Automatic Support for the Analysis of Online Collaborative Learning Chat Conversations - ICHL 2010

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Automatic Support for the Analysis of Online Collaborative Learning Chat Conversations - ICHL 2010

  1. 1. Stefan Trausan-Matu Universitatea “Politehnica” Bucuresti, Institutul de Cercetari în Inteligenta Artificiala al Academiei Române
  2. 2. Outlook The Hybrid Learning Scenario The Polyphonic Model of Discourse The PolyCAFe Analysis System 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 2
  3. 3. The Hybrid Learning Scenario Classroom lectures Individual study of learning materials Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) in small groups using online instant messenger chats (Stahl 2006) Un-moderated (due to the large number of students) For discussing topics assigned by tutors in relation to the lectures. 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 3
  4. 4. The Scenario has been used for More than 800 Computer Science students at Bucharest “Politehnica” University, Romania since 2005, at the courses: Human-Computer Interaction (undergraduate) debate and design Algorithm Design (undergraduate) problem solving Natural Language Processing (master) debate and design Collaborative and Adaptive Systems (master) design a presentation 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 17 August 2010 4
  5. 5. The VMT (Stahl 2009) chat environment ICHL 2010, Beijing 17 August 2010 5
  6. 6. The VMT Referencing facility 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 6
  7. 7. The XML Encoding 17 August 2010 August 2010 17 ICHL 2010, Beijing 7
  8. 8. Example of a CSCL Assignment Students had to debate in chat sessions in groups ranging from 3 to 8 In the first part of the conversation, each student had to defend a technology by presenting its features and advantages and criticize the others by invoking their flaws and drawbacks In the final part of the chat, they had to discuss on how they could integrate all these technologies in a single online collaboration platform 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 8
  9. 9. Tutors reported that the analysis: is extremely time consuming, it takes about twice the actual duration of the online chat They needed to walkthrough more than once the conversations in order to evaluate it It proved to be very difficult to follow the threading of discussions – there were very long chains and it was very hard to remember what said each student, and to asses their contributions It was very difficult to identify important utterances/contributions because only afterwards this judgment may be done, after seeing the effect of these utterances on the subsequent ones. 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 17 August 2010 9
  10. 10. Our Theoretical Model is based on Mikhail Bakhtin’s Dialogism - basis for the CSCL paradigm (Koschman, 1999) “… Any true understanding is dialogic in nature” (Voloshinov-Bakhtin, 1973) Polyphony and Inter-animation of voices 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 10
  11. 11. The polyphonic analysis of CSCL chats May be used for understanding the mechanisms of knowledge building in collaborative chats (Trausan-Matu, 2006), in particular and in hybrid learning, in general Is a problem similar to that of an inexperienced listener who does not comprehend a lot when hearing a complex classical music piece, for example, a fugue written by Johann Sebastian Bach. 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 11
  12. 12. Confucius “was a devotee of music and noted a close kinship between humaneness (jen) and music presumably because the former, like the latter, aims at the harmony of relationships” “it is impossible to understand man without understanding the power of words (language)” (Hwa Yol Jung, 1993) 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 12
  13. 13. ICHL 2010, Beijing 17 August 2010 13
  14. 14. Polyphony 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 17 August 2010 14
  15. 15. LTfLL - EU FP7 Project (2008-2011) Language Technologies for Lifelong Learning Netherlands, France, United Kingdom, Germany, Ausria, Romania, Bulgaria The PolyCAFe system (Polyphony-based Collaboration Analysis and Feedback generation) The system has just been validated with students and tutors 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 17 August 2010 15
  16. 16. The Architecture of PolyCAFe 17 August 2010 August 2010 16 17 ICHL 2010, Beijing 16
  17. 17. NLP pipe spelling correction, stemmer, tokenizer, Named Entity Recognizer, POS tagger and parser, and NP-chunker. Stanford NLP software (http://nlp.stanford.edu/software) Spellchecker : Jazzy http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-jazzy/ Alternative NLP pipes are under development, GATE (http://gate.ac.uk) LingPipe (http://aliasi.com/lingpipe/). 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 17
  18. 18. Social network analysis Consider explicit and implicit referencing as arcs between participants, which are the nodes A kind of page-rank algorithm – an utterance is important if it is referred by important utterances; The strength of a voice (of an utterance) depends on the strength of the utterances that refer to it Determines if a person is central/peripheral 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 18
  19. 19. Polyphony, Inter-animation and Collaboration analysis Assign an importance value for each utterance considering several indicators of inter-animation (collaboration) Detection of chains of inter-animation patterns (Trausan-Matu, 2007) in the chat Consider several criteria such as the presence in the chat of questions, agreement, disagreement Presence of others’ voices Social Networks metrics Machine learning approach (genetic algorithms and neural networks) for tuning the 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 19
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  25. 25. Conclusions PolyCAfe was validated under the LTfLL project (Rebedea and all, 2010) The system will be freely available on the web 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 25
  26. 26. Conclusions (cont.) Polyphony and inter-animation provide a basis for an unifying theoretical background for different types of learning: face-to-face, to a distance, using electronic means, and even individually. In each of these types several voices should be present (actually, virtually or as an echo in Bakhtin’s sense) Polyphony and inter-animation of the voices of the professor, of the learner, of the authors of read documents, of chat colleagues … Confucius Harmony? 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing 26
  27. 27. Thank You! Questions? 27 17 August 2010 ICHL 2010, Beijing

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