J R C   R E F E R E N C E                  R E P O R T S   Regulating Air Emissions from Ships           The State of the ...
The mission of the JRC is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, de-velopment, im...
Regulating air emissions from ships: the state of the art on      methodologies, technologies and policy options          ...
JRC Reference Report      Acknowledgments      We would like to thank Mr L. Hordijk, Mr A. Krasenbrink, Mrs M. Wenning, Mr...
JRC Reference ReportExecutive summaryIn recent years public concerns regarding the envi-       The analysis suggests that ...
JRC Reference Report      framework, and defines the main elements of the          acquisition puts the usefulness of the m...
JRC Reference ReportTable of contentsAcknowledgments                                                                      ...
JRC Reference Report      List of Figures      Figure 1.                                           Table 7.      Fuel cons...
JRC Reference ReportList of AbbreviationsAIS      Automatic Identification System        MD       Marine Distillates       ...
JRC Reference Report      Introduction      In recent years, public concerns regarding the           The present Reference...
JRC Reference ReportChapter 4 describes the technologies that might          This aspect is related to the intensive natur...
JRC Reference Report      1. Maritime transport activity and the environment:         the impacts on air      Reducing the...
JRC Reference Report                                                                                              AIR     ...
JRC Reference Report      Most maritime transport activities have an impact                        1.1.    Impacts on Air ...
JRC Reference Report•    Sulphur Dioxide (SO2);                              PM can contribute to many serious health prob...
JRC Reference Report      global climate change. Shipping is one of the con-                       areas where it plays an...
JRC Reference Report2. Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport   sector: state of the artAs highlighted in the pr...
JRC Reference Report      Table 2.          Classification of the main studies concerning the evaluation of emissions      ...
JRC Reference Report                               400                                            Corbett and Kohler (2003...
JRC Reference Report      Table 3.                     CO2 emissions from international shipping: different results from d...
JRC Reference ReportRegarding global CO2 emissions, Table 3 shows a          is adopted. However, in order to overcome the...
JRC Reference Report      1.       Ship type/category/length/GT                                             public/HomePag...
JRC Reference ReportFigure 2.   AIS coverage areas. Image on top by courtesy of Marinetraffic.com,            ©2010, Marine...
JRC Reference Report      Figure 3.         Ships’ positions in the Mediterranean Sea in the period 15-18 February 2010 re...
JRC Reference Report     Identification and Tracking (LRIT) of ships.        AMVER and ICOADS data may be also used for the...
JRC Reference Report      appraisal. In IMO (2009) a possible estimation of                              Finally, the glob...
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  1. 1. J R C R E F E R E N C E R E P O R T S Regulating Air Emissions from Ships The State of the Art on Methodologies, Technologies and Policy Options Apollonia Miola, Biagio Ciuffo, Emiliano Giovine, Marleen Marra EUR 24602 EN
  2. 2. The mission of the JRC is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, de-velopment, implementation and monitoring of EU policies. As a service of the European Commission, the JRCfunctions as a reference centre of science and technology for the Union. Close to the policy-making process,it serves the common interest of the Member States, while being independent of special interests, whetherprivate or national.European CommissionJoint Research CentreInstitute for Environment and SustainabilityContact informationA. MiolaJRC - IESVia Enrico Fermi, 2749 - 21027 - Ispra (VA) – Italyapollonia.miola@jrc.ec.europa.euIES Communication Officeies-contact@jrc.ec.europa.euhttp://www.jrc.ec.europa.eu/This publication is a Reference Report by the Joint Research Centreof the European Commission.Legal NoticeNeither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commissionis responsible for the use which might be made of this publication.The use of trademarks in this publication does not constitute an endorsement by the European Commission.The views expressed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the author(s)and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European UnionFreephone number (*): 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11(*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to 00 800 numbers or these calls may be billed.A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.It can be accessed through the Europa server http://europa.eu/.PUBSY: JRC60732EUR 24602 ENISBN 978-92-79-17733-0ISSN 1018-5593doi 10.2788/4171Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union© European Union, 2010Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.Printed in Italy
  3. 3. Regulating air emissions from ships: the state of the art on methodologies, technologies and policy options AUTHORS: Apollonia Miola, Biagio Ciuffo, Emiliano Giovine, Marleen Marra November 2010
  4. 4. JRC Reference Report Acknowledgments We would like to thank Mr L. Hordijk, Mr A. Krasenbrink, Mrs M. Wenning, Mr A. Perujo, Mr C. Panayotis, Mr H. Meijer, Ms A. Pridmore and Ms G. Mulhern for their comments and suggestions for this Report. Our thanks also go to Mr J.P. Malingreau for his encouragement. Finally, we are grateful to all those who helped to carry out the research activities which are summarised in this Reference Report.
  5. 5. JRC Reference ReportExecutive summaryIn recent years public concerns regarding the envi- The analysis suggests that air emissions from theronmental impacts of maritime transport have in- maritime transport sector account for a significantcreased. This is because maritime transport is the portion of total emissions, affecting air quality andfifth largest contributor to air pollution and carbon contributing to climate change and human healthemissions, and the growth rate of trade makes the problems. In addition, the existing trend suggestsproblem even more pressing. However, consider- that the situation will worsen in the future. CO2able environmental improvements are obtainable emissions from shipping activities are estimated toby changing shipping practices. The international account for 3-5% of total CO2. Moreover, it has beenregulatory framework that governs the sector estimated that, without any countermeasures, sul-makes it complex to design policy strategy to abate phate emissions will increase by 10-20% over theair emissions, such as greenhouse gases (GHGs), main shipping routes in 2012, contributing up tofrom international maritime transport. 5.2% of the total tropospheric sulphate burden. These results include uncertainty but also highlightThe current policy actions dealing with air emissions the urgent need to take action. Chapter 2 providesrelate mainly to the quality of fuel used and to a critical analysis of the main data and methodolo-the technological options available. Market- gies available to estimate air emissions from ships.based instruments such as emissions trading This chapter highlights some of the limitations ofare being discussed at international level within the current methodologies as well as the scarcitythe International Maritime Organization (IMO). and limited availability of data concerning maritimeFurthermore, the inclusion of the maritime transport transport activities. The analysis takes particularsector within the EU Emission Trading Scheme is on account of the estimation and geographical char-the EU strategy to address GHGs. The complexity acterisation of air emissions. The chapter classifiesof air pollution and climate change policies for the the different data sources which are available (orinternational maritime transport sector calls for will be in the near future) to maritime transport re-a wide range of considerations to be taken into searchers. A conclusion of this section is that thereaccount requiring policymakers: 1) to set binding is at present no optimum source of information, inlong-term emission reduction goals, 2) to take terms of accuracy, coverage and comprehensive-action in a flexible manner, 3) to ensure knowledge ness. However, and this is key, different data sourc-and technology sharing of innovative practices, and es may be used together in order to reduce their4) transparency, administrative feasibility. overall uncertainties. Chapter 3 provides some insights into how to design a sector-based policyThe following Reference Report summarises the strategy to abate air emissions from maritimekey findings of several years’ research activity and transport, taking into account the complexity ofprovides a reference framework for analytical tools the current contribution of the sector to global anddesigned to support the regulation of air emissions local air emissions. Criteria for selecting the mostfrom ships. It outlines the ‘state of the art’ with re- appropriate option are then discussed, focussinggard to the main methodological aspects of design- on the cost effectiveness of different options. Hereing policy measures to regulate air emissions from the basic aim is to select the option which achievesmaritime transport, namely identification of the im- specified objectives at least cost. The chapter iden-pacts, estimation of emissions, and identification tifies the main elements which characterise thisand selection of technological and policy options approach. These will be taken into account in theto abate air emissions from ships. The ultimate aim analysis of the technological and policy options toof this Report is to provide analytical tools to help abate air emissions from ships carried out into thedefine a policy strategy for regulating air emissions subsequent chapters. With respect to the techno-from ships, by providing various insights into how logical options, Chapter 4 describes the technolo-to best design and apply efficient and equitable gies that might be used to reduce fuel consumptionpolicy instruments. and pollutant emissions. The analysis provides an estimation of the costs of these technologies,Reducing the impacts of maritime transport on the which is key to assessing the feasibility of their ap-environment is a challenging task, since these im- plication in the subsector.pacts are not only due to navigation but also to theactivities carried out in ports. Chapter 1 analyses Chapter 5 provides an overview of the complexitythe main links between environmental impacts and of the maritime regulatory system and how envi-activities/events of the maritime transport sector. ronmental issues are currently integrated into this 3
  6. 6. JRC Reference Report framework, and defines the main elements of the acquisition puts the usefulness of the methodolo- regulation. This chapter summarises the current gies proposed so far further into question. The in- international debate on the regulation of GHGs creasing impact of maritime transport on the envi- arising from international maritime transport. It ronment is also related to the growth rate of trade, identifies the Kyoto Protocol’s principle “common which makes the problem even more pressing. This but differentiated responsibilities and respective is related to the intensive nature of the production capabilities” and the IMO’s “no more favorable and consumption of goods and services, which have treatment” concept as the core elements of this de- been stimulated by several factors such as the new bate. Chapter 6 outlines the main elements of the global dimension of modern production and con- European Union’s position on regulating air emis- sumption which has re-shaped European and world sions from international maritime transport, and trade, and the use of just-in-time techniques which discusses the inclusion of international shipping in allow manufacturers and wholesalers/retailers to the EU Emission Trading Scheme. dispense with warehouses. These issues call for environmental strategies to regulate air emissions Our results show that, because of the high un- from ships to be integrated into a broader frame- certainty in air emissions estimations, further re- work which takes into account all the pillars relat- search is required in this field. In fact, a scientific ing to the sustainable development of transport. debate is now open on the most appropriate way to address the issue of how to estimate air emissions. In conclusion, this Report identifies the meth- The scarce or limited availability of data concern- odological aspects of designing an environmental ing maritime transport activities has resulted in strategy to regulate air emissions from ships and the widespread use of different calculation meth- illustrates how the current policy actions are inte- odologies. In addition, the application of new tech- grated into an international framework. nologies which enable more detailed traffic data4
  7. 7. JRC Reference ReportTable of contentsAcknowledgments 2Executive summary 3List of Abbreviations 7Introduction 81. Maritime transport activity and the environment: the impacts on air 10 1.1. Impacts on Air 12 1.2. Conclusion 142. Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art 15 2.1. An inventory of possible maritime data sources 19 2.1.1. Technical information on International vessels 20 2.1.2. Ship activities and geographic distribution of maritime traffic 20 2.1.3. Further information: emission factors 23 2.2. Concluding remarks 243. Reducing air emissions from ships – technological and policy options 254. Abatement technologies: estimated performance and costs 27 4.1. Energy Efficiency Design Index 335. The international framework for regulating air emissions from ships 34 5.1. International mechanisms for reducing maritime transport emissions: the current debate 366. The EU policy on air and GHG emissions from international shipping 39 6.1. Legal constraints on EU environmental policy regulation of air emissions from ships 417. Conclusion 438. References 44Annex A. The main technological options for abating air emissions from ships 50Annex B - The Law of the Sea: Introductory summary 60 5
  8. 8. JRC Reference Report List of Figures Figure 1. Table 7. Fuel consumption estimation and evolution Cost efficiency and abatement potential from different sources. Our elaborations for machinery related options 29 on IMO data (IMO, 2009). 17 Table 8. Figure 2. Cost efficiency and abatement potential AIS coverage areas. Image on top by courtesy for operation related options 30 of Marinetraffic.com, ©2010, Marinetraffic.com -University of the Aegean; imagine down the LMIU Table 9. network by courtesy of Lloyd’s List Group, Cost for fuel shifting in 2020 both with © 2008 Informa plc, All rights reserved. 21 respect to the tonnes of fuel and to the energy produced 32 Figure 3. Ships’ positions in the Mediterranean Sea Table 10. in the period 15-18 February 2010 retrieved Cost effectiveness of fuel switching for SOx by the marinetraffic.com AIS network. reduction measures per €/tonne abated 32 Our elaborations. 22 Table 11. Figure 4. Potential emissions reduction using Sulphur content of fuels – Our elaboration shore-side electricity for the UK 52 on data from EEB (2008) 31 Table 12. Shore-Side electricity costs (€/tonne) (ENTEC, 2005A, Table 5.2, Page 39) 53 List of Tables Table 13. Costs used in Bosch et al. (2009) for NOx control Table 1. methods (Table 6.4, page 33) 55 Impacts due to maritime transport 11 Table 14. Table 2. Cost effectiveness of NOx reduction measures Classification of the main studies concerning per €/tonne 55 the evaluation of emissions from maritime transport 16 Table 15. Indicative scrubber costs Table 3. for different ship categories 56 CO2 emissions from international shipping: different results from different sources 18 Table 16. Scrubber costs used in Bosch et al. (2009) 56 Table 4. Criteria for selection of pollution control Table 17. instruments. 25 Cost effectiveness of SOx reduction measures per €/tonne abated 57 Table 5. Cost efficiency and abatement potential for ship design related options 28 Table 6. Cost efficiency and abatement potential for propulsion related options 286
  9. 9. JRC Reference ReportList of AbbreviationsAIS Automatic Identification System MD Marine Distillates Automated Mutual-Assistance MDO Marine Diesel OilAMVER Vessel Rescue System Marine Environment Convention for Long-range MEPCCLRTAP Protection Committee Transboundary Air Pollution METS Maritime Emission Trading SchemeDwt Deadweight tonnage MGO Marine Gas OilECA Emission Controlled Area MoU Memorandum of Understanding Emission Database for GlobalEDGAR Atmospheric Research Maritime Sectoral MSCMEEDI Energy Efficiency Design Index Crediting MechanismEEZ Exclusive Economic Zone MERS Maritime Emission Reduction SchemeEGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation National Environmental Research NERI Institute of Denmark U.S. Energy InformationEIA OSV Off-shore Support Vessel AdministrationEMSA European Maritime Safety Agency PM Particulate MatterETS Emission Trading Scheme RINA Registro Italiano NavaleFBC Fluidized Bed Combustion SCR Selective Catalytic ReductionGHG Greenhouse gas SECA SOx Emission Control AreaGT Gross Tonnage SFOC Specific Fuel Oil ConsumptionHAM Humid Air Motor SNCR Selective Non-Catalytic ReductionHAP Hazardous Air Pollutants Ship Traffic Energy STEEMHFO High Fuel Oil Environmental Model International Civil Aviation TEU Twenty-Foot Equivalent UnitICAO Organization United Nations Conference on UNCTAD International Comprehensive Trade and DevelopmentICOADS Ocean-Atmosphere data-set United Nations Framework UNFCCCIEA International Energy Agency Convention of Climate ChangeIEM Internal Engine Modification 1982 United Nations Convention UNCLOS of the Law of the SeaIMO International Maritime Organization United Nations Economic Joint Research Centre of the UNECEJRC Commission for Europe European CommissionLMIU Lloyd’s Maritime Intelligence Unit USACE U.S. Army Corps of EngineersLMIS Lloyd’s Maritime Information System VOC Volatile Organic CompoundsLRF Lloyd’s Register Fairplay WiFE Water in Fuel EmulsionLRIT Long Range Identification TrackingMAC Marginal Abatement Cost 7
  10. 10. JRC Reference Report Introduction In recent years, public concerns regarding the The present Reference Report summarises the main environmental impacts of maritime transport findings of a several year’s research activity1 which have increased. The analysis of the main impacts was carried out to provide a reference framework of maritime transport activities on air quality of the analytical tools for regulating air emissions highlights the fact that the sector is responsible from ships. It outlines the state of the art concern- for a notable amount of total CO2 emissions and air ing the main methodologies for designing policy pollutants. In addition, the existing trends suggest measures to regulate air emissions from maritime that the situation will worsen in the future. transport, namely identification of the impacts, estimation of emissions caused by shipping activi- Indeed, CO2 emissions from shipping activities are ties, and identification and selection of technologi- estimated to account for 3-5% of total CO2 emis- cal and policy options to abate air emissions from sions (see for example IMO, 2009). In addition, ships. The ultimate aim is to give analytical tools estimates show that in 2050 maritime transport to help define a policy strategy for regulating air will be responsible for 15% of total CO2 emissions. emissions from ships, providing some insights into For other air pollutants, in Lauer et al. (2009) it how to design and apply efficient and equitable has been estimated that, in the event of no coun- policy instruments. The first step to take towards termeasures being taken, sulphate emissions will achieving this objective is to accurately assess the increase by 10-20% over the main routes in 2012, air emissions from the maritime transport sector in contributing up to 5.2% to the total tropospheric terms of quantification and location. sulphate burden. Chapter 1 of this Report identifies the main envi- Despite this scenario, considerable environmen- ronmental impacts related to maritime transport tal improvements could be obtained by changing activities, focusing on impacts on air quality, and shipping practices (Krozer et al., 2003). The current gives a critical analysis of the main methodologies policy actions dealing with emissions relate mainly for estimating air emissions from ships. to the quality of fuel used and to the available tech- nological options. Chapter 2 classifies these methodologies on the basis of the approach followed (bottom-up or top- Market-based instruments such as emissions trad- down) with respect to the total emissions calcula- ing are being discussed at international level within tion and geographic characterisation. This chapter the International Maritime Organization (IMO). highlights some limitations of the current method- ologies and the scarcity and limited availability of Furthermore, the inclusion of the maritime trans- data concerning maritime transport activities. port sector within the EU Emission Trading Scheme is on the EU strategy to address GHGs. The Report recommends using cost effectiveness analysis as the basic criterion for selecting and/or The complexity of air pollution and climate change combining policy options to design a sectoral envi- policies for the international maritime transport ronmental strategy (chapter 3). sector calls for a wide range of considerations to be taken into account (Montgomery, 1972; Tietenberg, 2003) requiring policymakers: 1) to set binding long-term emission reduction goals, 2) to take action in a flexible manner, 3) to ensure knowledge and technology sharing of innovative practices, and 4) transparency, administrative feasibility. 1 The results of this activity have been published in several EUR reports: Miola , A., Ciuffo, B., Marra, M., Giovine, E. (2010) “Analytical framework to regulate air emissions from maritime transport” (EUR24297 – ISBN 978-92-79- 15308-2); Miola et al. (2009) “External costs of transport Case study: Maritime transport“(EUR23837 – ISBN 978-92-79 12534-8); Miola et al. (2008) “Review of the measurement of external costs of transport in theory and practice” (EUR23714 – ISBN 978-92-79-11279-9); Andreoni et al. (2008) Cost effectiveness analysis of the Emission Abatement in the Shipping Sector Emissions” (EUR23715 – ISBN 978-92-79-11280-5).8
  11. 11. JRC Reference ReportChapter 4 describes the technologies that might This aspect is related to the intensive nature ofbe used to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant production and consumption of goods and serv-emissions. The different technologies are grouped ices, which have been stimulated by several fac-into five categories depending on the specific tors such as the new global dimension of modernsector in which they are implemented (Ship design, production and consumption which has re-shapedPropulsion, Machinery, Operation and Fuel - European and world trade, and the use of just-in-Wartsila, 2009). The analysis gives an estimation time techniques which allow manufacturers andof the costs of such technologies, which is a key wholesalers/retailers to dispense with warehous-consideration in assessing the feasibility of their es (OECD, 2002).application in the sector. These issues call for the integration of environ-Chapter 5 summarises the current international de- mental strategies for regulating air emissions frombate on the regulation of GHGs from international ships into a broader framework which incorporatesmaritime transport. This chapter identifies the Kyo- all the pillars of sustainable transport.to Protocol’s principle “common but differentiatedresponsibilities and respective capabilities” and In conclusion, this Report identifies the meth-the IMO’s “no more favorable treatment” concept odological aspects of designing an environmentalas the core elements of this debate. strategy to regulate air emissions from ships and describes how to integrate this strategy in an inter-Finally, Chapter 6 outlines the main elements of the national framework.European Union’s position on regulating air emis-sions from international maritime transport, anddiscusses the inclusion of international shipping inthe EU Emission Trading Scheme.Our results show that, given the high level of un-certainty in air emissions estimations, further re-search is needed in this field. In fact, a scientificdebate is currently underway on the most properway estimate air emissions. The scarce or limitedavailability of data concerning maritime transportactivities has led to a plethora of different calcula-tion methodologies to estimate air emissions fromshipping over the past decades.In addition, the application of new technologies formore detailed traffic data acquisition puts the use-fulness of methodologies proposed so far furtherinto question.Moreover, as has been pointed out, the increasingrelevance of the environmental impacts of maritimetransport is also related to the growth rate of trade,which makes the problem even more pressing. 9
  12. 12. JRC Reference Report 1. Maritime transport activity and the environment: the impacts on air Reducing the impacts of maritime transport on the • construction and maintenance of the port environment is a challenging task, since these im- terminal in terms of land consumption and pacts are not only due to navigation but also de- waste generated. pend on a number of other activities, such as those carried out in ports for instance. The main maritime Each maritime transport activity carried out in transport activities are summarised in the follow- port, at sea or during ship construction/maintena- ing categories (Bickel et al. (2006)): nce/dismantling, results in different environmen- tal impacts on air, water, ecosystems and other • navigation, which involves the transport, stor- services. These impacts, as well as those deriving age and loading/unloading of goods and pas- from accidental events or/and illegal actions, have sengers (the activities that deserve the most to be considered when evaluating the overall im- attention are mooring, docking and leaving pact of the maritime transport sector on environ- the port); mental quality. • construction, maintenance, cleaning and dis- The links between environmental impacts and ac- mantling of ships and vessels, which can ei- tivities/events of the maritime transport sector are ther be carried out at port or in nearby areas; shown in Table 1.10 Maritime transport activity and the environment: the impacts on air
  13. 13. JRC Reference Report AIR WATER SOIL/SEDIMENT ECOSYSTEM OTHER Global Air pollution impact Habitat Loss/Degradation Activities-events/Impacts Local Air Pollution (NOx, SO2, CO2, CO, VOC, PM) Soil/sediment pollution Land consumption Waste generation Water pollution Water turbidity Acidification Biodiv. loss Congestion Vibration Erosion Noise Odour Manoeuvring Loading & Unloading/ Operations on terminals Hotelling (lighting, heating, refrigeration, ventilation, etc.) Dredging Land traffic (heavy vehicle, railway) In ports Waste disposal/illegal dumping Port expansion/ Infrastructures construction and maintenance Fuel deposits Discharge of ballast water Dumping of black (sewage) and gray (shower, sink, and galley) water Bulk handling and Goods movement Industrial activities Spills Cruise llegal dumping Dumping of black (sewage) At sea and gray (shower, sink, and galley) water Spills Hull paintings Ships building, maintenance, dismantling Metal degreasing DemolitionTable 1. Impacts due to maritime transport activities, including illegal activities and accidental events.Source: A. Miola et al. (2009: 23). Maritime transport activity and the environment: the impacts on air 11
  14. 14. JRC Reference Report Most maritime transport activities have an impact 1.1. Impacts on Air on water, as can be expected due to their proximity to the sea. In particular, several chemical products Emissions from the maritime transport sector rep- used for transport activities as well as substances resent a significant and increasing source of air transported by ships can end up being discharged pollution. into the sea, causing water pollution. These dis- charges can derive from authorised activities, ac- The health and environmental impacts of air pollut- cidents and illegal actions. ants are highly dependent on the proximity of the emission sources to sensitive receptor sites. This Soil pollution arising from the maritime transport means that, compared to land-based sources, at sector is mainly the result of the terrestrial activi- least some maritime emissions have less obvious ties in port areas which can lead to soil and sedi- health and environmental impacts since they can ment contamination, acidification, the degrada- be released far from populated areas or sensitive tion of natural habitats and the consequent loss of ecosystems. However, in harbour cities ship emis- biodiversity. In addition, port activities and their sions are often a dominant source of urban pollu- related infrastructures in these areas occupy and tion and need to be addressed, in particular when consume land. considering fine particulate matter. In terms of air pollution impacts, ship emissions to Furthermore, emissions from ships are transported the atmosphere comprise ozone and aerosol pre- in the atmosphere over several hundreds of kilome- cursors (NOx, CO, VOCs, SO2, etc.) and the emis- tres, and thus can contribute to air quality problems sions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The effects of on land even if they are emitted at sea. This pathway these pollutants are well documented. SO2 and NOx is especially relevant for the deposition of sulphur can become converted into sulphate and nitrate and nitrogen compounds (Cofala et al., 2007). particles. Exposure to fine particles is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Shipping In general, all ship activities lead to air pollutant emissions contribute notably to the formation of emissions (Trozzi, 2003). Concerning ship build- ground-level ozone, especially in closed regions ing/maintenance/dismantling activities, the prin- (e.g. the Mediterranean region, etc.). cipal emissions are dust, particles, gases (e.g. from welding), odours and aerosols. Considering The deposition of sulphur and nitrogen contributes specific activities, the emission of volatile organic to excess critical loads of acidity. Nitrogen oxides compounds (VOCs) from metal degreasing and lead to eutrophication, which affects biodiversity painting activities represents a major problem both on land and in coastal waters. An additional (European Environment Agency, 2002). As regards contribution of shipping to climate change is hull surface cleaning, paint removal, changes of brought by the darker fraction of the particulate zinc anodes, and paint application, the main ele- matter emitted, known as black carbon. This ments that have an impact on the environment are contribution is due to GHG emissions and to the dust emissions (from sandblasting, grinding, etc.) aliquot of particulate matter defined as black and emissions of solvents, where solvents contain carbon. Black carbon can absorb energy from VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (Hayman incoming sunlight. This phenomenon is particularly et al., 2000). The demolition or major modification relevant in the Arctic area, where black carbon is of ships can produce asbestos, heavy metals, hy- responsible for accelerating the melting process of drocarbons, ozone depleting substances and other snow and ice. Warming in the Arctic area has an pollutants. As already mentioned, all these ship impact on the Arctic climate and thus on the global building/maintenance/dismantling activities can climate system. either be carried out in the port or in other areas. It should also be taken into account that, for eco- For the scope of this Report, the next paragraph nomic reasons, many shipping vessels use heavy provides a detailed analysis of the impacts of fuel oil with high sulphur content (just to give an maritime transport on air quality and GHGs idea, the sulphur content of standard marine fuel emissions. This analysis will help identify the is 2,700 times higher than that of conventional die- main fields of policy intervention for abating air sel for cars). The main air emissions resulting from emissions from ships. burning this type of fuel include:12 Maritime transport activity and the environment: the impacts on air
  15. 15. JRC Reference Report• Sulphur Dioxide (SO2); PM can contribute to many serious health problems including premature mortality and asthma attacks• Nitrogen Oxides (NOX); (IAPH, 2007).• Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs); The presence of these pollutants has local and glo- bal impacts. Impacts on local (or regional) air qual-• Particulate Matter (PM); ity are mainly linked to pollutants such as PM, NOx and sulphur, while the GHGs (e.g. CO2) have a glo-• Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and other GHGs. bal impact on climate.The amount of gases emitted from marine engines As far as local air pollution is concerned, port areasinto the atmosphere is directly related to total fuel have historically developed in very close proxim-oil consumption, which depends on different fac- ity to urban areas, and port operations can affecttors such as the hull shape, the loading conditions, the people living and working in these areas. Thethe roughness of the hull, the condition of the en- negative effects on local air quality and humangine, etc. Auxiliary engines also contribute to the health are largely dominated by the presence oftotal exhaust gas emissions. This contribution to air NOx, PM (2.5 or 10), acid deposition and nitrogenemissions is particularly significant for cruise ships, deposition.which have a constant need for ancillary power tomeet lighting and ventilation demands both at sea NOx emissions also can cause nutrient overload inand in port. In general, ship emissions in port de- water bodies, which can result in eutrophication.pend on manoeuvring time and cargo operations The excess of nutrient nitrogen can be detrimen-(vessel-type dependent) (Endresen et al., 2003). tal to the fragile balance of ecosystems, including marine ecosystems. In addition, particles and NO2Emissions can also result from onboard incinera- linked to air emissions from maritime transport ac-tion of waste, which can lead to dioxins and other tivities can have impacts on visibility by reducingheavy metals being released into the atmosphere. the visual range, as highlighted by Holland et al. (2005).Focusing on all port operations and air pollution,the main factor to take into consideration is that SO2 emissions also negatively impact public health;each category – ocean/sea-going vessels, harbour in particular, sulphate particles can induce asthma,craft, cargo handling equipment, trucks and loco- bronchitis and heart failure.motives – is mainly powered by diesel engines,which are significant contributors to air pollution. Sulphur and nitrogen compounds emitted from ships can also produce impacts not directly linkedThe most relevant shipping activities that contrib- to human health. They can, indeed, cause acidute to air pollution are (Trozzi, 2003): depositions that can be detrimental to the natural environment (lakes, rivers, soils, fauna and flora).• loading and unloading of petroleum products Emissions of these compounds at sea can exert an (VOCs); influence on vegetation and land-based objects many thousands of kilometres away.• dry docks (evaporative VOCs); Health effects can result in the reduction of oxygen• passenger car traffic (combustion and evapo- delivery to the body’s tissues and organs (such as rative VOCs); the heart and the brain). CO can have significant cardiovascular effects on those who suffer from• heavy vehicle and railway traffic (combustion heart disease. The central nervous system can also compounds). be affected. Breathing high levels of CO can result in blurred vision, reduced ability to work or learn,As a result, especially in port areas, ships contrib- and reduced manual dexterity. CO also contributesute to harmful levels of pollutants such as particu- to the formation of smog (IAPH, 2007).late matter (PM10 and PM2.5), ozone (O3), nitrogendioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon mon- At the global level, carbon dioxide is the mostoxide (CO), and lead (Pb). Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and significant trace constituent that has an effect on Maritime transport activity and the environment: the impacts on air 13
  16. 16. JRC Reference Report global climate change. Shipping is one of the con- areas where it plays an important role in the accel- tributors to the world’s total CO2 emissions: 870 eration of the snow and ice melting process. This million tonnes in 2007, increasing by a factor of be- phenomenon, which is particularly relevant in tween 2.2 and 3.3 in 2050 according to IMO (2009). the northern hemisphere where most ship activi- ties are carried out, may significantly contribute The study by the IMO (2000) highlights that, due to modification of the climate system of the Arctic to the highly nonlinear response in ozone forma- region and thus that of the entire planet. At the tion from emissions of precursors such as CO and moment, the shipping sector is estimated to be re- NOx, ship emissions over oceans far removed from sponsible for around 2% of total black carbon emis- industrial regions such as the Atlantic and Pacific sions (Lauer et al., 2007). This percentage reaches Oceans generate higher levels of ozone formation the interval from 10 to 50% near the major shipping than emissions over polluted coastal regions (e.g. routes (Marmer et al., 2009) and, furthermore, it is the North Sea). constantly increasing. Moreover, the study by Schreier et al. (2006) un- derlines that particle emissions from ships change 1.2. Conclusion the physical properties of low clouds, due to the so-called indirect aerosol effect. Particles and their The analysis of the main impacts of maritime precursors from ship emissions can act as cloud transport activities on air highlights the condensation nuclei (CCN) in the water-vapour sat- responsibility of the sector for a notable amount of urated environment of the maritime cloud. Aerosols total CO2 emissions and air pollutants. For example, can re-radiate the sun’s energy, causing temporary in Lauer et al. (2009) it has been estimated that, cooling effects that mask the long-term warming without any countermeasures, in 2012 sulphate effect of GHGs. In addition, ship emissions modify emissions will increase by 10-20% over the existing clouds by decreasing the effective radius, main routes, contributing up to 5.2% to the total while they increase droplet concentration and opti- tropospheric sulphate burden. These results show cal thickness. These effects seem to be particularly the complexity of the situation and the urgent need prevalent in areas where the background pollutant for action to be taken. The increasing pressure concentrations are low, as at open sea. of the maritime sector on the environment could be halved by adopting local and global emission An additional contribution of shipping to climate restriction policies. The first step to take towards change is brought about by the darker fraction of achieving this objective is to quantify the air the PM emitted, known as black carbon. Black car- emissions from the maritime transport sector. bon accounts for around 10% of the total PM emit- The next chapter gives an overview of the main ted (Lack et al., 2009). Its capability to absorb the methods for estimating the air emissions deriving energy derived from incoming sunlight makes it from shipping activities and compares their results particularly dangerous in the Arctic and Antarctic in order to define a reference framework.14 Maritime transport activity and the environment: the impacts on air
  17. 17. JRC Reference Report2. Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the artAs highlighted in the previous chapter, emissions ticular geographic cell and evaluating thefrom the maritime transport sector account for a global activity which is carried out on it, nosignificant portion of total emissions, affecting matter which vessel carries out the activity.air quality and contributing to climate change and Emissions from the individual cells are thenhuman health problems. The estimation and geo- aggregated to calculate total emissions andgraphical characterisation of maritime transport assumptions are made in order to assign totalemissions are therefore important to the work of, emissions to the different ships (or at least tofor instance, atmospheric scientists or policy mak- the different categories);ers who try to analyse and address the problemsassociated with them. • Full top-down approach: total emissions are calculated without considering the character-In general, the level of detail achieved and achieva- istics of the individual vessels, and are laterble within a certain study depends on the approach spatially assigned.followed (bottom-up or top down) and the specificpurpose of the analysis itself. In Table 2 the key works found in the literature re- view are subdivided according to the above-men-For example, emissions of CO2 may be analysed tioned classification. Due to data availability, near-at a global scale, whereas NOx and SOx emissions ly all the studies evaluate emissions attributable toshould be analysed at a more local scale since their vessels whose gross tonnage (referred to as GT ingreatest effects are produced on the environment the remainder of this Report) is greater than 100.in which they are released. Several inventories have been established over theIn a bottom-up approach, each single element in- past two decades.volved in a certain phenomenon is modelled andthen the global impact is evaluated by aggregating The works are grouped on the basis of the classifi-the impacts of the different elements. cation provided in the preceding paragraph and or- dered more or less chronologically. The debate onFor the evaluation of emissions arising from mari- the evaluation of maritime emissions is still opentime transport, two dimensions have to be con- and has resulted in several different estimationssidered: the quantity of emissions produced and being made over the past decade. These are not allwhere they are emitted. For both dimensions we that easy to compare, since different contexts arecan use a bottom-up or a top-down approach, or a analysed and different assumptions are made.mixture of the two:• Full bottom-up approach: the pollution that a single ship emits in a specific location is evaluated. By integrating the evaluation over time and over the fleet it is possible to evaluate total emissions and their geographic distribution;• Bottom-up approach in the evaluation of total emissions, but top-down in the geographical characterisation: a single vessel is considered in the analysis, but nothing is known about its position. By making assumptions, it is possi- ble to provide an estimate of the total emis- sions which are later geographically charac- terised using different criteria;• Top-down approach in the evaluation of total emissions, but bottom-up in the geographi- cal characterisation: this analysis starts by considering a single maritime route or a par- Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art 15
  18. 18. JRC Reference Report Table 2. Classification of the main studies concerning the evaluation of emissions from maritime transport Dimension 2: Emissions geographical characterisation Approaches Bottom-up Top-down Entec (2005) Wang et al. (2007a, 2007b) Corbett et al. (2009) Endresen al. (2003,2004*,2007) Jalkanen et al. (2009) Corbett and Koehler (2003*,2004*) Olesen et al. (2009) Eyring et al. (2005) Bottom-up Schrooten et al. (2009) Winther (2008)* Dimension 1: Miola et al. (2009) Dalsoren et al. (2008) Emissions Wang et al. (2010) IMO (2009) evaluation Paxian et al. (2010) Tzannatos (2010) Georgakaki et al. (2005) Corbett and Fischbeck (1997) Wang and Corbett (2005, 2007) Corbett et al. (1999) Top-down Wang et al. (2008) Skjolsvik et al. (2000) Winebrake et al. (2009) Endresen et al. (2007) * Paper does not include the geographical characterisation of emissions In IMO (2009) an attempt is made to homogenise opening the debate). In addition, the graph clearly the results of different studies. Figure 1 shows the highlights the high level of uncertainty introduced estimates of the IMO expert group which confirm by the different methodologies used to estimate the results from Corbett and Koelher (2003) rather emissions. than those from Endresen et al. (2003) (the works16 Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art
  19. 19. JRC Reference Report 400 Corbett and Kohler (2003) Eyring et al. (2005) 350 IEA (2007) Endresen et al. (2007)Fuel Consumption (10 6 tons) 300 IMO (2007) IMO (2009) IMO (2009) 250 200 150 100 80 85 95 75 90 00 05 10 Year 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20Figure 1. Fuel consumption estimation and evolution from different sources. Our elaborations on IMO data (IMO, 2009).This uncertainty is numerically quantified in Table distortions, no attempt is made here to homogenise3, which considers the estimated CO2 emissions for the results; however, most of the studies considerdifferent base years. The year of reference varies the year 2001.and, in order to avoid the introduction of further Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art 17
  20. 20. JRC Reference Report Table 3. CO2 emissions from international shipping: different results from different sources Global CO2 Emissions from Study Base Year Maritime Transport (Mt) Corbett et al. (1999) 1993 453 Skjolsvik et al. (2000) 1996 430 Endresen et al. (2003) 2001 557 Corbett and Koelher (2003) 2001 805 Eyring et al. (2005) 2001 812 International Shipping* Endresent et al. (2007) 2000 625 Wang et al. (2008) 2001 650 Edgar (2009) 2001 440 IEA 2001 550 EIA 2001 610 IMO consensus (2009) 2001 652 Eyring et al. (2009) 2000 780 Edgar (2009) 2004 520 Dalsoren et al. (2008) 2004 654 IMO consensus (2009) 2004 755 Eyring et al. (2009) 2005 960 Corbett and Koelher (2003) 2001 912 Total Shipping Eyring et al. (2005) 2001 887 IMO consensus (2009) 2001 784 Paxian et al. (2010) 2006 695 IMO consensus (2009) 2006 1008 Wang et al. (2008) 2001 90 200 M EU** Edgar (2009) 2001 62 Entec (2005) 2000 121 Paxian et al. (2010) 2006 112 Tot EU Schrooten et al. (2009) 2005 77 * International Shipping is defined as the shipping activities carried out between the ports of different countries. Total Shipping is made up of International Shipping, Domestic Shipping and Fishing. ** EU is defined as the union of the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 200 M refers to emissions which are estimated to be emitted within 200 nautical miles from the coast, whereas the total estimate (EU Tot) refers to all traffic to and from EU countries.18 Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art
  21. 21. JRC Reference ReportRegarding global CO2 emissions, Table 3 shows a is adopted. However, in order to overcome the un-slight convergence of the different studies, which certainties connected to the lack of information onleads to an estimate with a higher degree of con- shipping activities, the authors use vessel move-sensus (more similar results are obtained now that ment data from the Lloyd’s Marine Intelligencemore reliable information on vessels’ activities are Unit (LMIU) ship statistics. Such movements areavailable). The table also includes the estimate identified for each vessel by its calls at successiveprovided by the International Energy Agency (IEA) ports. The shortest path is assumed to have beenand by the U.S. Energy Information Administration followed by the ship between each pair of ports(EIA) as reported by IMO (2009) (tonnes of fuel (origin and destination).sales have been converted into tonnes of CO2 ac-cording to Corbett et al., 2009). In this way, a single source of information (LMIU statistics) is used both for technological and activ-Table 3 also reports the average CO2 emissions es- ity related information about a ship.timated by Eyring et al. (2009). Moreover, in theirwork, Eyring et al. (2009) report the upper and low- Unfortunately, only a portion (approximately 50%)er limits of global CO2 emissions as retrieved from of the movements of a vessel’s fleet is monitored.the same studies reported in this report. In particu-lar, for the year 2000, the lower limit is found to be In order to overcome this problem, Faber et al.560 Tg(CO2), while the upper limit is 1,360 Tg(CO2). (2009) evaluates the total fuel consumption and emissions from the maritime sector and comparesFor the year 2005, the lower limit is 450 Tg(CO2), these with the so-called “consensus” estimateswhile the upper limit is 1,660 Tg(CO2). This means of IMO (2009). They then apply the ratio betweenthat from 2000 to 2005 overall uncertainty has in- consensus estimates and their estimates tocreased from 50% to 100% of the total estimates. correct results for a more limited context (i.e. fuel consumption and emissions from EuropeanThis further confirms the need for different ap- maritime trade activities).proaches to the problem (improvements are expect-ed in the coming years as a result of the application The next section classifies the different data sourc-of more sophisticated full bottom-up approaches). es which are available (or will be in the near future) for researchers of maritime traffic.Such uncertainties are also reflected in the stud-ies that consider the European context. Results arereported in Table 3 (EU Tot). Different approaches 2.1. An inventory of possibleyield a 70% uncertainty level for the estimation of maritime data sourcesemissions due to the maritime traffic in Europeanports for approximately the same year. In particu- A key factor in defining the best approach to use forlar, in Schrooten et al. (2009) no hypothesis on the the evaluation of emissions is the availability of in-vessels’ activities is made, but a proxy of the Euro- formation concerning maritime traffic and vessels.pean Origin/Destination Demand matrix for goods The initial approaches adopted in the research to(Eurostat, 2000) is used. date (bottom-up for emissions evaluations, top- down for geographical characterisations) reliedThis transportation demand is then assigned to exclusively upon information about vessels, andthe European waterway network (in which mari- made different assumptions on their activities. Thistime routes are explicitly taken into account) in approach is probably plausible (at least to a certainorder to derive the traffic figures on the different extent, see for example IMO, 2009), but it has cer-routes. The Lloyd’s Register of Shipping is then tainly led to the current high level of uncertainties.used to estimate the other information required forthe emissions calculation (such as the engine load In the following sub-sections we will describe thefactor, etc.). Results of the study are available upon main sources of information. The following infor-request through the EX-TREMIS project website mation is usually necessary for the evaluation of(http://www.ex-tremis.eu). ship emissions:Paxian et al. (2010) and Faber et al. (2009) take a Ship type/category/length/GT (for possible aggre-different approach. Here a full bottom-up approach gation into groups) Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art 19
  22. 22. JRC Reference Report 1. Ship type/category/length/GT public/HomePage?fs=HomePage, or Digital Seas, (for possible aggregation into groups) http://www.digital-seas.com/start.html) and in a 2. Power (kW) of the ship’s main number of ship registers from around the world (e.g. and auxiliary engines the Registro Italiano Navale, RINA, Germanischer 3. Age of the main engines Lloyd, GL). However, these are not mentioned in the 4. Ship’s service speed scientific literature that we have reviewed. 5. Engine consumption (g/kWh) 6. Engine running hours 2.1.2. Ship activities and geographic 7. Engine load distribution of maritime traffic 8. Fuel type 9. Emission factors (gpollutant/ g fue) An important parameter for the calculation of emis- or (gpollutant/ kWh) sions is the definition of the number of hours each 10. Routes covered by maritime traffic ship spends at sea. Until a few years ago, this in- formation was retrieved from specific studies Points 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 relate to technical informa- which provided average information (in Endresen tion on vessels. Some of these can be found in et al., 2003, it is suggested that data be taken from publicly accessible data sources, while others (in CONCAWE, 1994, or http://www.ssb.no/english/ particular the power, fuel used, engine number and subjects/10/12/40/ which provides statistics from type) are only available in a few commercial data- Norway for the year 2000). bases. Points 4, 6 and 7 relate to information on the typical activity of a vessel which must be collected Such references can be useful for rough estimations separately or by using some other available data of emissions, but they cannot be considered satis- source. Emission factors and other information that factory if compared with another source of this kind can be useful for refining the estimation have to be of information, the Automatic Identification System found in the scientific literature. Maritime traffic (AIS). The AIS was introduced by the International routes are important for the spatial characterisa- Maritime Organization’s (IMO) International Conven- tion of activities. Below we outline with vessels’ tion for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS, 1974). As of technical specifications, then we present possible December 2004, all international voyaging ships of data sources of information on vessel activities and 300 GT or more and all passenger ships regardless we finish with emission factors. of size are required to have this system aboard (for further details see http://www.imo.org/Safety/main- 2.1.1. Technical information on frame.asp?topic_id=754). The main motivation for International vessels the adoption of this system was that it can provide precise information about the ships’ position that can Only two sources of information on vessels have be used for collision avoidance (Ou and Zhu, 2008). been used in the studies. These are analysed here: It is estimated that about 40,000 ships carried AIS • the World Merchant Fleet Database provided equipment in 2008 (Ou and Zhu, 2008). by the Lloyd’s Register Fairplay (LRF2), (http:// www.lrfairplay.com/) Information exchanged by each ship are (Ou and Zhu, 2008): • the Lloyd’s Marine Intelligence Unit (LMIU) 3 database (http://www.lloydsmiu.com/lmiu/ • STATIC: IMO number, length and beam, call index.htm) sign and name, vessel type; Other, less complete information on ships can be • DYNAMIC: position, time, course and speed found in some dedicated search engines (such as over ground, heading, rate of turn; Equasis http://www.equasis.org/EquasisWeb/ • VOYAGE RELATED: draft, possible hazardous cargo, destination. 2 In June 2009, Lloyd’s Register-Fairplay was taken over by the American IHS. The new name for the company is now IHS Fairplay. In this report the old name was kept so as not to confuse the readers who may not be aware of the change. 3 The name of the Lloyd’s Maritime Intelligence Unit has changed in Lloyd’s List Intelligence. As above, in this report the old name was kept so as not to confuse the readers20 Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art
  23. 23. JRC Reference ReportFigure 2. AIS coverage areas. Image on top by courtesy of Marinetraffic.com, ©2010, Marinetraffic.com -University of the Aegean; imagine down the LMIU network by courtesy of Lloyd’s List Group, © 2008 Informa plc, All rights reserved.The signal sent by each ship is not encrypted and main providers of AIS data are Marinetraffic.comthus can be read by any AIS receiver in a range of (www.marinetraffic.com), Lloyd’s MIU AIS (www.about 10 nautical miles. This allowed groups of vol- lloydsmiu.com/lmiu/ais/index.htm) and AIS Liveunteers and private companies to collect such data (http://www.aislive.com/).and make them available (either free of charge oragainst payment). To the authors’ knowledge, the Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art 21
  24. 24. JRC Reference Report Figure 3. Ships’ positions in the Mediterranean Sea in the period 15-18 February 2010 retrieved by the marinetraffic.com AIS network. Our elaborations. Further to the definition of the ships’ activities, AIS in the clause established in the IMO 22nd data may be usefully applied for the evaluation of meeting of the General Assembly, resolution the vessels’ speed. The service speed provided by A.917(22); the ships’ databases is an average value declared by the ships’ operators. In order to calculate ships’ • Penetration of the AIS technology in the fleet fuel consumption and emissions, the operational working in the area which is being consid- speed of a ship would be required in addition to its ered. At the global level, approximately 50% service speed (as detailed in Corbett et al., 2009). of ships have this system on board (Ou and In particular, the relationship between fuel con- Zhu, 2008), but at the local scale the picture sumption and the ratio between operating speed may be very different (for instance, according and service speed is a cubic function (Corbett et al., to a recent study, MARIN, 2008, the coverage 2009), meaning that an estimation of the operating rises to 90% in the Baltic Sea, meaning that speed can be used to calculate an estimate of the in other areas the percentage of coverage will fuel consumption and emissions. AIS data could be much lower). therefore substantially improve the global estima- tion of emissions from maritime traffic. • Incomplete coverage for the entire route. For instance, the data available for the entire However, some risks exist with AIS data. These are route may potentially only be connected with mainly connected to: the departure and the arrival of the vessel. It is possible to have an estimate of the average • Incomplete spatial coverage of maritime traf- cruise speed, but this is of course only an ap- fic. In Figure 2 this is pointed out. In addition, proximation. This problem can be overcome exceptions to the use of AIS data are given by using another data source, the Long Range22 Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art
  25. 25. JRC Reference Report Identification and Tracking (LRIT) of ships. AMVER and ICOADS data may be also used for the Although the LRIT contains less frequent in- definition of an international waterway network, as formation (collected only four times per day) in Wang et al. (2008). it is available everywhere. It was established as an international system in 2006 by the IMO An alternative way of drawing inferences about and applies to ships engaged on international maritime traffic activities and their spatial dis- voyages (in particular to all passenger ships, tribution is to use the information on the origin/ cargo ships of 300 GT and above, and mobile destination of freight and people carried by ships. offshore drilling units). Information of this type is available from different sources. In the U.S. such information is collectedAll these problems could be reduced if a single en- and published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,tity were to take responsibility for accurate data which creates the Import Waterborne Data Bank oncollection and distribution. In Europe this role will an annual basis (Wang et al., 2010).be filled by the European Maritime Safety Agency(EMSA), which will take care of both AIS and LRIT In Europe, traffic data are collected by the Europe-data. This would lead to a considerable improve- an Commission’s EUROSTAT (http://epp.eurostat.ment in the data accuracy for European researchers ec.europa.eu), which asks each Member State toin the maritime transport field. provide a summary of its annual transport activi- ties. Data for each transport sector are freely avail-A satellite system which can collect AIS informa- able from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/tion sent by ships is currently being developed. page/portal/transport/data/database.This would facilitate the procurement of AIS datano matter the distance of the vessel from the shore. Additionally, information on traffic and emissionsThis would of course considerably improve the use- can be found as an output of funded researchfulness of the AIS system. In any case, both LRF and projects. As an example, the EX-TREMIS projectLMIU claim that they can provide such data. (http://www.ex-tremis.eu) allows free access to the methodology adopted for the evaluation ofFurther sources of data on vessel activities which emissions at a European level as well as to the out-can be used for the spatial characterisation of emis- puts obtained.sions are the ICOADS and AMVER datasets. ICOADS(International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere A potential source of information for detailed shipData Set) contains ship positions voluntarily re- activities in restricted areas may be the use of ge-corded by ships. In 2003 about 4,000 ships report- ostationary satellite observations. Geostationaryed their data to ICOADS (around 5% of the world’s satellites offer the possibility of continuously moni-fleet). Historical information goes back to 1662 and toring a certain area on Earth. They would thereforetherefore can be used to analyse the evolution of be very useful for the evaluation of ship activitiesroutes and navigation. Data are available through around main ports. Schreier et al. (2010) used datasubscription to the ICOADS website. from Meteosat-8 to analyse shipping routes around the west coast of Southern Africa. This representsAMVER (Automated Mutual-Assistance Vessel Res- a new and more sophisticated application, but atcue System) is used worldwide by search and res- the moment seems less suitable for an extensivecue authorities to provide assistance to ships and application.persons in distress at sea. In 2004 about 9,000ships reported to AMVER. Data, however, are not 2.1.3. Further information: emission factorsas easily accessible as they are from ICOADS. Emission factors are another important type ofTo improve the geographical characterisation of information for the estimation of emissions fromemissions, Wang et al. (2008) used both AMVER ships.and ICOADS datasets to create spatial proxies oftraffic activities. AMVER, ICOADS and a combina- Indeed, usually, the first step in the evaluation oftion of the two are available at http://coast.cms. emissions is the estimation of the fuel consumedudel.edu/GlobalShipEmissions/ as are the esti- by each ship (or fleet) on the basis of its activities.mates of world’s emissions from maritime trans- Specific fuel oil consumption (SFOC, measuredport provided by the authors. in g/kWh) is therefore an important input to the Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art 23
  26. 26. JRC Reference Report appraisal. In IMO (2009) a possible estimation of Finally, the global fuel sales statistics are usually SFOC is provided together with a discussion of the used to drive the estimation of the global impact of sources (Appendix 1, page 185). For auxiliary en- maritime traffic on air emissions. The International gines, a possible source of SFOC can be found in Energy Agency (IEA) and the Energy Information Oonk et al. (2003). Administration (EIA) provide such data (see IMO, 2009). However, the reliability of the figures pro- Once the fuel consumed has been calculated, it is vided has recently been put into question. For this possible to use emission factors to estimate the reason it is not currently recommended that they emission of different pollutants. In IMO (2009) emis- be used. sion factors have been derived from IPCC (2006) for CH4, N2O, CO2 and from EMEP CORINAIR (Thomas et al., 2002) for CO, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, SO2, PM10. For 2.2. Concluding remarks NOx emissions they followed the IMO regulation. It also provides information on other pollutants such The evaluation of the total amount of emissions as refrigerants (HFCs, CFCs, HFC-22, R717), VOCs deriving from current and future shipping activities and PFCs. plays a central role in appraising possible strate- gies for the sustainability of the maritime trans- Other sources of emission factors are Cooper port sector. The analysis carried out in this chapter (2003), Dalsoren et al. (2008) for black and organic highlights the limitations of the current methodolo- carbon, Corbett et al. (2009) and IPCC (2006) for a gies as well as the scarcity and limited availability discussion on the CO2 emission factor. of data concerning maritime transport activities. These limitations make the design and assessment In addition, for maritime traffic analysis it is very of air emission reduction strategies a complex task important to know the geographic location of main for this sector. A precondition for an effective policy ports (to be directly imported in a GIS environment) strategy to regulate air emissions is that they be and the distance by sea between them. estimated in terms of quantification and localisa- tion. The analysis highlights the fact that the scien- Port characteristics datasets may be found at the tific debate is still open on the subject of estimating sources suggested by Wang et al. (2007a). Unfor- the air emissions from maritime transport. tunately, these datasets are no longer available on- line. A good source can found in shape file format A conclusion of this section is that there is at (.shp) on http://www.evs-islands.com/search/label/ present no optimum source of information, in download which contains World Port Index data. terms of accuracy, coverage and comprehensive- ness. However, and this is key, different data For a more macroscopic analysis, information on sources may be used together in order to reduce distance along maritime routes can be found on their overall uncertainties. This consideration has several websites (see for example http://e-ships. received limited attention in the literature, due to net/dist.htm or the sea rates website http://www. the difficulties associated with accessing different searates.com/reference/portdistance/). However, types of data. Finally, potential new sources of in- these on-line tools give the port-to-port distance formation, as a result of the introduction of innova- between two specific ports and therefore they are tive technologies, are expected to provide benefits practically of no use when the distances between to the sector in the near future. thousands of ports are required. A more useful system is the NetPas tool (http://www.netpas. net/), which allows multiple queries (unfortunate- ly there is a limit of five queries per day in the free trial version).24 Evaluating emissions from the maritime transport sector: state of the art

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