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Aee tech 8-2010-air quality

  1. 1. EEA Report No 8/2010 Impact of selected policy measures on Europes air quality ISSN 1725-2237IN S ER T IM A G E
  2. 2. X
  3. 3. EEA Report No 8/2010Impact of selected policy measures on Europes air quality
  4. 4. Cover design: EEALayout: Rosendahl-Schultz Grafisk/EEALegal noticeThe contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the official opinions of the European Commissionor other institutions of the European Union. Neither the European Environment Agency nor any person orcompany acting on behalf of the Agency is responsible for the use that may be made of the informationcontained in this report.Copyright notice© EEA, Copenhagen, 2010Reproduction is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged, save where otherwise stated.Information about the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europaserver (www.europa.eu).Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010ISBN 978-92-9213-103-6ISSN 1725-2237doi:10.2800/42618 REG.NO. DK- 000244European Environment AgencyKongens Nytorv 61050 Copenhagen KDenmarkTel.: +45 33 36 71 00Fax: +45 33 36 71 99Web: eea.europa.euEnquiries: eea.europa.eu/enquiries
  5. 5. ContentsContentsAcknowledgements .................................................................................................... 6Executive summary .................................................................................................... 7Glossary.. ................................................................................................................. 111 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 12 1.1 Objectives ..................................................................................................... 13 1.2 Relevant European air pollutant policy frameworks ............................................. 13 1.3 Earlier studies ............................................................................................... 18 1.4 Structure of this report .................................................................................... 192 Methodology and data sources ............................................................................ 20 2.1 General approach ........................................................................................... 20 2.2 Emission calculations ...................................................................................... 20 2.3 Air quality analysis .......................................................................................... 27 2.4 Impact assessments........................................................................................ 283 Achievements of European air emission policies .................................................. 30 3.1 Emission reductions in road transport ................................................................ 30 3.2 Emission reductions in industrial combustion ...................................................... 37 3.3 Did air quality improve? ................................................................................... 40 3.4 Impacts ......................................................................................................... 444 Potential scope for further reductions ................................................................. 47 4.1 Emissions ...................................................................................................... 47 4.2 Concentrations ............................................................................................... 49 4.3 Environmental impacts .................................................................................... 505 Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 53References ............................................................................................................... 56Annex 1 TNO Emission Assessment Model (TEAM) ................................................... 59Annex 2 Vehicle types, classes and technologies with emission factors as used in this study ............................................................................................... 61Annex 3 Eurostat energy data products used in the analysis of the industrial (power plant) sector .................................................................................. 66Annex 4 Technologies and emission factors for industrial combustion.....................67 Impact of selected policy measures on Europes air quality 5
  6. 6. Acknowledgements Acknowledgements This report was prepared by the European Topic were used in the analysis of the road transport Centre for Air and Climate Change (ETC/ACC) sector. Emission factors used in the analysis of of the European Environment Agency (EEA). The the industrial sector were obtained from the authors of the report were Jeroen Kuenen, Mtinkheni GAINS-Europe online model (of the Atmospheric Gondwe, Tinus Pulles (TNO, the Netherlands), Pollution and Economic Development Program, Frank de Leeuw (PBL, the Netherlands) and Justin of the International Institute for Applied Systems Goodwin (S-ESC, United Kingdom). The EEA Analysis (IIASA), Austria). project manager was Martin Adams. The EEA thanks those national representatives Dr. Leonidas Ntziachristos (Aristotle University of the European environmental information of Thessaloniki, Greece) is thanked for providing and observation network (Eionet) and staff of annual vehicle fleet data for Europe (sourced the European Commission Directorate General from the FLEETS Research Project funded by the Environment who provided comments on the draft European Commission (DG Environment) and version of this report. Anke Lükewille and Valentin available through the COPERT 4 website and Foltescu (EEA) are also thanked for their helpful TREMOVE road transport models). These data comments during the preparation of this report.6 Impact of selected policy measures on Europes air quality
  7. 7. Executive summaryExecutive summaryIn recent decades Europe has introduced and Achievements of EU air emission policiesimplemented a number of legislative instrumentsto improve air quality by controlling emissions Road transportof air pollutants that harm human health and the Despite greater fuel use between 1990 and 2005environment. In addition to legislation limiting (+ 26 %), significant reductions in emissions haveemissions at the national level (1), these initiatives been achieved due to the introduction of the Eurohave also included specific legislation addressing standards in the road transport sector (starting inemissions from road transport and industrial the early 1990s). This is especially so for carbonsectors. Nevertheless, present air quality levels in monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organicEurope still cause a variety of adverse impacts. compounds (NMVOC), whose emissions decreased significantly and steadily over the whole studyIndustrial combustion (comprising emissions from period. By 2005, emissions of CO stood 80 % belowpower plants, refineries and from the manufacturing those projected in a no-policy scenario — thesector) remains an important source of air pollution, theoretical situation that would have existed hadbeing a main contributor to emissions of particulate Euro standards not been introduced. NMVOCmatter and acidifying pollutants. Road transport is a emissions were 68 % lower.significant contributor to emissions of troposphericozone precursors. Together, these sources are Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) were 40 % belowresponsible for around half to two-thirds of total the no-policy scenario in 2005. Fine particulateemissions of these pollutants. matter (PM2.5) were 60 % lower, with the decrease commencing in the mid-1990s.The main objective of the present study is to analyseand quantify the effects that certain past policy Due to lower emissions, concentrations of particulatemeasures in the road transport and industrial matter over Europe have also fallen far below thecombustion facilities have had on the magnitude of levels that would have been observed had no policiesair pollutant emissions and subsequent air quality in been in place, mainly in densely populated areas inEurope. The policies selected are the Euro emission western European countries. Significant reductions instandards for road vehicles and the EU directives on eastern Europe are not observed to the same extent.Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC)and large combustion plants (LCP). Changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations are more complicated to ascertain. A decrease inTwo specific questions are addressed: high daily (2) ozone concentrations has occurred over most parts of Europe, especially in the• how has the introduction of the selected Mediterranean area. Contrastingly, over Germany, legislative instruments affected air pollution in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom an Europe during the past decades? increase in tropospheric ozone has occurred as a• what is the theoretical unexploited potential result of lower chemical quenching rates of ozone in Europe to reduce air pollution if all vehicles due to lower NOX emissions. Nevertheless, the in Europe were to conform to the latest Euro introduction of the Euro standards has improved the standards and all industrial combustion facilities overall health impacts of ozone for all countries. The limited emissions to levels consistent with effect on ecosystems (both crops and forests) is also the LCP Best Available Techniques Reference positive. Document?(1) For example, the European Union (EU) National Emission Ceilings Directive and the Gothenburg Protocol to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention).(2) This modelling result is based on the SOMO35 concept, an accumulated ozone concentration in excess of 70 μg/m3, or 35 ppb, on each day in a calendar year. Impact of selected policy measures on Europes air quality 7
  8. 8. Executive summary Figure ES.1 Improvement in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in Europe in 2005 following introduction of road vehicle emissions standards (left) and BAT in large Air pollution study - effectiveness of measures - effectiveness of past past measures Air pollution studyindustrial combustion plants (right) Do not cite or quote Do not cite or quoteDraft.Draft. Figure ES1 ES1 Improvement in particulate matter (PM(PM2.5) concentrations in Europe in 2005 following Figure Improvement in fine fine particulate matter 2.5) concentrations in Europe in 2005 following Industrial combustion National ceilings introduction of roadroad vehicle emissions standards (left) BATBAT in large industrial combustion introduction of vehicle emissions standards (left) and and in large industrial combustion The industrial combustion sector (including energy plants (right) plants (right) The emission reductions achieved by these industries and manufacturing industries) has shown sector-specific emission reduction measures should little overall change in its use of fuel between 1990are more placed in context against thedecrease in ozone Changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations be complicated to ascertain. A intended emission Changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations are more complicated to ascertain. A decrease in ozone and 2005. The share of coal and oil in this sector is reductions across all sectors in Europe between 1990 concentrations has occurred oversharemost parts of Europe, especially inMediterranean area. to the UNECE concentrations has occurred over parts of Europe, especially in the the Mediterranean area. Contrastingly, decreasing with time, while the most of natural and 2010. The Gothenburg Protocol Contrastingly, overover biomass are increasing.and the United Kingdom Convention in tropospheric Transboundaryoccurred as gas and Germany,Netherlands Theand the energy Kingdom an increaseLong-range ozone has occurred as Germany, the the Netherlands use of United an increase on in tropospheric ozone has Air a result of lower chemicalhas increased, whileozone due to lower NOxNOx emissions. Nevertheless,Emission for electricity generation quenching ratesratesthe ozone due to lower emissions. Nevertheless, the the a result of lower chemical quenching of of Pollution and within the EU, the National introductionin the manufacturing industry improved overall health impacts of ozone for all countries. The The energy use of the Euro standards has improved the the overall health impacts of ozone for all countries. introduction of the Euro standards has has Ceilings Directive, both impose national ceilings decreasedon ecosystems (both crops forests) is also also (or limits) that must be met by 2010 for emissions effect over the period. crops and and forests) is positive. effect on ecosystems (both positive. of four key air pollutants (NOX, SO2, NMVOC and Industrial combustion Industrial projections were estimated using Eurostat Emission combustion NH3). Separate recent analysis (3) shows that many fuel use data combined with emission factors for a countries will not achieve their ceilings for one or The The industrial combustion sector (includingFor industries and manufacturing industries) has shown past no-policy andcombustionapplication scenarios. energy industries and manufacturing industries) has shown industrial full policy sector (including energy more pollutants. Thus despite the documented littlelittle overallthe actual emissions reported by 1990 2005. The reductionsof coal oil inoil inroad transport NOX overall change in its use of fuel fuel between and and 2005. The share achieved in the sector is is emissions, change in its use of between 1990 emission share of coal and and this this sector decreasing withwith time, whileshare offirst half gas and biomass are increasing. Thesectors energy for of this countries mainlytime, while the the share of natural gas and biomass are increasing. The of (the energy for decreasing show reductions in the natural of the and industrial combustion use use of focus electricity generation has increased, or less constantenergyreport)manufacturing industry hashave decreased over study period, while remainingincreased, whileenergy use in the the manufacturing industry decreasedfurther electricity generation has more while the the use in Europes air quality could has been over thereafter. Sulphur oxides (SOX) emissions have been the period. the period. improved had all countries met their intended reduced more significantly, remaining differences reduction commitments across all economic sectors. Emission projections different countries are largely fuel fuel data data combined with emission factorsafor a ‘no- Emission projections were estimated using Eurostat use use combined with emission factors for ‘no- in emissions between were estimated using Eurostat policy’ the differing sulphur content of fuels used. For xNOx emissions,actual emissions reported by by duepolicy’ ‘full‘full policy application’ scenarios. NO emissions, the the actual emissions reported to and and policy application’ scenarios. For For countries andmainly show emissions are significantlythe the study period, while remaining more reduce both NOXmainly show reductions in the first first half ofstudy period, of current policies or less less constant countries SOX, present reductions in the half of Potential while remaining more to or constant below the no-policy scenario in (SO ) emissions have been reduced more significantly, remaining differences in thereafter. Sulphur oxides 2005. emissions further thereafter. Sulphur oxides (SOx) emissions have been reduced more significantly, remaining differences in x emissions between different countriesindustrial due to the differing sulphur content of fuels used. For bothboth emissions between differentfrom are largely The reduction in PM emissions countries are largely due to the differing sulphur content of fuels used. For Road transport combustion ,SOx, present emissions are significantly below no-policy scenario reduction and and more significant are that estimated A the no-policy scenario in 2005. NOxNOx SOxispresent emissionsthansignificantly below theconsiderable furtherin 2005. of emissions in the road transport sector, and is highest in major is possible under a full application scenario that The The reduction in emissions from industrial combustion is more significant thanthan that estimated in the reduction in PM PM emissions from industrial combustion is more significant that estimated in the industrialised areas such as Germany, Italys Po theoretically assumes the latest Euro standards are roadroad transport sector, is highest in major industrialised areas suchsuch as Germany, Italy’sValley, the the transport sector, and and is highest in major industrialised areas as Germany, Italy’s Po European Valley, the Netherlands and Poland. With regard implemented comprehensively in all Po Valley, Netherlands and the policies have reducedto acidification,policies havehave reduced sulphur dioxide 2) be 2on Netherlands and Poland. With regard sulphur the policies most important dioxide (SO (SO ) to acidification, Poland. With regard to acidification, thecountries. The reduced sulphur effects would concentrationsconcentrations inareas. Theareas. The of this PM2.5 reduction are, are,vehicles Years Of Life Life concentrations in the same the same health benefitsNOthis PM2.5 reduction in terms of andYears from dioxide (SO2) in the same areas. The health benefits of X from gasoline-fuelled in terms of PM2.5 Of LostLost (YOLL), this PM2.513 % 60 %, compared to the no-policy scenario. health benefits of between reduction60 %, compared to diesel-fuelled vehicles. (YOLL), between 13 % and and are, in terms the no-policy scenario. of Years Of Life Lost (YOLL), about 60 %, compared National ceilings National ceilingsscenario. to the no-policy The The emission reductions achieved by these sector-specific emission reduction measures should be placed in emission reductions achieved by these sector-specific emission reduction measures should be placed in context against the intendedEEA Technical report No 10/2010. European Environment Agency. 1990 and 2010. The The emission reductions across all sectors in Europe between 1990 and 2010. context against the intended emission reductions across all sectors in Europe betweenhttp://www.eea.europa.eu/ ( ) NEC Directive Status report 2009, 3 Gothenburg Protocol to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Air Pollution and within Gothenburg Protocol to the UNECE (accessed 20 on Long-range publications/nec-directive-status-report-2009 ConventionSeptember 2010). Transboundary Pollution and within the the EU, EU,National Emission Ceilings Directive, bothboth impose national ceilingslimits) that that must be met by the the National Emission Ceilings Directive, impose national ceilings (or (or limits) must be met by 8 Impact of selected policy measures on Europes air quality
  9. 9. Executive summary A full application of the Euro standards would Figure ES.2 Theoretical potential realise a further improvement in air quality improvement of fine particulate concentrations of PM2.5 by up to 3 μg/m3. For matter concentrations in tropospheric ozone, concentrations would decrease Europe for 2005 had all vehicles complied with the latest Euro in the Mediterranean area, while in most densely standards (top); all industrial populated areas (such as Germany, the Netherlands combustion facilities had and the Po Valley) concentrations would increase emissions consistent with BAT (again due to the complex atmospheric chemistry of ozone and the NOX quenching effect). Air pollutionAELs as- defined in the LCP BREF study effectiveness of past measures (middle); and the combination of the two scenarios (bottom) Reduced PM2.5 exposure from road transport would have smaller potential health benefits than those for industrial combustion but would be positive for all EEA member countries (1–10 % in terms of YOLL). For SOMO35, health benefits attributable to ozoneDo not cite or quote exposure are positive for most countries (up to 10 % in terms of the air quality impact indicator, years of life lost – YOLL) but negative for Belgium, Germany (both – 1 %) and the Netherlands (– 5 %). Industrial combustion A full application scenario was similarly developed to identify the theoretical potential to reduce emissions of SO and NOX further, if emissions from industrial Air pollution study - effectiveness of past 2 measures combustion facilities were consistent with the associated emission levels (AELs) described in the Large Combustion Plant Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document (LCP BREF). It should Figure ES2 Theoretical potential improvement Draft. be noted that the definition of industrial combustion had all vehicles complied with the l facilities used in this study goes beyond that in the LCP had emissions consistent with BAT Do not cite or quote BREF. combination of the two scenarios (r Current emission rates relative to fuel use in industrial facilities vary significantly among countries. Germany, for example, appears already to have both NOX and SO2 emissions at levels consistent with the AELs set Combined policies out in the LCP BREF, while the same can be said for a number of EU-15 Member States for SO2. In contrast, A combination of both the ‘full application’ sc of the newer Member States, Bulgaria and Romania still appear to have largely unabated emissions for sectors results in the theoretical potential for:eness of past measures SO2, while Latvias NOX emissions appear unabated. In many countries, emissions could be approximately ¥ a further reduction of PM2.5 concentrations halved if emissions were brought down to the AELs (Figure ES1); Figure ES2 Theoretical potential improvement of fine particulate matter concentrat set out in the LCP BREF. Draft. had all vehicles complied with the latest Euro standards (left), all indust Total PM2.5 concentrations would also decrease in ¥ reduced tropospheric ozone concentrations had emissions consistent with BAT AELs as defined in the LCP BREF ( most areas if countries reduced emissions to the combination in the two scenarios but some increases in highly industria LCP BREF AELs (Figure ES.1). However, ofcentral area, (right). Europe (Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands) no further decrease is expected because emissions ¥ beneficial drops in the ozone impact indica Combined policies are already largely consistent with the BREF AELs. countries, where values increase. High reduction potentials are mainly found in southern and eastern Europe. A combination of both the ‘full application’improvement in health impacts, as the h ¥ net scenarios for the road transport and in sectors results in the theoretical potential for: than those from the increase in trop greater ¥ a further reduction of PM2.5 concentrations over Europe, in allwhole to berangi ¥ Europe’s ecosystems as a countries, less (Figure ES1); concentrations above critical levels (downpotential improvement of fine particulate matter concentrations in Europe for 2005cles complied with the latest Euro standards of selected industrial combustion facilities Impact (left), all policy measures on Europes air quality 9 ¥ reduced tropospheric ozone concentrations in a large part of Europe, especially
  10. 10. Executive summary Combined policies The model can also tend to underestimate PM2.5 A combination of both the full application scenarios concentrations compared to measured data. These for the road transport and industrial combustion methodological issues are specifically discussed in the sectors results in the theoretical potential for: report with respect to regions such as the Italian Po Valley. • a further reduction of PM2.5 concentrations over Europe, in all countries, ranging between 0 and 5 μg/m3 (Figure ES.1); Conclusions • reduced tropospheric ozone concentrations in a large part of Europe, especially in the The past introduction of European air quality Mediterranean area, but some increases in policies limiting emissions of the main air pollutants highly industrialised and/or populated areas; from road transport and large industrial combustion • beneficial drops in the ozone impact indicators has significantly improved air quality and reduced SOMO35 and AOT40, except in England and air pollution-induced health effects that would Benelux countries, where values increase. otherwise have occurred. While this work focuses • net improvement in health impacts, as the health just on these two sectors, further improvements to impacts arising from lower PM2.5 exposure are Europes air quality would occur had all countries much greater than those from the increase in achieved their intended emission reduction tropospheric ozone exposure in certain areas, commitments between 1990 and 2010. • Europes ecosystems as a whole to be less exposed to ozone, with 45 % of forests are A comparison of current emissions with a theoretical exposed to ozone concentrations above critical situation in which the latest emission standards levels (down from 60 % at present), and for the road transport sector and BAT associated comparable reductions for crops. AELs for large combustion plants are fully applied, indicates there is significant scope to reduce Methodological notes emissions further and hence improve air quality in most regions. The evaluation of air quality in the study has been undertaken using the regional air quality model It can be noted, however, that the situation EURO-LOTOS, designed to address background concerning secondary air pollution by tropospheric air quality concentrations at a European scale. ozone precursors is more complicated. Due Therefore ozone and PM2.5 (NO2 and SO2) mapped to complex non-linearities in the atmospheric concentration fields and health impact assessments chemistry of ozone and its precursors (see Box 2.2 based on those fields are a result of or based on the of this report), lower emissions of specific ozone (simplified) rural background modelling. It should precursors may actually yield higher ozone thus be noted that human exposure to elevated concentrations in some areas. Targeted, effective air pollutant values can be much higher in urban actions to reduce ozone concentrations further at the and sub-urban areas than indicated by the model. regional and hemispheric scale are therefore needed.10 Impact of selected policy measures on Europes air quality
  11. 11. GlossaryGlossaryAEL Associated Emission Level (associated with BAT as set out in the BREFs)BAT Best available techniquesBREF BAT Reference DocumentCO2 Carbon dioxideCOPERT COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road TransportDPSIR Drivers, pressures, state, impacts, responses analysis frameworkEEA-32 countries EU-27 Member States, the four EFTA countries and TurkeyEFTA countries Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, SwitzerlandELV Emission Limit Value in the context of the LCP DirectiveETC/ACC European Topic Centre for Air and Climate ChangeEU-27 Member States Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.GAINS Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies emissions model developed by IIASAIIASA International Institute for Applied System Analysis, AustriaIPPC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (Directive)LCP Large Combustion Plant (Directive)NMVOC Non-methane volatile organic compoundsNOX Nitrogen oxidesPM Particulate matterPM10 Particulate matter with a diameter equal to or below 10 μmPM2.5 Fine particulate matter with a diameter equal to or below 2.5 μmSO2 Sulphur dioxideSOX Sulphur oxidesTEAM TNO Emissions Assessment ModelTNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific ResearchUNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Impact of selected policy measures on Europes air quality 11
  12. 12. Introduction Executive summary 1 Introduction Finally, national emission inventory experts are supporting and improving the quality of national encouraged to participate as expert reviewers inventories) are key to ensuring that high quality in the joint annual EMEP/EEA inventory review data are available for the European Unions own process. Such activities (aimed specifically at inventory. Figure ES.1 EU‑27 emission trends for the main air pollutants, particulate matter,selected air Figure 1.1 Emission trends for heavy Within the European Union (EU), the Sixth metals and POPs pollutants, EU-27 Environment Action Programme (6th EAP) running from 2002 to 2012 (EC, 2002), aims to achieve levels Emissions (Gg) Index (1990 (2000) = 100) of air quality that do not result in unacceptable 70 000 120 impacts on, and risks to, human health and the environment. Over recent decades, the European 60 000 100 Union has introduced and implemented various legal instruments to improve air quality by 50 000 80 controlling emissions of air pollutants harmful to 40 000 health and the environment. Such initiatives have 60 included for example, sectoral legislation in both the 30 000 road transport and industrial areas. 40 20 000 Despite these efforts, current air quality in Europe 20 10 000 still leads to a number of adverse impacts, including: 0 0 • effects on human health caused by exposure to 1990 1995 2000 2005 1990 1995 2000 2005 particulate matter and ozone (and to a lesser extent NO2,X SO2, CO,NMVOCand benzene); NO lead SOX NH3 NOX NMVOC SOX NH3 • eutrophication and to a lesser extent acidification CO PM 2.5 PM 10 CO PM 2.5 PM 10 of ecosystems; • damage to ecosystems and crops through Index (1990 = 100) Source: EEA, 2010. Index (1990 = 100) 120 exposure to ozone; 120 • damage to materials and cultural heritage 100 (e.g. monuments) due to exposure to acidifying 100 pollutants and ozone; • 80 impacts of heavy metals and persistent organic Figures 1.1 and 1.2 show clearly that for the selected 80 pollutants on human health and ecosystems. pollutants, generally significant emission reductions 60 have been achieved over time. Nevertheless, as 60 In terms of air quality, it is possible to identify three noted above, air quality in Europe still causes main groups of pollutants that contribute to many of 40 adverse impacts. The charts also show that 40 the respective impacts listed above, specifically: emissions arising from fuel combustion in energy 20 sectors (e.g. energy generation and industrial 20 • primary particulate matter and secondary sectors) are important contributors to emissions 0 particulate matter precursors, i.e. NO , SO , and of 0 particulate matter and acidifying pollutants, X 2 ammonia (NH3); 1990 1995 2000 2005 whereas road transport is a significant2005 1990 1995 2000 contributor to • ozone precursors, i.e. NMVOC, NOX, methane tropospheric ozone precursor emissions. (CH4) and CO; PCDD/F Total PAH HCB HCH Pb Cd Hg • acidifying pollutants, i.e. NOX, SO2, and NH3. It is of course no coincidence that a number of past PCB European emission abatement policies have been The pollutants contribute to different extents to specifically directed towards reducing emissions each of these issues.LRTAP Convention are formally requested to report emissions oftransport matter (PM) combustion plant Note: Parties to the Figures 1.1 and 1.2 illustrate the from the road particulate and large only for the year 2000 emissionand onwards. Hence emission trends for these years only are shown. A description of the general air pollutant trends made by selected pollutants since sectors. 1990, and the contribution thatbetween years 1998 and 1999 ispolicy a significant reduction reported by the United Kingdom. The drop in HCB emissions different sectors due to framework within Europe is provided in make to emissions of these pollutants. Section 1.2 of the present chapter.12 Impact of selected policy measures on Europes air quality
  13. 13. Executive summary Executive summary Introduction The contribution made by by sector group ES.2 Share of EU‑27 emissions per poll Figure2by sector group emissions per pollutant different sectors to total emissions in 2008, EU-27 Figure 1.2 Share of EU‑27 SOX NOX NM NOX NMVOC SOX Industrial Solvent and Energy processes Industrial Agriculture Solvent and griculture exploration product use Energy processes 2 % 2 % 5 % 0% exploration product use Energy Waste Energy Waste Solvent and 0 % Waste ndand production Non-road Agriculture 5 % exploration Agriculture 1 % se 10 Waste % exploration Agriculture 0 1% % and production product use Non-road 0% Agricultureproduction and 0% and transport production 6 % 10 % transport % 0 0 % 20 % 6 % 20 4% % Waste Energy use 0 % 4 % Waste in industry Road Energy use Industrial 0 % transport in industry Road processes 2 % 0 % 2 % Executive summary transport 2 % 0 % Commercial, institutional Commercial, Non-road Commercial, institutional transport and institutional Commercial, Energy use households Energy use and 7 % institutional and households in industry 14 % in industry households and 14 % 14 % Energy 14 % households Solvent and 11 % Solvent and Energy exploration 11 % product use Road product use and exploration 41 % Road transport Energy use 41 % production transport and Commercial, oad 16 % Commercial, industry in Energy use Road production institutional Industria institutional 16 % Industrial % 64 Non-road 16 % in industry processe ort transport 64 % and householdsof EU‑27 emissions per pollutant by sector group%t and households processes transport 8 % 41 %% 16 14 % 8 % 14 % 2 % PM10 NH NH3 NMVOC PM2.5 SOX PM 3 Commercial, 10 mercial, Industrial Solvent and institutional Road Energy Road tutional Energy Energy Agriculture WasteAgriculture exploration Energy processes Energy use use and product transport Non-roadEnergy 4 % Waste exploration and transport Non-road Energy Agriculture Waste % 2 % 4 exploration Waste and exploration5 % in industry households 0% Waste 2 % transport exploration and 2 % transport 3 % seholds exploration Agriculture 0 12 % % 1 % 3 and production and % production Non-road 0 % 02 % Agriculture Agriculture % 0 and % Solvent and production % and production Solvent and 10 % 12 % production Industrial 6 % 6 % 7 % productiontransport Energy 0 % product use 20 % Industrial product use 4 % Waste 7 % processes processes Solvent and 1 % Energy use 6 % exploration 0 % 2 % 1 % 2 % in industry Road and Solvent and Energy use product use Energy use transport production Solvent use in industry 1 % 2 % in industry Energy use product use Energy and Industrial Solvent and Industrial 11 % product use 10 % in industry%0 0 1% Waste % product use in industry processes processes Commercial, 11 % 2 % 0 % 10 % 13 % 0 % 13 % institutional Industrial Commercial, Energy use processes and institutional Industrial 17 % households and processes Non-road in industry Non-road transport 14 % 14 % households 17 % Commercial, Solvent and transport Commercial, 11 % Agriculture Energy 3 % product use 3 % Commercial, exploration Commercial, institutional Non-road institutional Road 94 % and 41 % and institutional Non-road and institutional Commercial, transport transport and Energy use production and Road households institutional 2 % Road Industrial Road households Non-road 16 % transport transport transport transport 35 % households in industry 2 % Road % 64 households and44households % processes transport 16 % 15 % 8 14 % 15 2 % % % 44 % transport 35 % 14 % 14 % Cd CO CO PM2.5 Pb PM10 Cd Energy Solvent and Agriculture Source: EEA, 2010. Energy Agriculture Energy lture Energy 0 % Waste Energy Solvent and 2 % Agriculture Energy Agriculture Was% exploration product use Agriculture exploration Waste Solvent and 0 % Waste Waste exploration 0 % d Agriculture and production exploration exploration Waste and ort Non-road exploration 0 % 02 % % Energy 3 % product use product use Waste Energy 2 % 2 % and 3 % 2 % and 4 % Waste 15 % exploration and 0 % and production exploration production Solvent and% production transport Industrial production Solvent and 3 % and Agriculture production 20 %% and 15 % product use 7 % %0 product use Industrial 3 % 3 processes Solvent and % production 7 % 12 % Industrial processes production 0 % Industrial processes Objectives 0 % product % 16 1.1 Non-road use 1 % 6 % combustion% 16 plant sectors have had on both the Industrial processes 10 % 7 % Energy use 2 % transport Energy use Industrial Solvent and Non-road air pollutant emissions anduse magnitude of Energy the processes in industry in 3 % industry processes Energy use productuse Energy use transport Energy use in industry 32 % Solvent and Industrial 37 % Following the introduction and implementation in industry product use 13 % 32 % in industry 1 % subsequent levels of air quality in Europe. This has Non-road 3 % in industry 13 % processes 11 % 37 % transport 10 % 0 % of legislation for the road transport and large 13Road % been done by looking at two questions: 2 % Road Non-road transport Non-road transport Industrial transport combustion plant sectors, it can take a significant processes 2 % transport 2 % Energy use 2 % Commercial, Energy use 2 % Non-road Commercial, in industry 17 % Commercial, period Commercial, of time before efforts to reduce or control transport institutional 33 % • how has the introduction of the in industry selected institutional institutional Commercial, Road Commercial, and 33 % Road and % 3 emissions are fully realised, and hence benefitsinstitutional institutional and Road Commercial, EU legislative instruments affected air pollution households and households households households transport institutional and Commercial, transport transport institutional and householdsNon-road 34 % institutional 34 % 8 % 11 % in terms of air quality% observed. There can be11 % 34 % % 29 Road8 are and transport in Europe over the past decades? households and households Road% 29 households a number of reasons for this. For both the road transport 15 % Total PAHs 44 % 2 %• what is the theoretical potential in Europe to transport Hg % 35 PC ure Hg transport and industrial combustionEnergy Agriculture WasteWaste sectors, PCDD/F exploration reduce air pollution further in the future under 14 Agriculture Total PAHs % Agriculture 0 % Energy Waste Energy 9 % 19 % exploration equipment has a relatively longOther production Energy technical and existing 9 % legislation (i.e. if all vehicles in Europe 3 % 19 %Pb and Cd Waste Waste exploration Other Waste Solvent and 3 % 6 % and production 1 % 4 % exploration and 5 % Energy 6 % exploration Solvent and and productioneconomic lifetime. This leads to 1 %Energy time lags Agriculture product use Agriculture Waste significant and production Agricultureuse exploration Solvent product use product and Solvent Waste 0 %% 0 Energy were to conform to the latest Euro4standards, exploration % Energy Agriculture Energy %0 5 % product use 2 % and between 1 % introduction of say, emission use the exploration and 2 %% 3 Energy control 0 % and and all % 2 % and facilities wereproduction 1 combustion 15 % production explorationto limit production Solvent Energy use and production production Industrial and Energy use in industry 3 % in industry measures % use product cannot or are not retro-fitted), and (that Industrial 37 0 % 76 % % Industrial processes to the Associated Emission Levels Energy use emissions processes Industrial 37 % in industry processes 21 % reaching a complete level of implementation. One in industry 19 % 6 % 21 % % cited in the LCP BREF)? 16 processes Solvent and 14 % Solvent and product use Industrial Non-road Non-road14 % Energy use therefore often expect that policies already in can processes product use Energy use 1 % in industry 1 % transport transport in industry 13 % place will still lead to lower emissions and% 32 % Non-road 37 improved % 1.2 Relevant European air pollutant Industrial 3 6 % transport Non-road air quality% the future as the stock of older 0 in Non-road Industrial processes Commercial, Road policy frameworks transport Road processes institutional transport transport 0 % Commercial, 19 % Commercial,equipment is steadily % transport 19 replaced. institutional institutional Commercial, 2 % Road and households Commercial, 2 % 0 % EnergyEnergy use use and households and institutional householdsEnergy use 54 % institutional1.2.1 National emission industry Commercial,in ceilings Road in industry ercial, transport Commercial, and households 54 % Non-road Road % in industry tional30 and A main Road 9 % of this study is toinstitutional Road Commercial, institutional transport 33 % 24 % seholdshouseholds 24 % objective Non-road transport transport analyse and 30 % institutional and and households 9 % transport 1 % transport 1 % transport 1 and households % households the EU, the% 8 % 34 % quantify the effects that selected past policy 8 % 1 % 11 % Within National Emission Ceilings 29 % measures in the road transport and large PCBs (NEC) Directive (EC, 2001b) imposes ceilings Energy HCBgy HCB PCDD/F HCH Total PAHs exploration PCBs tion Agriculture and production Energy Solvent anduction Waste SolventEnergy and Waste Energy Energy Commercial, exploration use product use Energy use Commercial, Other product use Energy 19 % exploration 9 % 3 % in industry institutional and in industry institutional and 1 % Waste exploration and production 3 % exploration and production 1 % 1 % Waste 4 % % 3 and productionhouseholds 3 % households 16 % 12 %production and Solvent and Waste 7 % Energy Agriculture 2 %16 % 12 % 2 % 7 % % Impactproduct use 5 Energy use of1selected policy measures on Europes air use Energy quality 13 exploration Agriculture in industry % Road and production 0 % Energy use in industry Road Energy % 3 use Agriculture in industry transport 37 % 3 % transport Industrial 10 % 0 %
  14. 14. Introduction (or limits) that must be met by 2010 for emissions 1.2.2 Road transport sector of four key air pollutants (NOX, SO2, NMVOC and NH3) that harm human health and the environment. The European Union has been committed over Internationally, the issue of air pollution emissions the past 20 years to developing and implementing is also addressed by the United Nations Economic policies aimed at a cleaner European vehicle fleet Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention in terms of air pollutant emissions. In the 1970s and on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (the 1980s the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) LRTAP Convention) and its protocols (UNECE, developed a set of phased standards to reduce air 1979). The Gothenburg multi-pollutant Protocol to pollutant emissions from the automotive sector. The the LRTAP Convention (UNECE, 1999) also contains ECE 15/00-01, ECE 15/02, ECE 15/03 and ECE 15/04 2010 national emission ceilings for those countries regulations were in force in 1969–1970, 1971–1975, that have ratified the protocol. For the EU Member 1976–1983 and 1984–1987, respectively and were States, these ceilings are either equal to or less solely targeted at gasoline-powered passenger cars ambitious than those in the NEC Directive. Both and their related pollutants. Diesel vehicles, two- the NEC Directive and Gothenburg Protocol are wheelers and heavy duty vehicles were not covered. currently under review. Directly following and building upon these The overall goals of bringing emissions down below regulations, the European Commission developed the agreed ceilings are supported by sector-specific a series of requirements (the European Vehicle emission reduction measures. Three important Emission Standards, a.k.a. Euro standards,(4) pieces of legislation in this respect are: defining limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold within the EU. Non-compliant vehicles cannot • Euro standards for road vehicles (e.g. EC, 2007); be sold in the EU. New standards do not apply to • The EU Large Combustion Plant (LCP) Directive vehicles already on the road. (EC, 2001a); • The EU Integrated Pollution Prevention and Retrofitting of certain emission abatement Control (IPPC) Directive (EC, 1996). technologies can, however, occur at a later stage of the implementation of a standard, years after the Together, these measures tackle many of the most applicable standard first came into force (i.e. phased important contributing sources to the issues of application). For instance Euro 5 requires that acidification, tropospheric ozone and particulate particle filters be retro-fitted on existing diesel matter formation. passenger cars and light duty vehicles sold before Table 1.1 Introduction dates (*) of the Euro emission standards for road vehicles Vehicle category Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 Passenger cars Jul 1992 Jan 1996 Jan 2000 Jan 2005 Sep 2008 Sep 2013 Light commercial Oct 1993 Jan 1996 (gasoline, Jan 2000 Jan 2005 Sep 2009 Sep 2014 vehicles (N1-I) LPG) 1998 (diesel) (diesel only) Light commercial Oct 1993 Jan 1996 (gasoline, Jan 2001 Jan 2006 Sep 2009 Sep 2015 vehicles (N1-II & III) LPG) 1998 (diesel) (diesel only) Trucks and buses 1992 1995 1999 2005 2007 Motorcycles 2000 2004 2007 Mopeds 2000 2004 2007 Note: (*) All vehicles need to meet the standards a year after the given date. The dates from which Euro standards apply simply provide a guide to what the emissions standards a vehicle will have, depending upon when it was manufactured. Exceptions exist for some vehicles, since some vehicle models met standards earlier than they were legally required to, and a few low production models are given extensions for compliance. (4) Euro standards for passenger cars and light duty vehicles (vans) are commonly denoted with Arabic numerals (i.e. Euro 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, …) while those for heavy duty vehicles and two-wheelers are denoted with Roman numerals (i.e. Euro I, II, III, IV, V, VI, …).14 Impact of selected policy measures on Europes air quality

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