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دراسات الجدوي الاقتصادية
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كتاب دراسة الجدوى الإقتصادية من الألف إلى الياء

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كتاب دراسة الجدوى الإقتصادية من الألف إلى الياء

كتاب دراسة الجدوى الإقتصادية من الألف إلى الياء

  1. 1. ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆدﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮق‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮوع‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺤﻮث‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮآﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫آﻠﻴﺔ‬–‫اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪوى‬ ‫دراﺳﺎت‬ ‫د‬.‫ﻋﻄﻴ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‬‫ﺔ‬ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  2. 2. ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد‬ ‫د‬.‫ﻋﻄﻴ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻴﻞ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺘﺎﺫ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺠﺎ‬‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺭﺓ‬‫ﺃﺴﻴﻭﻁ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎهﺮة‬ ٢٠٠٨ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  3. 3. ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬‫ﺃﺒﺭﻴل‬٢٠٠٨ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺸﺭ‬:‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‬:٣٥٧١٦٦٢٠-٣٥٦٧٨٢١٦-٣٥٧١٣٨٥٢–٣٥٦٧٨٢١٨)٢٠٢(+ ‫ﻓﺎﻜ‬‫ﺱ‬:٣٥٧٠٣٦٢٠)٢٠٢(+ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬:www.capscu.eng.cu.edu.eg ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬:www.Pathways.cu.edu.eg ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺒﺭﻴﺩ‬‫ﺍﻹ‬‫ﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬:Pathways@Pathways.edu.eg ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﺩﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬:٨٤٧٦/٢٠٠٨ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻗﻴﻡ‬:ISBN 977-403-303-5 ‫ﻤﺤﻔﻭﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺼﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺦ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬. www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  4. 4. ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺴﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺼﺭ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﺨﺎﻟﺹ‬ ، ‫ﻤـﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻓـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬.‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻘـﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺨﺎﻟﺹ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬/،‫ﺒﻼﻴﻔﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﺅﺴـﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﺭﺩ‬/‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻨﺩﺓ‬ ٍ‫ﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻓ‬ ٍ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺒﺠﻬ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻫﻤﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻴﻭﻴﻭﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬. ‫ﺒﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬:‫ﻭﻋﻴﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻭﻫﺎﺝ؛‬ ،‫ﺴﻭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﻰ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻴﻭﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻨﻭﺏ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺤﻠﻭﺍﻥ‬ ،‫ﻭﺃﺴﻴﻭﻁ‬ ،‫ﺸﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴـﺫ‬ ‫ﻓـﻰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺠﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺴﺎﻫﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻨـﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ،‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻀﺦ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﺠﻴل‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺃﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁـﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﺸـﻤﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻴـﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﺠﻴﻥ‬. ‫ﻭﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺨﺎﻟﺹ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻭﺠﻪ‬ ،‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺘـﺴﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋـﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻌﺭﻓﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘـﺸﺎﺭﻴﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻀـﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺴﻘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻟﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻨﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ،‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ‬. www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  5. 5. ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﻠﺴل‬‫ﺍﻻﺴﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ‬ ١‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺴﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺃﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ٢‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﻋﺒﺩﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ٣‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺒﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺸﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻥ‬‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﺸﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻥ‬ ٤‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﻋﺒﺩﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﺯﺕ‬‫ﺃﺴﻴﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺃﺴﻴﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ٥‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺒﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩﺍﷲ‬‫ﺤﻠﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺤﻠﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ٦‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺠﺎﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻫﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ٧‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﻤﻨﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺠﻨﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺠﻨﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ٨‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻼل‬‫ﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ٩‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺭﻓﻌﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺴﻭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺴﻭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ١٠‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﻜﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ‬‫ﺴﻭﻫﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺴﻭﻫﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ١١‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻨﻰ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ١٢‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻭﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻨﻴﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ١٣‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﻤﻭﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩﺍﻟﻤﺘﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺠﻨﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺠﻨﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ١٤‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺘﺯ‬‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺌﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﺠﻴل‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ١٥‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺭﺸﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻯ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺭﺭ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺃﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ١٦‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺨﻭﺍﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭﺓ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﻓﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ١٧‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺸﺎﻫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻴﺩ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﻫﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ١٨‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﻤﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ١٩‫ﺩ‬.‫ﻜﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  6. 6. ‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺌﺩﺓ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺤﺩ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﺒﻜﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠـﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﺎﺌﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬.‫ﻭﻟﻘﺩ‬‫ﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬١٩٧٤‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺎﺒﻌﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﻴﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺴﻜﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻤﻡ‬.‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﺫ‬١٩٨٤‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ، ‫ﺫﺍﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺢ‬‫ﻷﻨﺸﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻻ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻷﺒﺤـﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﺒـﺈﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﻘـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻠﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬‫ﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨـﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻁﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬...‫ﺇﻟﺦ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺒﺈﻋـﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻘـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬.‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬. ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬"‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬‫؛‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻴﺜﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻬﺩﻑ‬.‫ﻭﻴـﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬–‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘـﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﻁﺒﻘـﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻼ‬‫ﻓﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬‫ﺭﻗـﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺤﺔ‬١٠٢٠–١٩١٢‫ﺒﺘـﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬١٣ ‫ﺴﺒﺘﻤﺒﺭ‬٢٠٠٢‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﺔ‬ ،١٠٢٠–١٩١٢-١‫ﺒﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬١٦‫ﺴﺒﺘﻤﺒﺭ‬٢٠٠٥‫ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ، ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬١٠٢٠–١٩١٢-٢‫ﺒﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻌﺔ‬٢٧‫ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭ‬٢٠٠٦. ‫ﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻭﺴﻴ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬‫ﺘﻘـﺭﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺼـﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺨﺼﻴ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻟﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬،‫ﺒﻬـﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺜﺭﺍﺀ‬. ‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺩ‬.‫ﻤﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﺭﻴل‬٢٠٠٨ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  7. 7. ‫ﺩ‬ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  8. 8. ‫ﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬"‫ﻫﻭ‬‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬‫؛‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﺠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺩﻤﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻘل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺸﺎﺭﻙ‬ ،:،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺴﻭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﻰ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻴﻭﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻨﻭﺏ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﻴﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺤﻠﻭﺍﻥ‬ ،‫ﻭﺃﺴﻴﻭﻁ‬ ،‫ﺸﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻭﻫﺎﺝ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﺠﻴل‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺃﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ‬. ‫ﺘـﺴﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﺠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺭﺤﻠﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺠـﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻟﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺘﺫﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﻹﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬‫ﺨﺭﻴﺠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬: ١-‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬.٢-‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬. ٣-‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ‬.٤-‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬. ٥-‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬.٦-‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻤل‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬"‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻤﻌﺘﻤـ‬ ،‫ﺸﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﹰﺎ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻁﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬‫ﻜـل‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ‬ ،‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬.‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺄﻟﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬٢٠‫ﻤﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎ‬١٧‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻓـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ )٢٠٠٢-٢٠٠٥(‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ،)٢٠٠٦-٢٠١٠(‫ﻭﻨـﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺄﻟﻴﻑ‬١٨ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  9. 9. ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻘﻴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺩﺭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺘﻠﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎ‬‫ﻭﺒﻬـﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘـﺭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺠـﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴ‬‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬. ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺩﺍﺀ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬‫ﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﻓـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺒـﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬.‫ﻭ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺫﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬. ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻓﻰ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺘﺫﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺘﺎﻡ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻫﻤﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻟﻔﻴﻥ‬‫ﺀ‬‫ﺩﺍﺌﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻘﻁﻊ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻴﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﺩﻴﻜﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﻭﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻠـﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬـﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻘﺩﺭ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬. ‫ﺩ‬.‫ﻜﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺩ‬‫ﺩ‬.‫ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺴﻕ‬ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  10. 10. ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬‫ﺩﻓﺔ‬١ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬٣ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬:‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬٥ ١-١‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬٥ ١-٢‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬٦ ١-٣‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬٧ ١-٤‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺭﻕ‬٧ ١-٥‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬٨ ١-٦‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬٩ ١-٧‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺔ‬١٠ ١-٨‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬١١ ١-٩‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬١١ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬١٥ ٢-١‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬١٥ ٢-٢‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺴﻭﻗﻴﺔ‬١٦ ٢-٣‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬١٦ ٢-٤‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺴﻭ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻘﻴﺔ‬٢٠ ٢-٥‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬٢٢ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬:‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬٣٧ ٣-١‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮم‬‫اﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪوى‬ ‫دراﺳﺔ‬ ‫وأهﻤﻴﺔ‬٣٧ ٣-٢‫اﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮات‬٣٨ ٣-٣‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬٤٦ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  11. 11. ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺒﻊ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬٥٥ ٤-١‫ﻤ‬‫ﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬٥٥ ٤-٢‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬٥٦ ٤-٣‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬٥٦ ٤-٤‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬٥٨ ٤-٥‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜل‬٦٣ ٤-٦‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬٦٥ ٤-٧‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻓﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬٦٧ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬‫ﺨ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﺱ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬٧٥ ٥-١‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺭﺓ‬٧٥ ٥-٢‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬(٧٨ ٥-٣‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬٧٩ ٥-٤‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴل‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ‬(٨٨ ٥-٥‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬٩٢ ٥-٦‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻅل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‬٩٤ ٥-٧‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬‫ﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬٩٥ ٥-٨‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬٩٩ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺩﺱ‬:‫ﺤﻭل‬‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬١٠٧ ٦-١‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬١٠٧ ٦-٢‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬١٠٨ ٦-٣‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬١٠٩ ٦-٤‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬١٠٩ ٦-٥‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴل‬١١١ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬١٢١ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  12. 12. ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬)٥-١:(‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍل‬١٠١ ‫ﺸﻜل‬)٥-٢:(‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻴﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺩل‬١٠٢ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٣-١:(‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬٤٩ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٦-١(:‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬‫ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻹﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ‬‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭ‬١٠٧ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل‬)٦-٢(‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬١١٠ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  13. 13. ‫ﻱ‬ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  14. 14. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺩﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬١ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺩﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺜﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻑ‬: ١.‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬. ٢.‫ﻭﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬‫ﺒﻬ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬‫ﺎ‬. ٣.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬. ٤.‫ﻭﺠﺩﻭﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬. ٥.‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺩﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬. ٦.‫ﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻀﻠﺔ‬. www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  15. 15. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬٢ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  16. 16. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻤﻘــﺩﻤــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬٣ ‫ﻤﻘــﺩﻤــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ‬‫ﻅل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬‫ﻭﺴﻌﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬‫ﻤﺜل‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬)‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀل‬(‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬.‫ﻭﻟﻜـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻀﻤﻥ‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬‫ﺈ‬‫ﺨﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬-‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬-‫ﻓﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤـﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻷﺭﺒﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺒل‬.‫ﻭﻗـﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻡ‬. ‫ﺠـﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻋـﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺎﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻬﺩﻑ‬ ٍ‫ﻉ‬‫ﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭ‬‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺫ‬،‫ﺭ‬‫ﻤﺭﻭ‬‫ﺤﻴـﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬.‫ﻭﻟﻘﺩ‬‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﺤﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺒﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤـﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻓﻜـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻠﻘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺎﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻹﻨﺠـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼـﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔـﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻹﺤﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘـﺴﻁﻴﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨـﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬‫ﻏﻨﻰ‬‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬‫؛‬‫ﻤـﺴﻠﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻨـﺴﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﻌﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻁﺎ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻠﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬. ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺃﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺩ‬،‫ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺘﺒﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤـﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺅﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬‫ﺤﺘـﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺩﻟﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘﻘل‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ،‫ﺇﺘﻤﺎﻤﻪ‬‫ﺴﺭﻴﻌ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤـﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺘﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺠﻨﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻼﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭ‬.‫ﺃﺴـﻠﻔﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻋﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻜﺭ‬. www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  17. 17. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬٤ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  18. 18. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬٥ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ١-١‫ﻤ‬‫ﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ؛‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻤﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬:‫ﺒﺎﻟﻔﺭﺼ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜل‬‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺘ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬)‫ﺭ‬‫ﻤﺒ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬‫ﺍﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺓ‬ Economically Justifiable(‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺤﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻕ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻴـﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﻜـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺭﻓـﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺒـﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻯ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬(‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘﻰ‬‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺴـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻁﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬)‫ﻤﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬. ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﺴﻭﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌـﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻤﺎﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬)‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻭﻡ‬(‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬. ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﺸل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻭﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬‫ﻗﺩ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻀﻌﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﻀﻴﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬. www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  19. 19. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬٦ ١-٢‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭﻤﻊ‬ ،‫ﻭﻭﻗﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺒـل‬ ،‫ﺨـﺎﻁﺊ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﺠﺭﺍ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻭﺴـﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ‬)‫ﻫﺎﺘﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺒﻤﺎ‬(‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻜﺎﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬.‫ﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﻤـﺎ‬‫ﹸـ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺴﻤﻰ‬ "‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬"‫ﺃﻭ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬"Pre-feasibility‫ﺍﻷ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺼـﺩﻗﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﺼﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﺠﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻼﺀ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﻗﻴﺔ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺘـﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻭﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ـﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ـﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴ‬ ‫ـﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺘﻜ‬Comprehensive Feasibility Study‫ـﺔ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴ‬ ‫ـﻭﺩ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻭﺠ‬ ‫ـﺎ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺃﻤ‬ Market Viability‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬‫ﻓـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬. ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤـﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗـﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﻨﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺤﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﻘﺔ‬.‫ﺘﻜﻠﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻭﻗـﻑ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬. ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﻀﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺎﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻘﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺼﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﺡ‬.‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺠـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻥ‬،‫ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻴـﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻴﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺼﻭﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬: ١.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻘل‬)‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﻴﻥ‬(‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﻲ‬ ٢.‫ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ‬ ٣.‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬ ٤.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  20. 20. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬٧ ١-٣‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺹ‬‫ﻭﺸـﻤﻭﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤـﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺒل‬ ،‫ﻭﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ‬: ١.‫ﻟﻠﻔﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻬﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ٢.‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ٣.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ٤.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬‫ﻉ‬ ٥.‫ﺍﻻ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬‫ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻕ‬ ٦.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ٧.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬. ١-٤‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻔﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺒﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬‫؛‬‫ﺇﻋـﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺼﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺎﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻴﻨﺎﺭﻴﻭﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺩﻤﻴﻥ‬.‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻁﺔ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻻﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻁﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻌﻤل‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻯ‬ ‫ﻀﻌﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬‫ﻤﻭﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨـﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨﻲ‬.‫ﻫﺩﻓﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻁﺔ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﻨﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬:‫ﺃﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺘﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ‬.‫ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻁﺔ‬"‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ‬"Roadmap‫ﺒﺩﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻩ‬.‫ﻤﺴﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻰ‬Blueprint‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ٍ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻤﺠ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬‫؛‬‫ﺒﺩﺍﺌل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﻡ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬. ،‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬. www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  21. 21. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬٨ ١-٥‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬Pre-Feasibility Study‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻤﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫؛‬‫ﺍﺘﺨـﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻴـﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻫـﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻀﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ل‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺌﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﺴﺎﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻟـﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬‫ﺭﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺴﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺎﺼﺔ‬. ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻀﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬.‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬. ‫ﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬: -‫ﺘﻭﻀـﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﻜـﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺴـﻠﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬. -‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬‫ﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺤل‬ ‫ﻴﺤل‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻫل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺎﻥ‬. -‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ -‫ﺇ‬‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻴﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺩﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺽ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺒﻭل‬. -‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬. ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬. ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻜـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻁﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ،‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﺫﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺭﻭﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬‫ﺹ‬ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  22. 22. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬٩ ‫ﺨـﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﻋـﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻷﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺒـﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼـﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻬـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻭﺝ‬Investment Promoter‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻟﺭﺠﺎل‬. ١-٦‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ،‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ‬: ١-٦-١‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺨـﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬. ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﻓﺭﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬.‫ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻁﻌﺎ‬ ،‫ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﺤـ‬ ‫ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻓﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻫﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺯ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺼـﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺭﻭﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬.‫ﻜﻔﺎﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋـﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺘﺠـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺌﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻭﺍﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ‬‫ﺃﺯﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. ١-٦-٢‫ﺍﻷﻨ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺒﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤـﺼﺩﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨـﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺒﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺹ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤـﺎﻓﺯﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻸﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻼﺒﺱ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁـﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓـﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴـﺴﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺼﺒﺎﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻔﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻋـﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺠ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﻌﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‬‫ﻤﺭﻜـﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺭ‬. www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  23. 23. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬١٠ ١-٦-٣‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬‫ﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺨﺘﻨﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻼﺤﻅ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﻁ‬.‫ﺍﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺯﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬. ١-٧‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬،‫ﻟﻠﻤـﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺒل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺩل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻑﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬.‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻑﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺭﺸﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل‬‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‬)‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫـﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬.(‫ﻴﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻀﺢ‬: ١.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﻨﻅـﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘـﺸﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻤل‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬. ٢.‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬‫ﺠـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬-‫ﻟﻠﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻫـﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻀﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬،‫ﻴﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﻔﺎﻅﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘـﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻓﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻯ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻀﻴﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻨﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬،‫ﺃ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻔﺭﺕ‬. ٣.‫ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻜﺸﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺒـﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻌﺽ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺼﻰ‬‫ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ‬(‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺨﺘﻼﻑ‬.‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﺯﺍﻟﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  24. 24. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬١١ ‫ﺘﺠﻌ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤـﻭﺍﻓﺯ‬ ‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﻠـﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‬‫ﻹ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺴـﻕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬. ١-٨‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﺃ‬‫ﺍﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠـﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺜـﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬: -‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ -‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ -‫ﺍﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬‫ﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ -‫ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬. ١-٩‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬ ُ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻴﺄﺨـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺴـﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺴﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺸﻜل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬: -‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬‫ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻴﺔ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  25. 25. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬١٢ ‫ﺃﻫـﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬‫ﺇﻨـﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬـﺩﻑ‬ ، ‫ﻭﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺠﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬‫ﻯ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﺒـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺠـﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘـﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‬.‫ﺸﻜ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ‬: ١-٩-١‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻁﻠﻕ‬)‫ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻨﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬Ein Mann Gesellschaft(‫ﻤﻨﺸﺄﺓ‬)‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬( ‫ﻤﺤـﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠل‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺤﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻭﻟﻰ‬‫ﻴﺩﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬،‫ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺤﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻼﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﻌﺩﻯ‬.‫ﺒـﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴـﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺼﻨﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬. ١-٩-٢‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤـﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺒﻁﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤـﻨﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤـﺩ‬ ‫ﻜـل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻀﺎﻤﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻭﺍﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬.‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻨﺸﺄ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺨـﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻗﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺓ‬. ١-٩-٣‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬:‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻀﺎﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻏﺏ‬‫ﻻ‬،‫ﻭﺜﺭﻭﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻭﺍﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻤـل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﺘ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺭﻴﻙ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺠﺯﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺼل‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻋﻴ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻭل‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬. www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  26. 26. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬١٣ ١-٩-٤‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬‫ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺴﺄل‬ ،‫ﺴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘ‬‫ﻀﺎﻤﻨ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺸﺭﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻤـﺎ‬ ،‫ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺘﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻲ‬.‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻀﺎﻤﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻡ‬.‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺤﻜﻡ‬‫ﻴﺤل‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻬﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺘﺎﺏ‬. ١-٩-٥‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺃ‬‫ﻟﻼ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻬﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻭﺍﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺱ‬‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﻴﻥ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌـﻀﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﻋﻀﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺨﻤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺜل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‬. ١-٩-٦‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻀﺨﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ‬.‫ﻨﻭﻋﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬:‫ﺘﻁﺭﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻬﻤﻬﺎ‬‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺨﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻭﺭﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻬﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺘﺎﺏ‬)‫ﻤﻨﻬـﺎ‬(‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻗﻴﻭﺩ‬‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﻘـﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻜﺘﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻬﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺭﺡ‬.‫ﻤﺘـﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﻭﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤـﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﺨﺫ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﺎ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺃﺴـﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻨﺸﺎﺌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻭﺍﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬.،‫ﺜﻼﺜـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻘل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺌﻭﻟﻴﻥ‬. ١-٩-٧‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻰ‬‫ﺒﻌﻤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﻗﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ،‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻤﺘﻨﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻨـﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺒﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺘﻼﺕ‬. www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  27. 27. ‫ﻙ‬٣٥/١:‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬١٤ www.alkottob.com www.alkottob.com
  • CHOKRIHAJLAOUI

    Mar. 17, 2021
  • NadaElsebaee

    Dec. 17, 2019
  • ssuser56bdad

    Oct. 20, 2017

كتاب دراسة الجدوى الإقتصادية من الألف إلى الياء

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