THE BIRTH OF A NEW NATION 1. Tran Thi Hanh 2. Tran Thi Phuong 3. Nguyen Thu Hang 4. Le Thi Vien 5. Tran Thi Thanh H1.flv
1. The first colony2. New England colonies3. The Middle colonies4. The Southern colonies
In 1606, King James I gave a charterto build colony in Virginia. John Smith and 144 men in 3 shipsleft England to North America. King Jame I 3 ships : the Discovery, the Godspeed and the Susan Constant John Smith
In 1612, John Smith published the map of Virginia
In 1620, about 40 pilgrims (saint) and 62 other English(strangers) colonist sailed to the New England on the Mayflower
Because of tossing in the stormy Atlantic,the Pilgrims decided not to arrive Virginiaas they had planed, but Cape Cod Bay.
The Pilgrims gave the name Plymouth to the place where they finally decided to settle. Plymouth was found as the second permanent settlement in North America and the 1st in New England Plymouth was a part of Massachusetts
In 1630, John Winthrop led the Puritans toMassachusetts Bay in the coast of NewEngland. John Winthrop
Boston wasthe colony’s 1stsettlement. John Winthropwas elected the 1stgovernor byPuritan men.
Connecticut Connecticut wasfounded in 1636 byThomas Hooker. They had freedom of religion.
13 Colonies New England Colonies The Middle Colonies The Southern Colonies
Life in the 13 colonies Colonial agriculture, forestry, and fishery Colonial food and clothes Colonial religion Colonial education Colonial trade
Colonial agriculture, forestry, and fishery New England coloniesLong & cold winter, and rocky soil: difficult to grow food→ short growing seasonSubsistence farming: farmers produced enough food for the family’s own needs.Cutting down trees to build houses, ships, etc…Fishing, hunting whales and other animals
Colonial agriculture, forestry, and fishery Middle coloniesMild climate, rich soil, long deep rivers→ long growing season.Farmer produced more food: grain and meat to feed themselves & to exportBreadbasket colonies: produced so much grain.
Colonial agriculture, forestry, and fishery Southern coloniesWarmer weather than the others, mild winters.Large area of flat with very rich soil →nearly grow crops throughout the year.3 cash crops: tobaco, rice, & indigo
Colonial food & clothesWhat did they eat? What did they wear?
What did theyeat?Ate lots of grain,seafood(lobsters,clams…)animals(rabbits,squirrels, bears,deers…)Drank more than we donow: water, milk, cideror tea
. Colonial religion New England colonists were Puritans and they were very strict about worshiping in church. The Middle colonists were a mixture of religion: Quakers, Catholics, and Jews. The Southern colonies also had a mixture of religions including Baptist and Anglicans
Colonial education Parents wanted their children to learn how to read and write the Bible. Some children went to school and some didn‘t. The schools had only one room and the children had to sit on hard benches. One teacher taught all of the children of every grade level. The children learned from hornbooks. The first school was a Dame School. Girls did not go to school very long. They should know how to care for the house, spin and cook.
Colonial trade They sold what they produced and bought what they did not produce. Goods came from two main sourses: Europe and Africa. This came to be known as ‘triangular- trade’. Slavers who were brought from Africa were viewed as goods or properties, not human beings.
Conclusion The diversity of the 13 colonies offered a great deal of economic possibilities to the British Empire. It would also give the 13 colonies the wealth needed to start becoming a country.
1. REASONS LEAD TO THE WAR2. THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS (1774)3. THE REVOLUTION BEGINS (1775)4. THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (1776)5. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION (1776-1783)
REASONS LEAD TO THE WARThe Seven Years’ War 1756-1763 The Treaty of Paris in 1763
A map of America after the Treaty of Paris Yellow : Spanish territory. Blue : French territory. Pink : British territory. Peach :British territory under the control of the Hudson Bay Company
The financial problems of British after the Seven Years’ War
The Changes In British Colonial Policy After1763 “No Taxation without Representation”
SUGAR ACT 1764 Cut the duty in half (from 6 to 3 per gallon) Vs New duties on textiles, wine, coffee and Sugar
In the eyes of the colonists, Sugar Act would take away their basic right as British citizens.
STAMPT ACT 1765 Placed tax on all printed material in the colonies
The Battles of Bunker Hill (17 June 1775) Continental Army British Army
1776 (July 4th): Continental Congressadopted the Declaration of Independence. Drafting the Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence
Drafting a Declaration The committee included Thomas Jefferson,Benjamin Frankin, John Adams Thomas Jefferson was selected to write thedocument. The final draft of Declaration was adopted onJuly 4, 1776.
Drafting the Declaration of Independence: Thomas Jefferson ( 1743- 1826)Thomas Jefferson, John Adams,Benjamin Frankin
The declaration of Independence has four majorsections: The The final introduction The next two section states that sections list proclaims the Government the British existence of exists to Abuses the new protect basic country. human rights
The Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence ( July 4 1776)
1781: Victory at Yorktown, Virginia.Gathering of forces:Three groups:• Wayne’s troops• Washington’s and Rochambeau’s mainAmerican – French Army• The French feet under Admiral De Grassewould meet at Yorktown
The siege of Yorktown. October 19, Cornwallis wassurrendered. The Patriots had wonthe Battle of Yorktown. The victorywould guarantee American’sindependence. The Battle of Yorktown was thelast major Battle of the Revolution.
The victory at Yorktown, Cornwallis was surrendered
1783:The Treaty of Paris The final Treaty of Paris was signed onSeptember, 1783. The Treaty of Paris was a triumph for theAmerican Great Britain recognized the US as anindependence nation.Terms of the Treaty: The territory of the new nation The British promised to withdraw all theirtroops from this expanded American territory.They also agreed to give American the right tofish in the Coast of Canada. The US agreed that British merchants couldcollect debts owned by American. British troops left New York City in lateNovember 1783. The war had truly ended.
1787 – 1789: Constitution written and ratified1787: Delegates fromthe states workedtogether to creat adocument. It was theConstitution of UnitedStates.In May 1787, thedelegates began arrivingin Philadelphia for themeeting. 55 delegatesbecame. The Constitution of 1787
The Constitutional ConventionGeorge Washington waselected to preside overthe Convention.• James Madison becameas the “Father of theConstitution”.• Madison wrote theVirginia plan. James Madison (1751 – 1836)
The siege of Yorktown. October 19, Cornwalliswas surrendered. ThePatriots had won the Battleof Yorktown. The victorywould guaranteeAmerican’s independence. The Battle of Yorktownwas the last major Battle ofthe Revolution. James Madison (1751 – 1836)
The Legislative branch ( Congress): To make the nation’s laws and to control •government spending. • Congress has two houses, the House of Representative and Senate. The House: 435 representatives, serve 2 – year terms. The Senate:100 Senators, serve 6 -year terms.
The Executive branch(the President and the federal agencies) • The Executive includes the President, the vice President, and various executive offices, departments, agencies. • The Executive branch carries out the laws that Congress passes.
The Judicial branch (the federal courts, Supremecourt) • That would decide the meaning of laws, explain laws. • The Supreme Court: the highest court in the federal court system. • Lower federal court: District courts ( 91 district court in the nation. Appeals court ( 14 appeals court in the U.S)
The Bill of Rights and Amendment• The Bill of Rights becamepart of the Constitution in1791.• The new state constitutionsincluded sections listingrights of individuals.• Including freedom ofspeech, freedom of the press,freedom of assembly,freedom of religion, and therights to trial by jury.
American PresidentGeorge Washington (1732–1799)
1789 – 1797: George Washington became the first U.SPresident. • On April 30, 1789, Washington became the first president of the United States, John Adams became vice president. George Washington ( 1732 -1799)
When was GeorgeWashington born? in 1732Date of marriage & wifesname ? married with MarthaDandridge Custis in 1759
How he got involved in theindependence effort? resistance against Great Britainwas in 1769 introduced a bill in the House ofBurgesses calling for a boycott of allBritish goods written by George[Boycott: refuse to have social relationswith aperson or country]
Did he see militaryaction during the war? the Commander of theContinental ForcesWhich party was he in? never formally joined aparty the informal figureheadof the Federalist party [figurehead: nominalleader]
Accomplishments of George Washington while in office? · Averted war with France or Britain neutrality toward conflicts between other nations · Stopped the first uprising against Federal government, known as the Whiskey Rebellion, in 1794. · Established the American precedent of a non-violent transfer of power to new administrations
George Washington Facts –the end of his lifeDate and age of retirement of his life· on March 1797, at the age of 64· take command of all United States armies in1798 participated in the planning for a possible warwith France, but the war never occurred.George Washingtons death in 1799 at age 67.Where was George Washington buried? at his home, Mount Vernon, near Alexandria,Virginia.