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Qin to ming


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  • The information on Qin Shi Huang is incorrect. The burning books and burying scholars stories are myths created by the second empire to discredit Qin Shi Huang. He was a great leader and nation builder. For a full, researched and correct report on the first emperor, and the founding principles and practices of China go to The School of Sun Tzu: Winning Empires without War.
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Qin to ming

  1. 1. Imperial China: Qin to Qing Dynasties Mr. Reed
  2. 3. Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty, 221-206 B.C.E. <ul><li>Established China’s first empire  </li></ul><ul><li>Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E) </li></ul><ul><li>Legalist rule  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book burnings  targeted Confucianists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buried protestors alive! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Built large section of the Great Wall </li></ul>
  3. 4. Shi Huangdi’s Terra Cotta Army
  4. 5. Shi Huangdi’s Terra Cotta Army
  5. 6. Shi Huangdi’s Terra Cotta Soldiers & Cavalrymen
  6. 7. Cavalry
  7. 8. Individual Soldiers
  8. 9. The Details of an Individual Soldier
  9. 10. Individual “Tombs”
  10. 11. The Great Wall with Towers
  11. 12. The Eastern terminus of the Great Wall, Shanhai Pass
  12. 14. Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. <ul><li>“ People of the Han”  original Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Paper invented [105 B.C.E.]  </li></ul><ul><li>Silk Road trade develops; improves life for many </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism introduced into China </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded into Central Asia </li></ul>
  13. 15. Han – Roman Empire Connection
  14. 16. Chang’an The Han Capital
  15. 17. Liu Sheng Tomb (d. 113 BCE) His jade suit has 2498 pieces!
  16. 18. Emperor Wudi, 141-87 B.C.E. <ul><li>Started public schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonized Manchuria, Korea, & Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service system  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bureaucrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucian scholar-gentry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revival of Chinese landscape painting. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Han Artifacts Imperial Seal Han Ceramic House
  18. 20. Ceramics, Later Han Period
  19. 21. Trade Routes of the Ancient World
  20. 22. Multi-Cultural Faces -- People Along the Silk Road
  21. 23. Ruins of Jiaohe, Turphan depression. Han dynasty outpost in Central Asia
  22. 25. Sui Dynasty, 581-618 C.E. <ul><li>“ Land Equalization” System  land redistribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Unified coinage. </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Canal constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>Established an army of professional soldiers. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People were overworked and overtaxed! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 26. The Grand Canal
  24. 27. The Grand Canal Today
  25. 29. Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E. <ul><li>Imperial examination system perfected. </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal attitude towards all religions. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of Buddhism in China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Golden Age of foreign relations with other countries.  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan, Korea, Persia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Tang Government Organization
  27. 31. Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E. <ul><li>New technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing  moveable print  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Porcelain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunpowder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical clocks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More cosmopolitan culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Reestablished the safety of the Silk Road. </li></ul><ul><li>Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia.  </li></ul>
  28. 32. Empress Wu Zetian, 624-705 <ul><li>The only female Empress in China’s history who ruled alone.  </li></ul><ul><li>Searched for outstanding individuals to attract to her court. </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of new irrigation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism was the favored state religion. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financed the building of many Buddhist temples. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT… She appointed cruel and sadistic ministers to seek out her enemies. </li></ul>
  29. 33. Foot-Binding in Tang China <ul><li>Broken toes by 3 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Size 5 ½ shoe on the right </li></ul>
  30. 34. Foot-Binding in Tang China <ul><li>Mothers bound their daughters’ feet. </li></ul>
  31. 35. Foot-Binding in Tang China <ul><li>For upper-class girls, it became a new custom. </li></ul>
  32. 36. The Results of Foot-Binding
  33. 38. Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E . <ul><li>Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased emphasis on education & cheaper availability of printed books. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic compass makes China a great sea power!  </li></ul>
  34. 39. Song Peasant Family
  35. 40. Rice Cultivation Began Under the Song
  36. 41. Song Rice Cultivation
  37. 43. Mongolian Steppes
  38. 44. Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt”
  39. 45. Mongol Invasions
  40. 46. Mongol Warriors
  41. 47. Mongol Archer
  42. 48. Gold Saddle Arch – Mongols, 13c
  43. 49. Gold Saddle, Front View – Mongols, 13c
  44. 50. The MONGOLS [“Golden Horde”] <ul><li>Temujin --> Genghis Khan [“Universal Ruler”] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1162 - 1227 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from the steppe [dry, grass-covered plains of Central Asia] </li></ul></ul>
  45. 51. The MONGOLS [“Golden Horde”] <ul><li>Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you do not have children, we will take your wife. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you do not have a wife, we will take your head. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used cruelty as a weapon  some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction! </li></ul>
  46. 52. Mongol Nobleman, late 13c
  47. 53. Robe of a Mongol Nobleman, early 14c
  48. 54. Yuan Golden Bowl, 13c
  49. 55. The Extent of the Mongol Empire
  50. 56. Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E. <ul><li>Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pax Mongolica [“Mongol Peace”] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerated Chinese culture but lived apart from them.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Chinese in top govt. posts. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed foreigner were more trustworthy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged foreign trade & foreign merchants to live and work in China. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marco Polo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 57. Marco Polo (1254-1324) <ul><li>A Venetian merchant. </li></ul><ul><li>Traveled through Yuan China: 1271-1295 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Black Stones” [coal] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunpowder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noodles. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 58. Marco Polo’s Travels
  53. 59. Yuan Porcelains & Ceramics
  54. 60. Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368 C.E. <ul><li>The Black Plague was spread by the Mongols in the mid-14c. </li></ul><ul><li>Sent fleets against Japan. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1281  150,000 warriors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated by kamikazi [“winds of the gods”]  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kublai Khan experienced several humiliating defeats in Southeast Asia late in his life. </li></ul>
  55. 61. China’s last native imperial dynasty!
  56. 62. The Forbidden City: China’s New Capital
  57. 63. Revived the Civil Service Exam
  58. 64. Ming Cultural Revolution <ul><li>Printing & Literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap, popular books: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>woodblock printing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cheap paper. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examination system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to explosion in literacy.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to further popularization of the commercial market. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture & Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased literacy leads to increased interest in cultural expressions, ideas, and things: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Literature. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Painting. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ceramics. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opera. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 65. Ming Silver Market <ul><li>Spanish Silver Convoys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangle route: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines to China to Japan. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver floods Chinese Market: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes devaluation of currency & recession </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas in Europe. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps fund conquest of New World  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 66. Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 C.E. <ul><li>Golden Age of Chinese Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Softness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gracefulness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three different schools of painting developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of workers constructed the Forbidden City . </li></ul>
  61. 67. Ming Emperor Tai Zu (r. 1368-1398)
  62. 68. The Tribute System
  63. 69. Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) <ul><li>Ming “Treasure Fleet” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each ship 400’ long & 160’ wide </li></ul></ul>1371-1435
  64. 70. Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho) <ul><li>China’s “Columbus?”  </li></ul>
  65. 71. Admiral Zheng He’s Voyages <ul><li>First Voyage : 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men]. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Voyage : 1407-1409 [Ho didn’t go on this trip]. </li></ul><ul><li>Third Voyage : 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men]. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Voyage : 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men]. </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Voyage : 1417-1419 </li></ul><ul><li>Sixth Voyage : 1421-1422 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered ship builders and sailors to stop work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seventh Voyage : 1431-1433 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restore peaceful relations with Malacca & Siam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the return trip. </li></ul></ul>
  66. 72. <ul><li>1498 --> Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port. </li></ul>
  67. 73. Ming Porcelain / Ceramics, 17c–18c
  68. 74. Ming Vases, 18c
  69. 75. Ming Carved Lacquer Dish 15c
  70. 76. Ming Scroll Painting “Travellers in Autumn Mountains”
  71. 77. Ming Painting – “Taoist Scholar”
  72. 78. Ming Painting – “Birds and Flowers”, 16c
  73. 79. Ming Painting and Calligraphy, early 16c
  74. 80. Imperial China’s Impact on History <ul><li>Removed religion from morality. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginnings of political philosophy through which a ruler must prove he/she is legitimate. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate of Heaven </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secular law. </li></ul><ul><li>Valued history  The Dynastic Cycle </li></ul>
  75. 81. Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
  76. 82. Qing Dynasty <ul><li>Ruled by the Manchurians (from the N.E. of China) </li></ul><ul><li>Large dynasty that includes Tibet and Mongolia </li></ul>
  77. 83. Qing Dynasty <ul><li>Last official dynasty of China </li></ul><ul><li>Plagued by modernization of the rest of the world </li></ul>
  78. 84. Emperor Kangxi
  79. 85. Qing Dynasty <ul><li>Most important aspect of the Qing was the contact with the outside world. </li></ul><ul><li>China had been relatively isolated as the Central Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with the West bring modernization and conflict </li></ul>
  80. 86. 18 th C. <ul><li>England and America have developed a taste for tea. </li></ul><ul><li>East India Trading Company was set up as an intermediary between England and China. </li></ul><ul><li>China was pre-industrial and wanted little of what England had to offer </li></ul>
  81. 87. Opium <ul><li>England imported (illegally) opium from India to China for the purposes of getting people addicted so they could have a product that they could sell. </li></ul><ul><li>Opium Wars (1839-1842) were between the English and the Chinese </li></ul>
  82. 88. Results <ul><li>England won and had China sign off on Unequal Treaties declaring that England had the ability to set the price and quantity that China traded with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up protectorate states. </li></ul><ul><li>Other nations followed. Germany took over Chengdu. Portugal took over Macau </li></ul>
  83. 89. Revolt <ul><li>The Qing had to face many different types of revolt. </li></ul><ul><li>The first was the Taiping Rebellion </li></ul>
  84. 90. Hong Xiuquan
  85. 91. Taiping Rebellion <ul><li>Hong heard from God that he was Jesus’ brother and that he should lead a rebellion against the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Invaded Nanjing and killed up to 30000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Established the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace (Taiping) </li></ul>
  86. 92. Dowager Cixi
  87. 93. Boxer Rebellion <ul><li>Known as “The Righteous and Harmonious Society Movement” in China it thought that China was getting lost to foreign ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Fought against foreign rule and foreign ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Kung-fu skills made them invincible to bullets. </li></ul>
  88. 94. Boxer
  89. 95. Turn of the 20 th C <ul><li>Manchu’s have fought against internal enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Manchu’s have fought against external enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure is growing too great. </li></ul><ul><li>Modernity refuses to let the dynasty continue. </li></ul><ul><li>New ideas like freedom and democracy are taking hold in China </li></ul>