Life After Web 2.0


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Life After Web 2.0

  1. 1. Social Media week6 Is There Life After Web 2.0? last update: March 2009 Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  2. 2. What You Need To Know About This Course week 1 Histories of the Internet week 2 Histories of the Internet and World Wide Web week 3 Social Media, Cyber Clustering, and Social Isolation week 4 Participation: Benefits, Numbers, and Quality week 5 Quality. The Wisdom or Ineptitude of the Crowd The Web 2.0 Ideology week 7 week 6 Art and Social Media Spring Break week 8 Political Net Activism week 9 What Does It Take To Participate? Why Participate? week 10 Got Ethics? Labor, Work, What? week 11 week 14 The Power of Users week 13 Net Neutrality week 12 Near Future Scenarios week 15 Presentations Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  3. 3. The Web 2.0 Ideology week 6 March 2, 4 Required Reading: Judith Williamson, Consuming Passions (New York: Marion Bryars, 1998). 10-44. O'Reilly, Tim. quot;O'Reilly -- What Is Web 2.0.quot; O'Reilly Network -- Developers' Hub. 30 Sep 2005. 9 Jul 2007 <>. Suggested Reading: Scharmen, Fred (2006, May). quot;You Must Be Logged In To Do That!quot; Yale Arch 752b <> Barnes, Susan. quot;A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States.quot; First Monday. 1 Jan 2006. 26 Aug 2007 <>. Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  4. 4. Web 2.0
  5. 5.
  6. 6. The Web as platform “the user as contributor” blogs RSS Open API’s collective intelligence Ajax Social Networking Sites Mashups Perpetual beta wikis Network effect folksonomies exploitation/expropriation of user labor Web 2.0 image source: Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  7. 7. Web 2.0 “Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, creating network effects through an quot;architecture of participation,quot; and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences.” In November 2004, O’Reilly Media applied for a service mark on the use of the term quot;Web 2.0quot; for live events. Based on this application, they sent a cease-and- desist demand to the Irish non-profit organization IT@Cork on May 24, 2006.
  8. 8. A Few Concepts
  9. 9.
  10. 10. AUDIO (13 mins) Tim O'Reilly on Web 2.0 Users add value An open source activist looks back on the Web 2.0 renaissance and how Google made money. He foresees a future of data shadows” March 2009
  11. 11. The Long Tail “In this model, information technology makes it possible to sell more goods but this is not just a logistical exercise. It involves the active fostering of various consumer communities and their aggregation into critical masses with the result that commodities that would have had only faint sales records in the past because of their isolated ‘audience’ come to have substantive sales records, which, when aggregated with those of other audiences, produce a substantial new market segment (Brynjolfsson et al ., 2003).” quot;Reinventingquot; Nigel Thrift, 287-288
  12. 12. quot;Companies are increasingly likely to ‘free reveal’ in order to increase incentives to innovate, giving away ownership rights in order to obtain other benefits.quot; “Reinventing” N. Thrift “Permanently Beta” -emphasis on the process of rapid experimentation rather than a finished product Services, Not Packaged Product Blogs, Participation, Comments Right to Remix
  13. 13. Remix
  14. 14. Network Effect The value of a service to a potential user depends on the number of people who use it. The participation of one individual indirectly benefits others who join. Exit Impossible? Cancel AOL account (audio) The network effect makes it harder to leave social networking sites like Facebook.
  15. 15. Open API’s Solution to interconnect websites Doorway through which people with the right “key” can pass (e.g., allows 3rd party programmers to access Facebook’s/ Google’s databases) API In the past, corporate data bases were locked up.
  16. 16. AJAX is a web development technique that makes web pages feel more responsive by exchanging only small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes, so that the entire web page does not have to be reloaded each time the user requests a change. quot;AJAX with JavaScript binding everything.quot; “JavaScript is the duct tape of the Web.”
  17. 17. The Web 2.0 Ideology
  18. 18. discuss
  19. 19. Ideology ... comprehensive vision, a way of looking at things ... set of ideas proposed by the dominant class to all members of society as common sense The dominant ideology appears as quot;neutral,quot; holding to assumptions that are largely unchallenged. Control- Bad Openness- Good Web 2.0 Ideology Authority- Bad Hierarchy- Bad Amateur Creativity- Good
  20. 20. IDEOLOGY The logic of the market is proposed to all members of society as common sense. The essence is what is not said but suggested: the Web 2.0 concept suggests novelty... Who benefits from the perception of a sudden upturn rather than a steady evolution? Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  21. 21. Web 2.0 is a marketing tool A quot;business revolutionquot;?
  22. 22. Versioning everything Copyright 2.0 (94 900), Business 2.0 (1 930 000), Identity 2.0 (330 000), Library 2.0 (1 150 000), Author 2.0 (76 600), Science 2.0 (349 000), Travel 2.0 ( 247 000), Law 2.0 (39 700), Office 2.0 (814 000), Research 2.0 (116 000) and Love 2.0 (48 700) Google search results in brackets (07/11/07).
  23. 23. Web 2.0: How New Was It Really? Tim Berners-Lee questioned whether one can use the term in a meaningful way, since many of the technology components of quot;Web 2.0quot; have existed since the early days of the Web. Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  24. 24. New?
  25. 25. The Web has always been social. Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  26. 26. Not New: The Network Effect Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  27. 27. Not New: Social Networking Sites Classmates was founded in 1995. Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  28. 28. Not New: CSS Separation of content and presentation Style sheets have existed since 1970s. Cascading Style Sheets were developed as a means for creating a consistent approach to providing style information for web documents. The CSS Working Group published CSS as a W3C Recommendation in 1998. Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  29. 29. Not New: Blogs Justin Hall is often credited for pioneering blogging in 1994.
  30. 30. Not New: Wikis Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in 1994 and installed it on the Internet in 1995.
  31. 31. Not new: RSS The first version of RSS, a format for syndicating content, was created by Netscape in 1999. Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  32. 32. Not New: XML The Extensible Markup Language (XML) facilitates the sharing of data across different systems via the Internet. The XML Working Group published the first Working Draft of an XML specification in 1996 and XML 1.0 became a “W3C Recommendation” in 1998. Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  33. 33. Not New: “User-Generated Content”, for instance, has allowed users to write reviews and consumer guides since its launch in 1995, in a form of self-publishing. Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  34. 34. Popularized in 2004: Folksonomy The practice and method of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize Content. folksonomy Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  35. 35. New: Not New: User-Generated Content Scale of Participation Sociality on the Web (result of steady growth) Folksonomies RSS, CSS, XML Ruby on Rails Wikis Ajax Blogs (the term is new, the technologies date back to 1995) Network Effect Mashups Social Networking Services Overall Ease of Use
  36. 36. Conclusion
  37. 37. Web 2.0 is a household name. Its suggestion of novelty is flawed. Users are exploited but also gain much in the process: complex tradeoff. Social networking services become important for activism and advocacy Free is not cost-free for platform providers and free comes at a price for users. Trebor Scholz | LCST 2031 A | Spring 2009
  38. 38. also read: What Bruce Sterling Actually Said About Web 2.0 at Webstock 09
  39. 39. Trebor Scholz New School University Twitter: trebors Blog: Delicious: Flickr: LibraryThing: