Notes Solubility3


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  • Notes Solubility3

    1. 1. III. Rate of dissolving & Solubility <ul><li>A. Solubility is the ability of one thing to dissolve in another </li></ul><ul><li>1. miscible – able to dissolve </li></ul><ul><li>2. immiscible – unable to dissolve </li></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>3. “like dissolves like” so polar substances dissolve in other polar substances but not in nonpolar stuff </li></ul><ul><li>a. salt (ionic & polar) dissolves in water (polar) </li></ul><ul><li>b. vitamin k (nonpolar) dissolves in fat (nonpolar) </li></ul><ul><li>c. oil (nonpolar) does not dissolve in water (polar) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Vitamins <ul><li>Multi Vitamin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides many essential vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Expensive urine” because most is urinated out! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Soluble – will dissolve in water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN’T be stored - must be replenished regularly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat Soluble – will NOT dissolve in water (will only dissolve in oils) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can overdose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin A, K … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be ingested periodically, stored in body fat </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. B. Common ways to increase the rate of dissolving <ul><li>1. Increase Temperature. Increasing the temperature adds more energy and creates more collisions of solute and solvent to help dissolve . </li></ul><ul><li>a. Ex: dissolving sugar in Warm tea vs. cold tea </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>2. Increase surface area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller pieces dissolve more quickly because there are more places to interact between solvent and solute. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulverize = crush or smash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a. Ex: Sugar packets vs. Sugar cubes </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>3. Increase movement (stirring). </li></ul><ul><li>By adding motion you add kinetic energy and move the solvent around to dissolve it. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Ex: Stirring the sugar into the tea vs. letting it dissolve on its own </li></ul>
    7. 7. C. Dissolving gases follow different rules <ul><li>1. Gases dissolved in liquids prefer lower temperatures. Cold soda has more carbonation than warm sodas </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>2. Prefer less movement, more movement lets the gas escape more easily. Shaken sodas lose the dissolved gases quickly & so have fewer bubbles. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>3. Increased Pressure increases rate of dissolving. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So when the bottle the soda they bottle it under higher pressure to keep the gas dissolved in it </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Solubility <ul><li>Solids are more soluble at... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high temperatures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gases are more soluble at... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low temperatures & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : nitrogen narcosis, the “bends,” soda </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. IV. Concentrations of solution – how “strong” or “weak” the solution is <ul><li>A. 3 types of solutions based on concentration of dissolved solute </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>1. Unsaturated solution – Solution that can easily dissolve more of the solute does not require an increase in temperature to add more solute. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Ex. Weak sweet tea or unconcentrated acid. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>2. Saturated solution – Solution that has the maximum amount of solute dissolved for that temperature. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any change in temperature will affect the concentration. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>3. Supersaturated solution – Solution that has a higher concentration of solute than it normally would at that temperature. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was heated up, come out of solution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically can’t be disturbed or it will crystallize. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Solubility increasing concentration SATURATED SOLUTION no more solute dissolves UNSATURATED SOLUTION more solute dissolves SUPERSATURATED SOLUTION becomes unstable, crystals form
    16. 16. <ul><li>B. Solubility Chart </li></ul><ul><li>1. Shows how the solubility changes at different temps </li></ul>
    17. 17. Solubility Table LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World , 1996, page 517 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Solubility vs. Temperature for Solids Solubility (grams of solute/100 g H 2 O) KI KCl 20 10 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 120 130 140 100 NaNO 3 KNO 3 HCl NH 4 Cl NH 3 NaCl KClO 3 SO 2 <ul><ul><li>shows the dependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of solubility on temperature </li></ul></ul>gases solids
    18. 18. Solubility <ul><li>Solubility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximum grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent at a given temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>varies with temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on a saturated solution </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Classify as unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated per 100 g H 2 O 80 g NaNO 3 @ 30 o C unsaturated saturated unsaturated supersaturated 45 g KCl @ 60 o C 50 g NH 3 @ 10 o C 70 g NH 4 Cl @ 70 o C