History of Evolution• 1831, Darwin, naturalist on H.M.S. Beagle• Galapagos, Coast of S. America• James Hutton(1785)– earth...
Cont.• Darwin (1831) – naturalist who proposed the  theory of evolution (1859) On the Origin of  Species• Charles Lyell (1...
Theory of Evolution• Fitness – individuals ability to survive and  reproduce in it’s environment• Adaptation – inherited t...
• Over time organisms produce different  structures, establish different niches, or  occupy different habitats – descent w...
Formation of Earth• 4.6 billion years old (universe 15 billion)• Elements arranged themselves by  densities creating the p...
Cont.• 3.8 billion, earth cooled enough to allow  water to remain liquid, creating rain• Under these conditions, organic  ...
Oxygen-evolution• 2.2 billion increase in oxygen allowed  organisms to evolve (move from water to  land)• 2 billion eukary...
Geologic Time Scale
Cont.• 90% of earths history occurred during  Precambrian (life only existed in the water)• Paleozoic Era – abundance of m...
Cont.• Jurassic – dino’s ruled the earth for 150  million yrs.• Cretaceous – leafy trees, shrubs, flying  birds, large rep...
Pattern of Evolution• 99% of all species that have lived are now  extinct.• Macroevolution – large scale evolutionary  pat...
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Evolution

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Evolution

  1. 1. History of Evolution• 1831, Darwin, naturalist on H.M.S. Beagle• Galapagos, Coast of S. America• James Hutton(1785)– earth is millions, not thousands of years old• Thomas Malthus (1798) – predicted that the population of earth would exceed it’s resources• Jean-Baptiste Lamarck(1809) – proposed that inheritance was acquired (1st mechanism for organisms changing over time)
  2. 2. Cont.• Darwin (1831) – naturalist who proposed the theory of evolution (1859) On the Origin of Species• Charles Lyell (1833)- proposed that the process occurring now have shaped the earth for long periods of time; published Principles of Geology• Alfred Wallace (1858)– contemporary of Darwin, speculated on evolution through natural selection
  3. 3. Theory of Evolution• Fitness – individuals ability to survive and reproduce in it’s environment• Adaptation – inherited traits/characteristics that increase the chance of survival• Artificial selection – humans manipulate traits• Natural selection – inherited over time by the process of nature (can not be seen directly)
  4. 4. • Over time organisms produce different structures, establish different niches, or occupy different habitats – descent with modification• Fossil record supported Darwin’s theory• Fossil record shows how species have changed overtime or died
  5. 5. Formation of Earth• 4.6 billion years old (universe 15 billion)• Elements arranged themselves by densities creating the planet (radioactive decay creates heat, core heaviest metals) least dense formed early atmosphere (H and N)• Atmosphere was toxic to life as we knew it (it was what we didn’t know could exist in this environment, cyanobacteria)
  6. 6. Cont.• 3.8 billion, earth cooled enough to allow water to remain liquid, creating rain• Under these conditions, organic compounds were formed (building blocks for life)• DNA is transcribed into RNA then translated into proteins
  7. 7. Oxygen-evolution• 2.2 billion increase in oxygen allowed organisms to evolve (move from water to land)• 2 billion eukaryotic cells (nucleus) appeared, endosymbiotic theory proposes that eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotic communities
  8. 8. Geologic Time Scale
  9. 9. Cont.• 90% of earths history occurred during Precambrian (life only existed in the water)• Paleozoic Era – abundance of marine life• Cambrian – hard parts appear, most animal phyla evolve• Devonian – vertebrates appear• Mass extinction occurs• Mesozoic Era – rise of dinosaurs and flowering plants
  10. 10. Cont.• Jurassic – dino’s ruled the earth for 150 million yrs.• Cretaceous – leafy trees, shrubs, flying birds, large reptiles still dominant earth• Mass extinction (meteor) wipes out half of all plant and animal groups (including all of the dino’s)• Cenozoic Era – animals evolve adaptation for land, water and air
  11. 11. Pattern of Evolution• 99% of all species that have lived are now extinct.• Macroevolution – large scale evolutionary patterns and processes that occur over long periods of time• 6 specific areas of macroevolution – extinction, adaptive radiation, convergent evolution, coevolution, punctuated equilibrium, and changes in developmental genes

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