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adjective phrase

  1. 1. GROUP PRESENTATION Adjective Phrases
  2. 2. GROUP 03 <ul><li>Phạm Thị Thu Trang- structure </li></ul><ul><li>Trần Thị Thanh- Complementary adj </li></ul><ul><li>Nguyễn Thị Dịu- Noun pre modifier & Cs </li></ul><ul><li>Nguyễn Thị Hà- Postpositive & NP head </li></ul><ul><li>Phạm Thị Trang- Verbless Adj clause & </li></ul><ul><li>Exclamatory </li></ul><ul><li>Trần Thị Phương- The head </li></ul>
  3. 3. CONTENT Adjective phrase Structure The head Syntactic functions
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION What are Adjectives and the Adjective phrases? An adjective may be a word or group word with the same meaning Adjective phrases are defined as phrases in which an adjective functions as the head of the phras e Example s : 1. Susan is clever 2. The doctor is very late 3. My sister is fond of animals
  5. 5. A. STRUCTURE
  6. 6. ♦♦♦ Adverb modifier ( or premodification): modifying, describing or qualifying constituents which precede the head ♦♦♦ The head: which is an Adj or participle serving as the focus of the Phrase ♦♦♦ Cadj ( post modification): contituent which follows head and completes the meaning implied by the head
  8. 8. EXAMPLES OF THE ADJ ECTIVE PHRASE S <ul><li>1 ) Premodifier </li></ul><ul><li>Partly very , so , extremely , too </li></ul><ul><li>=> Form is Adverb and Adverb Phrase </li></ul><ul><li>2) Head </li></ul><ul><li>Happy , excited , sweet , worry , cloudy </li></ul><ul><li>=> Form is Adjective </li></ul><ul><li>3) Postmodifier </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed inspirit for his age tobe true enough to me </li></ul><ul><li>Form is Adverb , Prepositional Phrase , Infinitive Clause </li></ul>
  9. 9. Complementation Infinitive phrase That clause _ing clause _PP clause
  10. 10. ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT <ul><li>An adjective complement is a clause or phrase that adds to the meaning of an adjective or modifies it. The adjective complement always follows the adjective it complements and it is a noun clause or a prepositional phrase </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>1)_ing clause : verb in adj clause shows V_ing </li></ul><ul><li>Ex1: When summer comes, students are busy preparing for the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex2: “Harry Porter” story is worth reading </li></ul><ul><li>2) _PP clause : verb in adj clause is a prepositional phrase (pp) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex1: We were shocked by the news. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex2:The child was eager for Christmas to arrive. </li></ul>ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT
  12. 12. <ul><li>3) to Vinf_ clause : Adj clause has the Verb be + adj + inf complement </li></ul><ul><li>Ex1: Retailers seem eager to promote sales. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex2: I was surprised to see him doing that. </li></ul><ul><li>4) That clause : adj + that clause, when you want to comment a fact </li></ul><ul><li>Ex1:It seems sad that the blue whale is becoming extinct. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex2: It is important that she is punctual. </li></ul>ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT
  14. 14. SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS Syntactic functions Complement subject postpositive NP head Verbless adj clause Exclamatory adj sentence Noun pre-modifier
  15. 15. ♦ Noun pre-modifier • adjectives are placed before nouns • adjectives are attributive when they premodify nouns * eg : a new car AdjP NP     * eg :this beautiful girl AdjP NP Syntactic Function of Adjectives
  16. 16. Syntactic Function of Adjectives ♦ Subject complement • S + to be/ linking verbs + adj ( Cs) Eg: the book is impressive Np Cs what he said is wrong Np Cs ♦ the function of adjectives are predicative
  17. 17. POSTPOSITIVE 1. DEFINITION: An adjective is postpositive when it comes after the noun it modifies
  18. 18. CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE <ul><li>1.Reduced as relative clause </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: 1.He is a man greedy of flame </li></ul><ul><li>2.A room full of people </li></ul><ul><li>2.Indefinite pronouns ending in : _body ; _one; _thing ; _where </li></ul><ul><li>Eg : There is nothing special </li></ul>
  19. 19. CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE <ul><li>3.A few adjective change meaning when they are after noun phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Comon : elect; proper </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: the present elect the City of London proper </li></ul><ul><li>4.In some nouns (legal), adjective are compulsory after the noun </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: attorney general , body politic , court martial ,heir apparent , notary public , postmaster general </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>5 .A few a-adjective : </li></ul><ul><li>a blaze; a fload; a fraid; a ghast; a lert; a like; a live; a sleep; a verse; a wake; aware; a bsent; aplenty </li></ul><ul><li>Some others :Present; concerned; involved; galore;   Unspoken , immemorial; payable </li></ul><ul><li>6 .some postposed adjective _able; _ible retain the basic meaning </li></ul>CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE
  21. 21. <ul><li>7.Noun phrases are indefinite, not specific </li></ul><ul><li>Eg:A man usually intelligent will sometimes stupid </li></ul><ul><li>Polices angry do not arrest a thief </li></ul><ul><li>If adjective phrases are complements, the whole of an adjective must be after noun phrase </li></ul><ul><li>The boys easiest to teach were in my class (right) </li></ul><ul><li>The easiest to teach boys were in my class (correct) </li></ul>CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE
  22. 22. 8.Superlative construction Eg: the smallest quantity imaginable The lowest price possible The best hotel valuable 9. Measures: a river two hundred miles long a road fifty feet wide a man eighty-five years old a bulding ten storeys high CASES OF POSTPOSITIVE
  23. 23. 10.Some idioms : The theatre royal The princess royal For time immemorial By all means possible Note: an adjective modified by enough , too, so the modified adjectives can not be separated from its complement
  24. 24. HEAD OF NOUN PHRASE <ul><li>Most commonly,such adjective personal reference: </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: The rich built many house for the poor </li></ul><ul><li>The rich = rich people </li></ul><ul><li>The poor = poor people </li></ul><ul><li>The extremely old need a great deal of attention </li></ul><ul><li>the extremely old = extremely old people </li></ul><ul><li>note :adjectives functioning as noun phrase heads generally require a definite determiner if they are conjoined </li></ul>
  25. 25. HEAD OF NOUN PHRASE Denoting nationalities Eg: You British and you French ought to be allies Superlatives Eg: The lastest is that he is going to run for election
  26. 26. HEAD OF NOUN PHRASE Singular concord Some adjectives can function as noun-phrase Heads when they have abstract reference adverbs superlatives
  27. 27. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE <ul><li> What is verbless clause? ->Verbless clauses are clauses in which the verb (usually a form of to be) and sometimes other elements have been omitted or deleted. </li></ul><ul><li> Eg1: John believes the prisoner innocent. </li></ul><ul><li>~ John believes the prisoner to be innocent. </li></ul><ul><li> Eg2: Nice to see you ~ It’s nice to see you. </li></ul>
  28. 28. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE <ul><li>I) An adjective ( alone or as head of an adjective phrase) can function as verbless clause. The clause is mobile, though it usually precedes or follows the subject of the superordinate clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg3: ( By then) nervous , the man opened the letter. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbless Clause Superordinate Clause </li></ul><ul><li>The man, (by then) nervous, opened the letter. </li></ul><ul><li>The man opened the letter, (by then) nervous. </li></ul>
  29. 29. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE II) THE IMPLIED SUBJECT OF THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE <ul><li> To be usually the subject of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li> Eg 4. I see the boy , who is blind. </li></ul><ul><li>≈ The boy whom I see is blind. </li></ul><ul><li>But we do not have: I see the boy , blind. </li></ul><ul><li> Can be other than the subject of the sentence if the </li></ul><ul><li>clause contains additional clause constituents. </li></ul><ul><li> Eg 5. She glanced with disgust at the car , quiet (now) in her daughter‘s lap. </li></ul>
  30. 30. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE II) THE IMPLIED SUBJECT OF THE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE <ul><li> Can be the whole of the superordinate clause. </li></ul><ul><li> Eg 6 . Stranger , it was she who initiated divorce proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>≈ That it was she who initiated divorce </li></ul><ul><li>proceedings is strange . </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li> We can use a corresponding adverb to replace the </li></ul><ul><li>adjective in this case, as with strangely for strange. </li></ul><ul><li>Strangely , it was she who initiated divorce proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li> The adjective refers to the subject without explicit reference to the action, and unless otherwise stated, the characterization is only temporary in its application. </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous, the man opened the letter. ( connected with the action) </li></ul><ul><li>Always nervous, the man opened the letter . ( not connected with the action, the man’s nervousness becomes a permanent characteristic) </li></ul>
  32. 32. CONTIGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE <ul><li>1. WHAT IS CONTINGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE? </li></ul><ul><li>A contingent adjective clause expresses the circumstance or condition under which what is said in the superordinate clause applies. A subordinator is often present but can be omitted. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg 7 : Enthusiastic , they make good students </li></ul><ul><li>(=When enthusiastic,…) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg 8: When ripe , these apples are sweet. </li></ul>subordinator subordinator
  33. 33. <ul><li>2. THE IMPLIED SUBJECT OF THE CONTIGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE IS NORMALLY THE SUBJECT OF THE SUPERORDINATE CLAUSE, BUT IT CAN ALSO BE THE OBJECT. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g 9: We can drink it hot </li></ul><ul><li>E.g 10: You must eat it when fresh </li></ul><ul><li>3. THE IMPLIED SUBJECT CAN BE THE WHOLE OF THE SUPERORDINATE CLAUSE. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g 11: If ( it is) possible, the dog should be washed every day. </li></ul>CONTIGENT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
  34. 34. EXCLAMATORY ADJECTIVE SENTENCE <ul><li>An adjective as head of an adjective phrase or as its sole realization can be an exclamation: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g 12: How good of you! </li></ul><ul><li>E.g 13: How wonderful! </li></ul><ul><li>E.g 14: Excellent! </li></ul><ul><li>E.g 15: Good! </li></ul>
  35. 35. C. THE HEAD
  36. 36. Syntactic classification of adjs
  37. 37. CENTRAL <ul><li> central = both attributive and predicative </li></ul><ul><li>eg: a (1) lazy student-> the student is (2) lazy </li></ul><ul><li>attributive predicative </li></ul><ul><li>the (1) blue sea -> the sea is (2) blue </li></ul><ul><li>attributive predicative </li></ul><ul><li>note: (1) attributive position </li></ul><ul><li>(2) predicative position </li></ul>
  38. 38. ATTRIBUTIVE ONLY <ul><li> Adjectives which are restricted to attributive position do not characterize the referent of the noun directly </li></ul><ul><li>eg.  A small businessman </li></ul><ul><li>-> a businessman whose business is small </li></ul><ul><li>-> not a businessman is small </li></ul><ul><li> Note: </li></ul><ul><li>words with strongly emotive value: </li></ul><ul><li> poor man, my dear lady, wretched lady… </li></ul>
  39. 39. ATTRIBUTIVE ONLY <ul><li>Characterize the referent of the noun directly </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: </li></ul><ul><li>Distant hills </li></ul><ul><li>a complete chapter </li></ul><ul><li>a heavy bag </li></ul><ul><li>a social survey </li></ul><ul><li>an old man </li></ul><ul><li>Do not characterize the referent of the noun directly </li></ul><ul><li>Distant relatives </li></ul><ul><li>a complete idiot </li></ul><ul><li>a heavy smoker </li></ul><ul><li>A social animal </li></ul><ul><li>an old friend </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent adjs </li></ul><ul><li>Non-inherent adjs </li></ul>
  41. 41. INTENSIFYING ADJECTIVES  Emphasizers:  have a general heightening effect on the noun and convey speaker’s attitude toward the referent eg. Utter despair, pure bliss, a real hero, a certain winner…  Amplifiers:  denote the upper extreme of the scale  are central(inherent) eg. A complete victory ->the victory was complete  are attributive only(non-inherent) eg. A complete idiot ( not the idiot is complete )  Notes: mere, sheer, utter (always attributive only)
  42. 42. LIMITER ADJECTIVES <ul><li> Particularize the reference of the noun </li></ul><ul><li>eg. the main topic, the only person, the precise reason , etc…. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: a certain person </li></ul><ul><li>a limiter -> a particular person </li></ul><ul><li>a certain winner </li></ul><ul><li>an intensifier-> a sure winner </li></ul>
  43. 43. RELATED TO ADVERBIALS <ul><li> adjs that are attributive only can be related to adverbials. </li></ul><ul><li>eg. my former friend ~ formerly my friend </li></ul><ul><li> adjs premodify agentive nouns  have a relationship to the verb base </li></ul><ul><li>eg. a hard worker ~ a worker who works hard . </li></ul><ul><li> the implied process can be associated with an inanimate object. </li></ul><ul><li>eg. a fast car ~ a car that one can drive fast </li></ul>
  44. 44. DENOMINAL ADJECTIVES <ul><li> are derived from nouns and attributive only </li></ul><ul><li>eg. A mathematical puzzle (a puzzle based on mathematics ) </li></ul><ul><li>a criminal law (a law concerning crime) </li></ul><ul><li> Note: </li></ul><ul><li> a criminal law ~ a law seems criminal </li></ul><ul><li>-> a central adjective </li></ul><ul><li> denominal # nominal adjs </li></ul><ul><li>eg. The French are noted for their wines. </li></ul><ul><li>The French people are noted for their wines. </li></ul>
  45. 45. PREDICATIVE ONLY <ul><li>Eg. Children were asleep . (not asleep children) </li></ul><ul><li>S V Cs </li></ul><ul><li> Adjectives which are restricted to predicative position refer to condition rather than to characterize </li></ul><ul><li> Some group of adjs must take complementation: afraid(that, of, about); fond(of); conscious(that, of) etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Jean is keen on maths . </li></ul><ul><li>S V Cs </li></ul>
  46. 46. PREDICATIVE ONLY <ul><li> Some of the common predicative only adjectives in English are: </li></ul><ul><li>ablaze alive unaware </li></ul><ul><li>abreast alone </li></ul><ul><li>afire aloof </li></ul><ul><li>afraid ashamed </li></ul><ul><li>aghast asleep </li></ul><ul><li>aglow awake </li></ul><ul><li>alert aware </li></ul><ul><li>alike fond </li></ul>
  47. 47. Thank you for your attention!