Preconditions for Participation


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Preconditions for Participation

  1. 1. Preconditions for Participation Trebor Scholz Department of Media Study Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 1
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  5. 5. Aspects of Participation in the Social Web archiving memory transparency of rules identification and power dynamics individual vs. network value format of contributions tone, passion, humor, personality low threshold engagement trust time scale type of content relaxation “I give because I am group belonging social capital great” (agonistic giving) job emotional support sharing the experience contributing to access to information of one’s time & place the greater good software architecture feedback translation mobile computing pleasure of creation intellectual property reciprocity hormones friendship challenge embodied and networked sociality signal-to-noise ratio gender permanency and privacy of content Trebor Scholz 2007 5
  6. 6. Preconditions for participation within the US (and beyond) include: access to technology, Internet access, ability to read, write, author in a digital environment (i.e. knowing how to use a wiki), remembering the URL of a website, bandwidth, cost of equipment, the ease of use of the technological infrastructure, time management, and vast issues of age, race, gender 6
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  8. 8. Participation in the Social Web is yet another thing to do for already busy people. It takes time to consider the issues, to figure out the software, and author a contribution. In addition, it takes time to go through a large number of posts from high-participation mailing lists, for example. Worldwide, for the people who have the time and who are highly motivated there still exists the problem that most sociable media environments online are predominantly in English and the basic rules of most systems (i.e., having to register in order to participate.) 8
  9. 9. For non-native speakers it is hard to retain subtleties such as ironic connotations of certain expressions. Flaws in translated texts may also make the author appear less educated, which prevents some people from contributing. Apart from time and language concerns, the politics of the software architecture is an equally crucial parameter of participation. Just like moving around in a physical building, the software code regulates the behavior in an online environment. 9
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  11. 11. United States 208,000,000 Internet users in 2006 11
  12. 12. Countries where Internet access is available to the majority of the population 12
  13. 13. Internet Usage by World Region 13
  14. 14. A list of 13 quot;enemies of the Internetquot; has been released by human rights group Reporters Without Borders (RSF). Belarus, Burma, China, Cuba, Egypt, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam 14
  15. 15. Distribution of the Users of Social Networking Sites 15
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  20. 20. The Digital Divide Is Not What It Used To Be The growth of cell phone use in Africa is indeed explosive: the lack of an extensive landline telephony infrastructure makes mobile phones a good alternative. But consider this: In 2006, the Washington Post published an article showing that quot;worldwide, there are more than 2.4 billion cell phone users... and [a]bout 59 percent of these users are in developing countries, making cell phones the first telecommunications technology in history to have more users there than in the developed world.quot; [1] Cell phone usage in Africa, the article continued, is growing faster than in any other region and jumped from 63 million users two years ago to about 152 million. This is not some kind of mobile business evangelism: life in Africa is changed drastically for those with access. 20
  21. 21. User Generated Content in China 100 mio net users in China, many gamers huge difference between city (40%) and rural areas (3%) 400 million mobile phone users emphasis on mobile Internet 4 out of the top ten sites online are Chinese an alternative Internet (not technically) The young are not the dominant users of net technology (they have to study for college) Greetings from the 3.1 billion people of China 21
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  23. 23. Users can create playlists Others can then link to them 23
  24. 24. SINA is an online media company for China and Chinese communities around the world. SINA has over 94.8 million registered users worldwide. 24
  25. 25. 7.5 million video streams a day 25
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  31. 31. Basic problems: AIDS pandemic-- Who will be left to use IT in Africa? Draught in Africa What is the value added by a piece of equipment? 31
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  33. 33. Technological solutions to social problems? Computers are addictive: do they detract resources rather than solve problems? Africa’s women can enter the public sphere as speakers through blogging (where available). 33
  34. 34. Runs on Linux 34
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  36. 36. Internet and India 100 millon people in India most people get access through Internet cafes many people access the net first on a cell phone, not a PC most investment goes into telecom development even small villages have cell phone signal Censorship 36
  37. 37. 70% of under 23 Iranians send over 10 SMSes daily Tehran, Feb 28, 2007 Taliya News – 78% of those that send more than ten SMSes per day are singles, and in other words the singles use this service more than married people in Iran. According to ILNA, based on the findings of a research work conducted by a graduate student, the majority of SMS senders are the university students and they mainly do so to have fun, including sending jokes and messages related to other recreational activities. This journalism major graduate student has surveyed the method of taking advantage of SMS as a communicational means among 435 university student and come up with interesting results. Among them, more than 70% of Iranians under 23 send more than ten SMSes daily. Meanwhile, the unemployed individuals send more SMSes than the employed people. According to the research results, jokes, making appointments, expressing feelings, information dissemination, inquiring about friends and relatives' health, sending congratulation and consolation massages, notes related to work and academic affairs, and finally, ads, are the highest tanking SMSes sent by Iranians respectively. 37
  38. 38. quot;The number of Africa is in t he grip of a mobile phone revolu t ion. mobile phone lines in Africa rose from 15.6 to 135 million between 2000 and 2005quot; OhmyNews reported how women in South Africa fight for their human rights with cell phones. [2] This report continued: “In a culture where people travel long distances to find work, the mobile has become the most useful and ubiquitous piece of technology since the bicycle. Just as bicycles are used in rural Africa to transport bananas or paying passengers, the mobile is changing lives in ways unimagined in t he developed world. I t links dis t an t families and allows t he poor t o communicate.” References: [1] [2] 38
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  40. 40. In Africa each cell phone actually represented several users, as the phones are shared in a variety of ways, giving penetration figures in Kenya of closer to 80%. set up one project in Nairobi, for example that was a kind of SMS job bank that allowed workers to connect with employment quickly and successfully. Significantly, oneworld works directly with local operators to design socially useful mobile platforms. 40
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  42. 42. Reuters Africa takes an interesting approach. Its design resembles the rest of the Reuters site, but the content is presented by country. You can select countries from an image map of the continent, or from a drop-down menu. 42
  43. 43. More Resources: podcasts 43
  44. 44. Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006 The Deleting Online Predators Act of 2006[1] (DOPA) is a bill (H.R. 5319) brought before the United States House of Representatives on May 9, 2006. The bill, if enacted, would amend the Communications Act of 1934, requiring schools and libraries that receive E-rate funding to protect minors from online predators in the absence of parental supervision when using quot;Commercial Social Networking Websitesquot; and quot;Chat Roomsquot;. The bill would prohibit schools and libraries from providing access to these types of websites to minors. The bill is considered controversial because according to its critics the bill could limit access to a wide range of websites, including many with harmless and educational material. 44
  45. 45. Responses to Dopa 45
  46. 46. Minority youth and people in rural areas access the WWW in libraries 46
  47. 47. - end - please direct comments, additions, etc to 47
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