Social Media week3
“How The Web Came To Be”

      Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
What You Need To Know About This Course

   week 1                                     Histories of the Internet

        ...
Histories of the Internet and World Wide Web
       week 3
       Feb 9, 11


Required Readings:

Turner, Fred. quot;Where...
excerpt from “Commune” interview with Peter Coyote , 12 mins
Required Readings:

Turner, Fred. quot;Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy .quot; Stanford.   1 Jan 2007. 26 Aug ...
http://www.wholeearth.com/issue‐electronic‐edition.php?iss=2071
Required Readings:

Turner, Fred. quot;Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy .quot; Stanford.   1 Jan 2007. 26 Aug ...
Required Readings:

Turner, Fred. quot;Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy .quot; Stanford.   1 Jan 2007. 26 Aug ...
Required Readings:

Turner, Fred. quot;Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy .quot; Stanford.   1 Jan 2007. 26 Aug ...
1989
Large Hadron Collider
                             Particle Accelerator




     CERN
http://tinyurl.com/yto62g
WorldWideWeb: Proposal for a HyperText Project, 1989/90


                        HTML (HyperText Markup Language)


     ...
the first website
1990
By 1990 ARPANET retired and was transferred to the
NSFnet (National Science Foundation) that had started
in 1988, connecti...
John Perry Barlow co-founded the Electronic Frontier Foundation with Stuart Brand and
Mitch Kapor in 1990, focusing on dig...
1991
In 1991, the NSF allowed commercial use of the Internet but it
took until 1995 it decommissioned the backbone, leaving the...
http://tinyurl.com/29m2wb

Launch of Gopher, the quot;infoserver that can deliver text, graphics, audio, and multimedia
to...
1992
Brewster Kahle                     Bruce Gilliat


WAIS Incorporated:
Kahle (1992): “I wanted to prove that you could make...
http://tinyurl.com/yqtupv
1993
1993, Launch of Mosaic
Significant mile stone in the popularization of the WWW
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosaic_(w...
Gopher and the World Wide Web were competing systems. In 1993,
CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to any...
1994
1994 -- order pizza online.
Web has a 341,634 %
expansion rate.
Blogging, the art of pointing to each other
Justin Hall: Links from the Underground   http://tinyurl.com/yjr6pq
http://tinyurl.com/29ffra


1993 De Digitale Stad (quot;The Digital Cityquot;)
Amsterdam- De Balie & XS4ALL


cultural exp...
1995
1996
       Wiki Wiki bus at the Honolulu International Airport



Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in 1994,...
users could write
reviews and consumer
guides, an early form of
web-based self-
publishing
http://tinyurl.com/ynlwje
Feb 08, 1999




               http://tinyurl.com/2fywza
               http://tinyurl.com/368x5o
               http://t...
1996
Manuel Castells (1942)




Manuel Castells argued that in contemporary society dominant
functions and processes are increa...
1997
Readers can comment
1998
Feb 06, 2007




Jan 25, 1999




 Indian social networking site Sulekha
                           http://tinyurl.com/2gu...
1999
-Buzz Group Break-
  What question would you most like to have answered
       regarding the topic of the lecture today?

...
http://tinyurl.com/2dnhmy
 screen shot May 10, 2000 
Shawn quot;Napsterquot; Fanning (b. 1980)
the 18-year-old college student whose school nickname was quot;Napster,quot; alo...
http://tinyurl.com/23t8pr
(The site started in 1999 but it was first time archived    http://www.rtmark.com/
on Waybackmac...
http://tinyurl.com/2madla


Commercially the Internet started to catch on in 1995 with an
estimated 18 million users. This...
2000
In 2004 the peer-to-peer file sharing
client LimeWire was released.


It is still possible to
download LimeWire and share
...
Tulip mania, 1637
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Semper_Augustus_Tulip_17th_century.jpg
1990s dotcom awe
                            and the crash

                            too much too fast




http://tinyu...
2001
September 11, 2001
2000/2001: Former editor-in-chief of Nupedia and
Citizendium founder Larry Sanger (born 1968) and the
American Internet en...
Bram Cohen
                    BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing
                    (P2P) communications protocol...
2002
2002




       2007
       http://tinyurl.com/249uls
Folksonomy
(also known as collaborative tagging , social classification, social indexing,
social tagging, and other names)...
2000

2002. Meetup 2,000,000 users (07) revitalize local communities
2003: prominence through Howard Dean
2003
The Internet as organizational tool




8-30 million people in 800 cities worldwide simultaneously showed their defiance o...
Podcasting




Podcasters' web sites can be syndicated, subscribed to, and downloaded
automatically, using an aggregator o...
2003
The founders of Kazaa released the peer-to-peer Internet
telephony network Skype.
photo credit as quot;Scott Beale / Laughing Squidquot;




                                                               ...
June 2003 Google starts AdSense
http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr
first archived: Jun 04, 2006
social networking for business




                       http://tinyurl.com/yey25h

        ...
PeanutButterWiki (PbWiki)- a “free” ad-supported wiki
quot;Make a free wiki as easily as a peanut butter sandwich!quot;
2004
December 09, 2004
http://tinyurl.com/38pbt2

                            September 10, 2007
2004


 domain first switched on
 Aug 06, 2005


Facebook is a social networking website that was launched on February 4, 2...
2004
Archived: Apr 29, 2004   (http://tinyurl.com/2uh8to)




Flickr. Canada. 2004
2005
Tim O’Reilly quot;What is Web 2.0?quot;




                                    Photo: James Duncan Davidson
             ...
http://tinyurl.com/2569dr
2006
Fandom
Cingular Wireless announced today it has shattered its own record for wireless text messaging during
the fifth seas...
Micro-blogging
    users to write brief text updates (usually about 140
  characters) and publish them, either to be viewe...
(social networking site of the National Hockey League)
     (social networking for pet aficionados)




                   ...
2007
(mobile social networking and media sharing)


                                                                   (social ...
(North-American) English content
          is not dominating the Internet anymore.

   Women aged 25-34 spend more time on...
Trebor Scholz
scholzt@newschool.edu




                        Twitter: trebors
                        Blog: http://www....
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 “How The Web Came To Be” Week# 3 Social Media
 “How The Web Came To Be” Week# 3 Social Media
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“How The Web Came To Be” Week# 3 Social Media

  1. 1. Social Media week3 “How The Web Came To Be” Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  2. 2. What You Need To Know About This Course week 1 Histories of the Internet week 2 Histories of the Internet and World Wide Web week 3 Social Media, Cyber Clustering, and Social Isolation week 4 Participation: Benefits, Numbers, and Quality week 5 Quality. The Wisdom or Ineptitude of the Crowd The Web 2.0 Ideology week 7 week 6 Art and Social Media Spring Break week 8 Political Net Activism week 9 What Does It Take To Participate? Why Participate? week 10 Got Ethics? Labor, Work, What? week 11 week 14 The Power of Users week 13 Net Neutrality week 12 Near Future Scenarios week 15 Presentations Trebor Scholz | The New School University | Eugene Lang| |Spring 2009 A | Spring 2009 LCST 2031 Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A
  3. 3. Histories of the Internet and World Wide Web week 3 Feb 9, 11 Required Readings: Turner, Fred. quot;Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy .quot; Stanford. 1 Jan 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.stanford.edu/~fturner/Turner%20Tech%20&%20Culture%2046%203.pdf> Suggested Reading: Donath, Judith. quot;Sociable Media.quot; Sociable Media Group - MIT Media Lab. 15 Apr 2004. 9 Jul 2007 <http://smg.media.mit.edu/papers/Donath/SociableMedia.encyclopedia.pdf>. Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  4. 4. excerpt from “Commune” interview with Peter Coyote , 12 mins
  5. 5. Required Readings: Turner, Fred. quot;Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy .quot; Stanford. 1 Jan 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.stanford.edu/~fturner/Turner%20Tech%20&%20Culture%2046%203.pdf> Jill (response to Donath): If we can agree that 'mediated communication' is not a replacement for real-life, interpersonal contact, then why does our culture seem to be trending towards it? Is it a matter of convenience, or do we have some kind of innate human predilection for forms of communication that avoid face to face interaction? Frank (response to Turner): How is releasing knowledge to the public aligned with counter culture (in particular, as it was commodified)? Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  6. 6. http://www.wholeearth.com/issue‐electronic‐edition.php?iss=2071
  7. 7. Required Readings: Turner, Fred. quot;Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy .quot; Stanford. 1 Jan 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.stanford.edu/~fturner/Turner%20Tech%20&%20Culture%2046%203.pdf> Brionna (response to Turner): Does the potential economic profit of WELL members go against the countercultural aims of the Whole Earth Catalog? How did the real time aspect of the WELL change the way members interacted with each other? Do virtual communities of today function in the same way? Do they still promote countercultural ideology? Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  8. 8. Required Readings: Turner, Fred. quot;Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy .quot; Stanford. 1 Jan 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.stanford.edu/~fturner/Turner%20Tech%20&%20Culture%2046%203.pdf> Ellen (response to Turner): [I]t almost seems as if people today have a hard time separating the online world from the “real world,” or is it that the lines are blurring and everyone lives online as much in quot;real life.quot; Are the two worlds really inseparable? Arkady (response to Turner): Turner asserts that quot;[i]n both the Catalog and the supplement, [Stewart] Brand marketed not so much goods as a way of looking at how life ought to be lived.quot; (492) Has the exchange of information about this [countercultural] lifestyle been driven well into underground circuits of communication on the Internet? Is it even of particular interest anymore? Or has the tool that so many imagined as an end to consumerist pursuit of quot;remotely done power and gloryquot; become its ultimate medium (Turner 492)? Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  9. 9. Required Readings: Turner, Fred. quot;Where the Counterculture Met the New Economy .quot; Stanford. 1 Jan 2007. 26 Aug 2007 <http://www.stanford.edu/~fturner/Turner%20Tech%20&%20Culture%2046%203.pdf> Henry (in response to Turner): The author asserts that counter culture “established a relationship between information technology, economic activity, and alternative forms of community that would outlast the counterculture itself” (488). He cites Howard Rheingold when talking about a “gift economy” in which people help one another “out of the spirit of building something between them” (510). This struck me as very interesting given the hours of time people spend improving and contributing to forums and websites today. to class: Does anyone participate in a community or forum online which has characteristics similar to the WELL? Not the subject material exactly, but more the common bond between users all interested in a similar subject or topic? Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  10. 10. 1989
  11. 11. Large Hadron Collider Particle Accelerator CERN http://tinyurl.com/yto62g
  12. 12. WorldWideWeb: Proposal for a HyperText Project, 1989/90 HTML (HyperText Markup Language) URL (Uniform Resource Locator) HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) The British programmer Tim Berners-Lee, CERN (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) “... the WWW as an altruistic, non-proprietary, vendor-neutral contribution to society!” http://tinyurl.com/2ntycb http://tinyurl.com/2pxazn
  13. 13. the first website
  14. 14. 1990
  15. 15. By 1990 ARPANET retired and was transferred to the NSFnet (National Science Foundation) that had started in 1988, connecting 250 non-US networks, Cailliau, Robert, and James Gillies. How the Web was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web. New York: Oxford University Press, USA, 2000.
  16. 16. John Perry Barlow co-founded the Electronic Frontier Foundation with Stuart Brand and Mitch Kapor in 1990, focusing on digital civil liberties.
  17. 17. 1991
  18. 18. In 1991, the NSF allowed commercial use of the Internet but it took until 1995 it decommissioned the backbone, leaving the Internet a self-supporting industry. http://tinyurl.com/34ket8 http://tinyurl.com/2pxazn
  19. 19. http://tinyurl.com/29m2wb Launch of Gopher, the quot;infoserver that can deliver text, graphics, audio, and multimedia to clients.quot; Search and retrieval network protocol designed for the Internet. Its goal is to function as an improved form of Anonymous FTP, with features similar to that of the World Wide Web. The University of Minnesota.
  20. 20. 1992
  21. 21. Brewster Kahle Bruce Gilliat WAIS Incorporated: Kahle (1992): “I wanted to prove that you could make an Internet company.” After selling WAIS to AOL in May 1995 for $15 million, Kahle and Gilliat founded the  Internet Archive and then Alexa Internet. p 136 how the web was born
  22. 22. http://tinyurl.com/yqtupv
  23. 23. 1993
  24. 24. 1993, Launch of Mosaic Significant mile stone in the popularization of the WWW http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosaic_(web_browser)
  25. 25. Gopher and the World Wide Web were competing systems. In 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. Two months later, Gopher announced that it was no longer free to use, which pushed users away from gopher to the World Wide Web. Mosaic Gopher public domain for purchase p 279 how the web was born http://tinyurl.com/2pxazn
  26. 26. 1994
  27. 27. 1994 -- order pizza online. Web has a 341,634 % expansion rate.
  28. 28. Blogging, the art of pointing to each other
  29. 29. Justin Hall: Links from the Underground http://tinyurl.com/yjr6pq
  30. 30. http://tinyurl.com/29ffra 1993 De Digitale Stad (quot;The Digital Cityquot;) Amsterdam- De Balie & XS4ALL cultural experiment bringing politics and citizens together in an online community, attempt of staying independent in an increasingly commercial environment
  31. 31. 1995
  32. 32. 1996 Wiki Wiki bus at the Honolulu International Airport Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in 1994, and installed it on the Internet in 1995 allowing for the emergence of http://tinyurl.com/2qqsbh http://tinyurl.com/26utwb http://tinyurl.com/ypo99
  33. 33. users could write reviews and consumer guides, an early form of web-based self- publishing http://tinyurl.com/ynlwje
  34. 34. Feb 08, 1999 http://tinyurl.com/2fywza http://tinyurl.com/368x5o http://tinyurl.com/3bdyvj http://tinyurl.com/32aweh Mar 01, 2000
  35. 35. 1996
  36. 36. Manuel Castells (1942) Manuel Castells argued that in contemporary society dominant functions and processes are increasingly organized around networks. http://tinyurl.com/39gtmv http://tinyurl.com/2pg78k
  37. 37. 1997
  38. 38. Readers can comment
  39. 39. 1998
  40. 40. Feb 06, 2007 Jan 25, 1999 Indian social networking site Sulekha http://tinyurl.com/2gu2j9 http://tinyurl.com/ysfgoq
  41. 41. 1999
  42. 42. -Buzz Group Break- What question would you most like to have answered regarding the topic of the lecture today? Of all ideas and points you have heard so far today, which is the most obscure or ambiguous to you? What is the most contentious statement you heard in the lecture so far?
  43. 43. http://tinyurl.com/2dnhmy screen shot May 10, 2000 
  44. 44. Shawn quot;Napsterquot; Fanning (b. 1980) the 18-year-old college student whose school nickname was quot;Napster,quot; along with his friend Sean Parker first released the original Napster on June 1, 1999. Napster was the first popular peer-to-peer file sharing platform. http://tinyurl.com/2sgcz2 http://tinyurl.com/2lhmmq
  45. 45. http://tinyurl.com/23t8pr (The site started in 1999 but it was first time archived http://www.rtmark.com/ on Waybackmachine on May 23, 2003.) “RTMark is itself a registered corporation which brings together activists who plan projects with donors who fund them. It thus operates outside the laws governing human individuals, and benefits from the much looser laws governing corporations.” http://tinyurl.com/youtse
  46. 46. http://tinyurl.com/2madla Commercially the Internet started to catch on in 1995 with an estimated 18 million users. This untapped international market made speculators ecstatic about the “new economy.”
  47. 47. 2000
  48. 48. In 2004 the peer-to-peer file sharing client LimeWire was released. It is still possible to download LimeWire and share copyrighted files peer-to-peer. http://tinyurl.com/3y5o5o
  49. 49. Tulip mania, 1637 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Semper_Augustus_Tulip_17th_century.jpg
  50. 50. 1990s dotcom awe and the crash too much too fast http://tinyurl.com/26ppkw http://tinyurl.com/yrkjya http://tinyurl.com/38zy97
  51. 51. 2001
  52. 52. September 11, 2001
  53. 53. 2000/2001: Former editor-in-chief of Nupedia and Citizendium founder Larry Sanger (born 1968) and the American Internet entrepreneur Jimmy Wales (born 1966) create Wikipedia. http://tinyurl.com/3y2uz8 http://tinyurl.com/2jcrmc
  54. 54. Bram Cohen BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) communications protocol, first implementation in 2001. BitTorrent has 135 million installs and accounts 55% of all Internet traffic (07, Bram Cohen) http://tinyurl.com/292zfg http://tinyurl.com/yp6egx
  55. 55. 2002
  56. 56. 2002 2007 http://tinyurl.com/249uls
  57. 57. Folksonomy (also known as collaborative tagging , social classification, social indexing, social tagging, and other names) is the practice and method of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize content. In contrast to traditional subject indexing metadata is not only generated by experts but also by creators and consumers of the content. folksonomy
  58. 58. 2000 2002. Meetup 2,000,000 users (07) revitalize local communities 2003: prominence through Howard Dean
  59. 59. 2003
  60. 60. The Internet as organizational tool 8-30 million people in 800 cities worldwide simultaneously showed their defiance of the impending war in Iraq on February 15, 2003. On March 19 the first American bombs dropped on Baghdad, Iraq. On March 20, the invasion started. http://tinyurl.com/322lyy
  61. 61. Podcasting Podcasters' web sites can be syndicated, subscribed to, and downloaded automatically, using an aggregator or feed reader capable of reading feed formats such as RSS or Atom. http://tinyurl.com/3dbcqt
  62. 62. 2003 The founders of Kazaa released the peer-to-peer Internet telephony network Skype.
  63. 63. photo credit as quot;Scott Beale / Laughing Squidquot; Sept 10, 2007 Joshua Schachter, acquired by Yahoo in 2005 3 million users, 10 million bookmarks (07)
  64. 64. June 2003 Google starts AdSense
  65. 65. http://tinyurl.com/2mbjtr
  66. 66. first archived: Jun 04, 2006 social networking for business http://tinyurl.com/yey25h http://tinyurl.com/2j43c6 http://tinyurl.com/2uqbct
  67. 67. PeanutButterWiki (PbWiki)- a “free” ad-supported wiki quot;Make a free wiki as easily as a peanut butter sandwich!quot;
  68. 68. 2004
  69. 69. December 09, 2004 http://tinyurl.com/38pbt2 September 10, 2007
  70. 70. 2004 domain first switched on Aug 06, 2005 Facebook is a social networking website that was launched on February 4, 2004. (Started for colleges, then high schools, and now everyone.) http://tinyurl.com/22myzy
  71. 71. 2004 Archived: Apr 29, 2004 (http://tinyurl.com/2uh8to) Flickr. Canada. 2004
  72. 72. 2005
  73. 73. Tim O’Reilly quot;What is Web 2.0?quot; Photo: James Duncan Davidson http://tinyurl.com/2vw6cb
  74. 74. http://tinyurl.com/2569dr
  75. 75. 2006
  76. 76. Fandom Cingular Wireless announced today it has shattered its own record for wireless text messaging during the fifth season of quot;American Idolquot; (2006) -- 64.5 million text messages throughout the show's season. http://tinyurl.com/2m4luf http://tinyurl.com/35omx8 http://tinyurl.com/2umdo3
  77. 77. Micro-blogging users to write brief text updates (usually about 140 characters) and publish them, either to be viewed by anyone or by a restricted group which can be chosen by the user. These messages can be submitted by a variety of means, including text messaging, and the web. Finland status updates on FB http://tinyurl.com/2yhpa3
  78. 78. (social networking site of the National Hockey League) (social networking for pet aficionados) (social search) (social networking and referral grouped around fashion) (social networking site about mental health and wellness) (feminist social networking site celebrating friendships among women) (social networking focused on weddings) (social networking and referral for the entire family) 2006 (activist, youth social networking)
  79. 79. 2007
  80. 80. (mobile social networking and media sharing) (social networking around baking) (social networking about books) (mobile media sharing) (mobile social networking, IM) (social maps) (micro-blogging) (social news site) (Game platform) 2007
  81. 81. (North-American) English content is not dominating the Internet anymore. Women aged 25-34 spend more time online than men in the same age group. 1.114 billion people use the Internet (2008) http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,2154293,00.html?gusrc=rss&feed=technology
  82. 82. Trebor Scholz scholzt@newschool.edu Twitter: trebors Blog: http://www.collectivate.net/journalisms Delicious: http://del.icio.us/trebor Flickr: http://flickr.com/photos/treborscholz LibraryThing: http://www.librarything.com/profile/trebor

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