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[Social History of New Media]

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  1. 1. Social History ofNew Media week2ARPANET, “Alternative” Networks, Counter Culture,the Internet, and “Virtual Community” Trebor Scholz
  2. 2. Histories of the Internet week 2Required Readings:Abbate, Janet. “’The most neglected element:’ users transform arpanet.” Inventing the Internet. Cambridge,Mass: MIT P, 1999.Hafner, Katie. “Email.” Where wizards stay up late the origins of the Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster,1996. Trebor Scholz
  3. 3. Histories of the Internet questionsWhat are a few commonly held assumptions about the history of the Internet?Which similarities and differences between the emergence of the Internet and earlier medialike telegraph, radio, and television can you observe? Trebor Scholz
  4. 4. The Victorian Internet by Tom Standage (1989)1746    200  monks  Jean-­‐Antoine  Nollet  linked  to  electrical  battery  1797  optical  telegraphytelephone,  radio,  ...
  5. 5.
  6. 6. 1945
  7. 7. "knowledge on call" hyperlinked pages and the “memex”
  8. 8. In  1949  in  his  novel  Heliopolis,  the  German  Ernst  Junger  dreams  up  the  communication  medium  "Phonophor,"  which  connects  everybody  to  everybody  else,  enabling  a  permanent  ,  technically  facilitated  forum  that  also  replaces  the  passport,  watch,  newspaper,  library,  and  encyclopedia.
  9. 9. [A]ctivation;  authorship;  community  -­‐-­‐  are  the  most  frequently  cited  motivations  for  almost  all  artistic  attempts  to  encourage  participation  in  art  since  the  1960s."  according  to  art  historian  Claire  Bishop.
  10. 10. Blog:­‐of-­‐participation/Flickr  set:
  11. 11.
  12. 12. 1957
  13. 13. Excerpts  from  chapter  2,  and  5    “Sputnik:  Declassiied”  (2007)
  14. 14. Red  Flag  Over  Reichstag  9th  May  1945
  15. 15. The Advanced Research Projects Agency
  16. 16.
  17. 17. 1961
  18. 18. Leonard Kleinrock, MIT"Information Flow in LargeCommunication Nets"(May 31 1961)First paper on packet-switching
  19. 19. 1962
  20. 20. Packet Switching, Paul Baran 1962 at RAND, US AirforceAll the nodes in the network would be equal in status to allother nodes, each node with its own authority to originate,pass, and receive messages. The messages themselves wouldbe divided into packets, each packet separately addressed.Each packet would begin at some specified source node, andend at some other specified destination node.
  21. 21. “On Distributed Communication Networks,” March 1964 c) a network without central authority or singlePaul Baran outage point
  22. 22. 1965
  23. 23. Ted  Nelson  coins  the  term  "Hypertext"  in  "A  File  Structure  for  the  Complex,  the  Changing,  and  the  Indeterminate".  20th  National  Conference,  New  York,  Association  for  Computing  Machinery
  24. 24. 1965Already in 1965, Fernando Corbato and his colleagues atMIT developed a program to allow individual users toswap messages on one single computer.
  25. 25. 1967
  26. 26. Excerpts  from:  American  Experience  |  Summer  of  Love  |  PBS
  27. 27. People’s  Park  -­‐-­‐  Excerpt  from  “Berkeley  in  the  Sixties”
  28. 28. Macy  conferences  1946-­‐53,  NYC  video:  10  mins
  29. 29. Excerpts  from:  The  Commune  (2005)
  30. 30. 1968
  31. 31. "In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machinethan face to face...We believe that we are entering into a technological age, in which wewill be able to interact with the richness of living information -- not merely in the passiveway that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as activeparticipants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction withit, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it. (53)"
  32. 32. Louis Pouzin designed and directed the development ofthe Cyclades network in France, which then stopped in1974.
  33. 33. 1969
  34. 34. In 1968, ARPA sent out a Request forQuotation to build a network offour Interface Message Processors.BBN made it.Dave Walden, Bernie Cosell, Severo Ornstein, Will Crowther, Bob Kahn1969: Advanced Research Projects Agencycommissions ARPANET to conduct researchon networking.First ARPANET nodes connected UCLA,Stanford, UC Santa Barbara, andUniversity of Utah
  35. 35. Norm Abramson wanted to surf - so he moved to Hawaii in1969. He wanted to network with the other islands and so hebuilt the ALOHAnet in 1970.From the University of Hawaii, Abramson connectedcomputers over a network of radio transmitters using aprotocol telling the computers how to share the airwaves. Trebor Scholz
  36. 36. The  Internet  in  1969
  37. 37.
  38. 38. 1970
  39. 39. TCP/IP With TCP/IP, the "global network" wasbecoming a reality. Universities andgovernment offices were using thenetwork for communicating withcolleagues and exchanging data. 1974: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection", which specified in detail the design of a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
  40. 40. Whose Standards? Proprietary or Open Standards?Also the fax machine is only useful if many other people have it.Later: If the Internet would have just connected supercomputers, it would have not been as significant. Trebor Scholz
  41. 41. the 1970s Instant Messaging began to appear
  42. 42. •There was no single inventor of the Internet.•ARPANET, Usenet, BITNET, and BBS•DARPA was not solely a response to the fearof a nuclear armageddon.
  43. 43. 1971
  44. 44. Ray Tomlinson of BBN creates email program to sendmessages across a distributed network.1972: Tomlinson expands program to ARPANET users, usingthe "@" sign as part of the address.
  45. 45. Michael Hart 1971. Project Gutenberg is the first and largest single collection of free electronic books, or eBooks. Project Gutenberg is the "oldest digital library built on volunteer efforts to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works." Trebor Scholz
  46. 46. 1977
  47. 47. 1977 Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw created the first MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) leading later to MMORPG
  48. 48. 1978
  49. 49. CBBS (first BBS) January of 1978, Chicago was hit byWard Christensen the Great Blizzard of 1978Many people did not have the Internet. They dialed in to CBSS directly via modem.Users had to take turns accessing the system, each hanging up when done to letsomeone else have access. Nevertheless, the system was seen as very useful, and ran formany years and inspired the creation of many other bulletin board systems.
  50. 50. ASCii art on BBS
  51. 51. 1979
  52. 52. Emoticons1979 Kevin MacKenzie e-mailed hisfellow subscribers at MsgGroup, anearly Internet bulletin board, with asuggestion to put some emotion backinto the dry text medium of e-mail.(The eyes came later.)
  53. 53. USENET established. USENET was a global, decentralized,distributed Internet discussion system that provided mailservices and file transfers. Precursor of GoogleGroups andother discussion boards.
  54. 54. ARPANET Trebor Scholz
  55. 55. 1980s
  56. 56. What else did it take to make this WWW work? This was the first IBM PC introduced on Aug 12, 1981 Douglas Engelbart
  57. 57. The Well members could start discussion boards: Mid-80s the most popular one was dedicated to computer manufacturers push proprietary protocols, The Grateful Dead. which failed US Government pushed for ISO but TCP/IP was free, more viralIn the 1980s the PCs entered homes and offices in the United States.
  58. 58. The Well members could start discussion boards: the most popular one was dedicated to The Grateful Dead.1981 BITNET releaseIra Fuchs (CUNY) and Greydon Freeman (Yale)Main features: email, LISTSERVBITNET set expectations for free access and openness: it charged bybandwidth. Once you paid for the line, how much you use it was upto you. Others tried to establish a pay by byte system.
  59. 59. 1985Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliantone of the first community bulletin board systemsThe Whole Earth Lectronic Link (The Well)Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so inorder to experience commune living without actually moving into one.
  60. 60. 1985Stewart Brand & Larry Brilliantone of the first community bulletin board systemsThe Whole Earth Lectronic Link (The Well)Brand used a networked PC on his houseboat in Sasalito, CA, claiming that he did so inorder to experience commune living without actually moving into one.
  61. 61. 1984
  62. 62. Francois  Lyotard   and   Thierry  Chaput’s  exhibition    "Les  Immateriaux”   at  the  Centre   Georges  Pompidou   in  Paris.  30   artists   collaboratively  respond  to   50  terms   related  the   topic  of   the  "immaterial."  Lyotard  and  Chaput  pointed  out  that  they  were  mainly  interested  in  the  way,  in  which  this  collaborative  writing  changed  the  experience  of  the  act  of  writing  itself. Trebor Scholz
  63. 63. Trebor ScholzThe New School This presentation is made public using the creative commons attribution, non-commercial, share alike license. This presentation is based on my previous courses on the topic including: