Trainingportal Competence Days 2013 - Eric Lofquist - Handelshøyskolen BI

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Trainingportal Competence Days 2013 - Eric Lofquist - Handelshøyskolen BI

  1. 1. How can we achieve real HSEimprovement in high risk industries?Training Portal Competence DaysQuality Airport Hotel Stavanger24 April 2013
  2. 2. Agenda• Background• Organizational process model• Socio-technical systems• Complexity and dynamic-adaptive behavior• Single vs. double loop learning• The leadership’s role in safety improvement
  3. 3. Eric Arne Lofquist PhDeric.lofquist@bi.no• Second Generation Norwegian from St. Simons Island,Georgia• Associate Professor BI Norwegian Business School• Health, Safety and Environment (HMS)• Strategic Management• Human Resource Management (HRM)• Adjunct Professor Norwegian School of Economics• International Strategy• Strategic Crisis Management• Research focus – Change leadership in high-risk industries
  4. 4. Eric Arne Lofquist PhDeric.lofquist@bi.no•Relevant educational background• US Navy Flight School – Pensacola, Florida• US Naval Post-Graduate School in Industrial Safety• PhD in Strategy and Leadership from the Norwegian School ofEconomics (NHH) – The affects of organizational change onsafety in Avinor
  5. 5. Eric Arne Lofquist PhDeric.lofquist@bi.no• In a former life• 28-years as US Naval Officer• 15-years flying F-14 “Tomcats” from US Navyaircraft carriers around the world (cold war)• 13-years as a senior military leader - includingleading a large military industrial complex• 3-years as Director/CEO in Norwegian industry• Powersim AS• Nutec Crisis Management
  6. 6. USS Nimitz CVN-68
  7. 7. Historical view of safety in off-shore sectorTechnology, technical engineeringSafety Management SystemsOrganizational BehaviorNumber ofaccidentsTrend inpractice over timePre-19601960s-1970s1980’s +
  8. 8. LeadershipStrategyLeadership theoriesHSE managementand domumentationProgram-level managementRules and regulations/Labor lawSafety andsafety cultureSafety theoriesRole of cultureLeadershipPsycho-sociowork environmentEffects on individualsHealth and environmentRisk and CrisisManagementSystems thinkingMaster of Management course inHealth, Safety and Environment (HSE)
  9. 9. Theoretical foundation• Organizational safety theories• Normal Accident Theory (Perrow)• Organizational Accident Theory (Reason)• High Reliability Organizations (Roberts et al.)• Resilience Engineering (Hollnagel et al.)• Culture• Leadership07.05.13 Eric Arne Lofquist10
  10. 10. Measuring the Effects of Strategic Change on Safetyin a High Reliability Organization (Lofquist, 2008)The art of measuring nothing: the paradox ofmeasuring safety in a changing civil aviation industryusing traditional safety metrics. Safety Science(Lofquist, 2010)Literature
  11. 11. Lessons-learned• Complexity and dynamic-adaptive behavior• System interactivity (socio-technical systems)• The problem with risk analysis (Bounded rationality)• The effects of deliberate and incremental change onsystem outcomes (internal and external)• Organizational culture paradox• Individual sensemaking and mindfulness• The problem with rules and regulations (compliance)• Organizational double-loop learning07.05.13 Eric Arne Lofquist12
  12. 12. Double-loop learning(Argyris & Schön, 1974)Real worldsignalsInformationfeedbackMental models ofreal worldAction strategiesdecision rulesDecisionsSingle-loopDouble-loop
  13. 13. 07.05.13 Eric Arne Lofquist14Double-loop learning
  14. 14. Organizational «double-loop» learning(Lofquist, 2008:2010)ProactivePhaseInteractivePhaseReactivePhaseSystem Design System Operation System OutcomesTimeOrganizational CultureEnvironmentSocio-technical system
  15. 15. Organizational «double-loop» learning(Lofquist, 2008:2010)ProactivePhaseInteractivePhaseReactivePhaseSystem Design System Operation System OutcomesTimeOrganizational CultureEnvironmentSocio-technical system
  16. 16. Organizational «double-loop» learning(Lofquist, 2008:2010)ProactivePhaseInteractivePhaseReactivePhaseSystem Design System Operation System OutcomesTimeOrganizational CultureEnvironmentSocio-technical system
  17. 17. Understanding the nature of systems•How systems are designed and developed tooperate in an «expected» environment•How systems evolve in response to the environment•Based on anticipation – why a particular riskassessment might be limited (risk analysis)•Expecting that challenges to system performancewill occur – system evolution (signal detection)•Mindfulness (Double-loop learning)
  18. 18. 07.05.13 Eric Arne Lofquist19Mindfulness
  19. 19. How can we improve safety performance?07.05.13 Eric Arne Lofquist20
  20. 20. Change underlying assumptions• Understanding culture on three levels (Schein, 1990)• Obligation/pledge (symbols and artifacts)• Verifying acts/actions (espoused values)• Underlying cognitive processes• Create shared values about safety• Reinforce common beliefs about how to conduct safeoperations (system-wide)• Change the behavioral norms about followingprocedures, how to handle necessary deviations andrisk-taking• Transmission of values, beliefs and accepted practicesto others (internal and external)
  21. 21. How do we change underlying assumptions?• Starts at the top – perception that the top leader honestlycares about, and is committed to, safety and safe operations• That this commitment is communicated and consistentthroughout the organization, and external stakeholders• That all levels of leadership are actively engaged inmonitoring the safety environment, and committing therequired resources, support, training and personnel toensure a safe operating environment• That the leadership’s words and actions reflectcommitment to safety – consistently, over time07.05.13 Eric Arne Lofquist22
  22. 22. Takk for meg
  23. 23. 07.05.13 Eric Arne Lofquist24
  24. 24. 07.05.13 Eric Arne Lofquist25
  25. 25. Captain
  26. 26. 07.05.13 Eric Arne Lofquist27Mindfulness

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