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Notes Solubility1


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Notes Solubility1

  1. 1. Matter, Solutions, & Solubility
  2. 2. I. Phases of Matter <ul><li>The main differences in solids, liquids and gases is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how close their particles are, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the speed of the particles & </li></ul><ul><li>type of motion </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>B. kinetic molecular theory – particles of matter are in constant motion & the speed of the particles increases w/ increased temp </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. In solids, the particles are very close together, touching each other and packed tightly enough that the particles cannot move at all except to rotate on their axes & vibrate. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>a. SOLIDS - have definite shape and definite volume </li></ul><ul><li>*usually HIGH density </li></ul><ul><li>*expands only slightly when heated </li></ul><ul><li>* almost incompressible because particles are packed very close together. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Crystalline - repeating geometric pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>covalent network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>metallic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ionic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>covalent molecular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amorphous - no geometric pattern </li></ul>decreasing m.p.
  7. 7. Types of Solids Ionic (NaCl) Metallic
  8. 8. <ul><li>2. In liquids , the particles touch each other constantly but can slide past each other as the liquid FLOWS. </li></ul><ul><li>a. LIQUIDS – </li></ul><ul><li> *have definite volume but not definite shape </li></ul><ul><li> *usually SLIGHTLY less dense than solids </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>*expand more than solids when heated </li></ul><ul><li>*almost incompressible; </li></ul><ul><li>*takes the shape of its container </li></ul><ul><li>*flows – viscosity refers to how quickly or slowly a fluid flows or changes </li></ul><ul><li>shape </li></ul>
  10. 10. B. Liquid Properties <ul><li>Surface Tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attractive force between particles in a liquid that minimizes surface area </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Liquid Properties <ul><li>Capillary Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attractive force between the surface of a liquid and the surface of a solid – paper towels! </li></ul></ul>water mercury
  12. 12. <ul><li>3. In gases , the particles are completely independent and do not touch each other continually. </li></ul><ul><li>b. GASES - have no definite shape & no definite volume </li></ul><ul><li>*very LOW density </li></ul><ul><li>*expand greatly when heated </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>*highly compressible </li></ul><ul><li>*take the shape of the container </li></ul><ul><li>*flow </li></ul><ul><li>*particles are completely independent and do not touch each other except </li></ul><ul><li>when they bump into each other. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>4. phase changes </li></ul><ul><li>a. melting/freezing – solid to liquid & liquid to solid </li></ul><ul><li>b. boiling/condensating—liquid to gas gas to liquid </li></ul><ul><li>c. sublimation/deposition—solid to gas & gas to solid </li></ul>
  15. 15. Liquids vs. Solids <ul><li>LIQUIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger than in gases </li></ul><ul><li>Y </li></ul><ul><li>high </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>slower than in gases </li></ul><ul><li>SOLIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Very strong </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>high </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>extremely slow </li></ul>IMF Strength Fluid Density Compressible Diffusion
  16. 16. Hydrogen Bonding <ul><li>Intermolecular forces </li></ul><ul><li>of attraction between </li></ul><ul><li>molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds exist within </li></ul><ul><li>molecules </li></ul>Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 442
  17. 17. Water is an exception to the rule! Water becomes more dense as it gets colder UNTIL it reaches 4  C – it is MOST dense at 4  C. As it gets colder (3  C & lower) it expands & so gets less dense. That is why ice floats in water!