O is added, hydrolysis breaks apart chains.
  39. 39. 3. Macromolecules chains are controlled by water. a. When H2O is added, hydrolysis breaks apart chains. hydro = water lysis = to split
  40. 40. 3. Macromolecules chains are controlled by water. a. When H2O is added, hydrolysis breaks apart chains. b. When H2O is lost, condensation forms chains.
  41. 41. Hydrolysis (water is added)
  42. 42. Hydrolysis (water is added)
  43. 43. Condensation (water is lost)
  44. 44. Condensation (water is lost)
  45. 45. Hydrolysis vs. Condensation
  46. 46. Hydrolysis vs. CondensationWater added,Chain breaks
  47. 47. Hydrolysis vs. CondensationWater added,Chain breaks
  48. 48. Hydrolysis vs. CondensationWater added, Water lost,Chain breaks Chain forms
  49. 49. IV. Organic Biomolecules A. You are what you eat!
  50. 50. 1. Food Pyramid
  51. 51. 2. The foods we consume have carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and proteins in them.
  52. 52. 2. The foods we consume have carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and proteins in them. a. Carbohydrates give us energy (ex. sugar, apples, potatoes, pasta…)
  53. 53. 2. The foods we consume have carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and proteins in them. a. Carbohydrates give us energy (ex. sugar, apples, potatoes, pasta…) b. Fats are related to weight gain (ex. oils, butter, whole milk…)
  54. 54. 2. The foods we consume have carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and proteins in them. a. Carbohydrates give us energy (ex. sugar, apples, potatoes, pasta…) b. Fats are related to weight gain (ex. oils, butter, whole milk…) c. Proteins help build muscles (ex. fish, beef, eggs, cheese, nuts…)
  55. 55. 3. A healthy diet of foods containing each of these macromolecules insures proper function of all the body’s cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. If one or more are lacking, the body cannot function to provide us with all of our necessary needs.
  56. 56. B. Carbohydrates
  57. 57. B. Carbohydrates1. Purpose: store and release energy
  58. 58. B. Carbohydrates1. Purpose: store and release energy2. Compound structure: a. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  59. 59. B. Carbohydrates1. Purpose: store and release energy2. Compound structure: a. Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen b. 1:2:1 ratio (CH2O)
  60. 60. B. Carbohydrates3. Monomer subunits: a. Monosaccharide: one sugar Monosaccharide molecule (ex. glucose or fructose)
  61. 61. B. Carbohydrates3. Monomer subunits: a. Monosaccharide: one sugar Monosaccharide molecule (ex. glucose or fructose) C6H12O6
  62. 62. +
  63. 63. +
  64. 64. +
  65. 65. +
  66. 66. B. Carbohydrates b. Disaccharide: two sugar molecules Disaccharide combined (ex. glucose + fructose = sucrose “table sugar”)
  67. 67. B. Carbohydrates c. Polysaccharide: many sugars Polysaccharide combine to form the molecule (ex. starch, glycogen, cellulose)
  68. 68. C. Lipids
  69. 69. C. Lipids1. Purpose: energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings
  70. 70. C. Lipids1. Purpose: energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings2. Compound structure: a. Composed of C, H, and O with a larger proportion of C-H bonds than carbohydrates (have less O’s)
  71. 71. C. Lipids1. Purpose: energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings2. Compound structure: a. Composed of C, H, and O with a larger proportion of C-H bonds than carbohydrates (have less O’s) (ex. lipids in beef fat: C57H110O6)
  72. 72. C. Lipids2. Structure: b. Insoluble in water (doesn’t dissolve)
  73. 73. C. Lipids2. Structure: b. Insoluble in water (doesn’t dissolve)
  74. 74. C. Lipids3. Insoluble in water
  75. 75. C. Lipids3. Insoluble in Water-loving water Water-fearing
  76. 76. C. Lipids2. Structure: b. Insoluble in water (doesn’t dissolve)3. Monomer subunit: a. Fatty acids and a glycerol
  77. 77. Creation of a fat molecule
  78. 78. Creation of a fat molecule 1 2 3
  79. 79. Creation of a fat molecule
  80. 80. C. Lipids4. Forms: a. Saturated fat: no double bonds fat between carbons, solid at room temperature, found mostly in animals
  81. 81. C. Lipids4. Forms: b. Unsaturated fat: double bonds fat between some of the carbons, liquid at room temperature, found mostly in plants
  82. 82. Comparing Saturated and Unsaturated Fats
  83. 83. D. Proteins
  84. 84. D. Proteins1. Purpose: provide structure, motion, and immunity
  85. 85. D. Proteins1. Purpose: provide structure, motion, and immunity a. Enzyme = catalyst to speed up chemical reactions
  86. 86. D. Proteins1. Purpose: provide structure, motion, and immunity a. Enzyme = catalyst to speed up chemical reactions2. Compound structure: a. Composed of C, H, O, nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S)
  87. 87. D. Proteins3. Monomer subunit: a. Amino acid = Basic building block of protein
  88. 88. D. Proteins3. Monomer subunit: a. Amino acid = Basic building block of protein • 20 total amino acids • Our body naturally makes 11, but we have to eat the other 9 (they must be present in our diet)
  89. 89. D. Proteins b. Many amino acids bond together in a chain using peptide bonds and form a protein
  90. 90. +
  91. 91. +
  92. 92. +
  93. 93. D. Nucleic Acids
  94. 94. D. Nucleic Acids1. Purpose: store genetic information in the form of a code
  95. 95. D. Nucleic Acids1. Purpose: store genetic information in the form of a code2. Compound structure: a. Composed of C, H, O, N, and phosphorus (P)
  96. 96. D. Nucleic Acids3. Monomer subunit: a. Arranged as a nitrogen base, sugar, and a phosphate group
  97. 97. D. Nucleic Acids4. Forms: a. DNA: contains instructions to form all DNA of an organism’s enzymes and structural proteins b. RNA: copy of DNA used when making RNA proteins
  98. 98. DNA versus RNA
  99. 99. V. Revisions to the FoodPyramid
  100. 100. A. Observations:
  101. 101. B. Facts:

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