Circulatory and lymph, respiratory


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Circulatory and lymph, respiratory

  1. 1. Circulatory Systems• Cardiovascular, lymphatic and respiratorysystems are circulatory systems• Cardiovascular: made of the heart, bloodvessels and blood• Uses blood to carry material to and frombody cells• Blood – connective tissue composed ofplasma, blood cells, platelets
  2. 2. Cont• Body contain approx. 5 liters• Produced in spongy bone – long bonesand flat bones• Plasma – fluid part of blood– Mixture of water, minerals, nutrients, proteinsand other substances• Red blood cells (RBC) – most abundant inblood• Take in oxygen
  3. 3. Cont• Contain a protein called hemoglobin whichgives RBC’s their color• Allows oxygen to “stick” to the RBC• White blood cell – destroys pathogens andcleans wounds• Use several methods to accomplish thetask: releasing a protein called antibodiesthat destroy pathogens
  4. 4. Cont• Antibodies travel in tissue looking forforeign material• Remove cells that have died or becomedamaged• Pathogens: bacteria, viruses, microscopicparticles that make you sick• Some WBC’s are produced in bonemarrow, others mature in lymphaticorgans
  5. 5. Cont• Platelets – pieces of large cells found inbone marrow• Some “squeeze off” fragments that enterthe bloodstream• Live for 5 to 10 days• Used for clumping properties by usingchemicals that react with proteins to formtiny fibers which forms a clot (scab)
  6. 6. Cont• Heart – muscular organ approx. the size ofyour fist• Located off center to the left of your chestcavity• Pumps oxygen depleted blood to thelungs (pulmonary circulation) and oxygenrich blood from your lungs to the rest ofyour body (systemic circulation)• Composed of two sides (left and right)
  7. 7. Cont• Each side has an upper and lower chamber– Upper; atrium– Lower; ventricle• Valves are flap like structures that control theflow of blood• Valves are located at areas where large arteriesconnect to the heart• Heart sounds “lub-dub” is the valves openingand closing
  8. 8. Cont• Blood vessels – hollow tubes that carryblood• Consist of arteries, capillaries and veins• Arteries – direct blood away from the heartcarrying oxygen rich blood• Have thick walls that contain smoothmuscle• Blood is pumped through the arteries athigh pressure (closed system)
  9. 9. Cont• Capillaries – smallest of the blood vessels• Walls are only one cell thick• Structure allows nutrients and oxygen todiffuse easily through walls• Veins – direct oxygen poor blood to theheart• Valves keep blood from flowing backwards
  10. 10. Cont• Flow of blood• Arteries → capillaries → veins• Blood from the right ventricle goes to thelungs (carbon dioxide blood)• Blood from the left ventricle goes to thebody (oxygen rich blood)• Pulmonary circulation – circulationbetween the heart and lungs
  11. 11. Cont• Systemic circulation – circulation betweenthe heart and the body• Body regulator – blood regulates yourbody temperature• Feedback mechanisms notify your brainthat your body has heated up, your brainsends electrical signals to the bloodvessels to enlarge, transferring thermalenergy to you skin, lowering body temp
  12. 12. Lymphatic System• Lymphatic system – collection of organsthat return the fluids that have leaked intotissue back to the bloodstream• Also fights against pathogens• Fluid is carried in vessels called lymphcapillaries• Lymph capillaries are located in the spacebetween cells and absorb particles tolarge to enter the blood capillaries
  13. 13. Cont• Absorbed fluids is called lymph• Lymph capillaries carry lymph to lymphvessels• Lymph vessels contain valves to stopbackflow• Lymph eventually drains into large neckveins of the cardiovascular sys.
  14. 14. Cont• Lymphatic organs• Thymus – located above your heart• Releases WBC’s that travel through thebody• Lymph nodes – small bean shaped organsfound throughout the body• Pathogens and dead cells are removed
  15. 15. Cont• When lymph nodes become infected withpathogens, nodes become painful andswollen• Spleen – largest organ in the lymphaticsys.• Located in the upper left side of theabdomen• Filters blood “recycling center” for RBC’sand releases WBC’s
  16. 16. Cont• Tonsils – group of lymphatic tissue at theback of the nasal cavity on the inside ofyour throat
  17. 17. Respiratory• Respiratory system – composed of thelungs, throat, and passageways that leadto the lungs• Air you breath is a mixture of gases:nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide• Breathing is the process of inhaling andexhaling
  18. 18. • Cellular respiration is the chemicalreactions that release energy from food byusing O2• Major organs that compose the respiratorysystem• Nose – main passage way in and out ofthe respiratory system• Pharynx – from the nose, air flows intothe (pharynx) throat
  19. 19. – Food and liquids also travel through thepharynx as it travels to the stomach(esophagus)• Larynx – leads to the lungs– Larynx – contains the vocal cords, pairedelastic bands that stretch across the larynx
  20. 20. • Muscles connected to the larynx controlhow much the cords are stretched• Air flow over the cords cause vibrationwhich causes sound• Trachea – large tube guarded by thelarynx, also called the windpipe– Passageway for air from larynx to the lungs
  21. 21. • Bronchi – trachea splits into 2 tubescalled bronchus (singular) that branch offto each lung• Bronchus branch off into thousands of tinytubes called bronchioles• Lungs – 2 large sponge like organs in thechest cavity• In the lungs, bronchiole branches to formthousands of tiny sacs called alveoli
  22. 22. • Capillaries surround the alveoli – O2 istaken in and CO2 is expelled throughdiffusion• Breathing – air is sucked into / thenpushed out of the lungs• Lungs do not contain muscle• Diaphragm is a dome shaped musclewhich contracts and expands to move air• The rib cage muscles will contract and liftsthe rib cage
  23. 23. • Respiratory disorders– Asthma – irritants cause tissue around thebronchioles to constrict– Bronchitis – bronchi and the bronchioles liningbecomes irritated– Pneumonia – bronchioles and alveoli becomeinflamed and fill with fluids– Emphysema – caused by smoking