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Chapter 3


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Chapter 3

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Drawing and Composing an Illustration
  2. 2. Objectives • Draw straight lines • Draw curved lines • Draw elements of an illustration • Apply attributes to objects • Assemble an illustration • Stroke objects for artistic effect • Use Image Trace • Use the Live Paint Bucket tool
  3. 3. Draw Straight Lines • View Objects on the Artboard – Use the Zoom tool to enlarge areas of the artboard for easier viewing. – Click and drag the Zoom tool over an area to magnify it. – Use the New View command to save a view of the artboard.
  4. 4. Draw Straight Lines Draw straight segments with the Pen tool. • Use the Pen tool to make lines, called paths. • Click the artboard with the Pen tool to make anchor points. • Straight segments are automatically placed between every two anchor points. • Corner points are where two endpoints of two straight segments are united.
  5. 5. Draw Straight Lines • You can move, reposition, add, and delete anchor points and segments. • Once you have completed an object, use the Direct Selection tool to fix points and segments.
  6. 6. Draw Straight Lines Line segment Starting anchor point Corner anchor points Ending anchor point Corner anchor Elements of a path composed of straight segments
  7. 7. Draw Straight Lines Use the Average command to align two or more points on: • Horizontal axis • Vertical axis • Both the horizontal and vertical axes
  8. 8. Draw Straight Lines • Join command unites two anchor points. • Join command always creates a corner point. • Use the Average and Join commands in tandem.
  9. 9. Draw Straight Lines Two paths created by the Join command Points to be joined Points to be joined
  10. 10. Draw Curved Lines Properties of curved lines • Click and drag the Pen tool to create anchor points along a curved line. • “Draw” a curved path by clicking and dragging the Pen tool to create points. • Anchor points created this way are called smooth points.
  11. 11. Draw Curved Lines • Direction lines are exposed when you use the Direct Selection tool. • Click and drag direction points at the end of direction lines to reshape curves.
  12. 12. Draw Curved Lines • Smooth points always have two direction lines that move as a unit. • When you manipulate direction lines through a smooth point, a smooth transition is maintained.
  13. 13. Draw Curved Lines Smooth anchor point Direction line Direction point
  14. 14. Draw Curved Lines • When two paths are joined at a corner point, they can be manipulated independently. • Corner point can join: – two straight segments – one straight and one curved segment – two curved segments
  15. 15. Draw Curved Lines A corner point joining two curved paths (note the direction lines) A smooth point A corner point joining one straight and one curved segment A corner point joining two straight segments
  16. 16. Draw Curved Lines • Convert Anchor Point tool changes corner points to smooth points, and smooth points to corner points. • To convert a corner point to smooth, click and drag the Convert Anchor Point tool on anchor point to pull out direction lines.
  17. 17. Draw Curved Lines • When you click directly on a smooth point with Convert Anchor Point tool, direction lines disappear. • Smooth point is converted to a corner point that joins two straight segments.
  18. 18. Draw Curved Lines Corner point converted to a smooth point Corner point Converting a corner point to a smooth point
  19. 19. Draw Curved Lines • Toggle between the Pen tool and the selection tools using keyboard shortcuts for efficiency. • When the Pen tool is selected press [Ctrl] (Win) or [Command] (Mac) to access the Selection tool or Direct Selection tool, depending on which tool you used last.
  20. 20. Draw Elements of an Illustration • Drawing from scratch means you start with a new Illustrator document and create the illustration using only Illustrator tools. Illustration created from scratch
  21. 21. Draw Elements of an Illustration • Illustrator’s shape tools combined with transformation tools make program powerful for creating geometric designs. • Undo and Redo commands allow for easy experimentation.
  22. 22. • Use the Place command to import a scanned image into Illustrator. • Trace the image in Illustrator. Draw Elements of an Illustration
  23. 23. Apply Attributes to Objects • Attributes are effects you have applied to an object that affect its appearance. • Typographic Attributes – Font, leading, horizontal scale • Artistic Attributes – Fill color, stroke color, stroke weight
  24. 24. Apply Attributes to Objects • The Eyedropper tool is handy for applying all of an object’s attributes to another object. • Use the Eyedropper tool to copy formatting and effects between text elements.
  25. 25. Apply Attributes to Objects
  26. 26. Apply Attributes to Objects • Avoid applying fills to open paths. • Open path’s primary role is to feature a stroke. • Any effect that you can create by filling an open path is more effective by filling a closed path.
  27. 27. Apply Attributes to Objects Yellow fill applied to open path Endpoint of open path Endpoint of open path
  28. 28. Assemble an Illustration The sequence in which elements are drawn determines the stacking order
  29. 29. Assemble an Illustration • Newer elements appear in front of older elements. • Locking and hiding placed elements will help protect them when positioned correctly. • Use stacking order commands to assemble various components of an illustration.
  30. 30. Assemble an Illustration All elements in position
  31. 31. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect Use the Stroke panel to define stroke attributes: • Joins • Caps • Strokes – solid – dashed
  32. 32. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect Dash width text box Gap width text box Limit text box Caps Joins
  33. 33. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect • Caps are applied to the ends of stroke paths. • Stroke panel offers three choices: – Butt Cap for square ends – Round Caps for rounded ends – Projecting Caps for square edges that extend anchor point one-half weight of stroke.
  34. 34. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect Two segments with Butt caps Two segments with Projecting caps
  35. 35. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect Joins define appearance of corner. • Default is miter join, which produces stroked lines with pointed corners. • Round join produces stroked lines with rounded corners. • Beveled join produces stroked lines with squared corners.
  36. 36. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect Miter joinRound joinBevel join
  37. 37. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect • Miter limit determines when a miter join will be squared off to beveled edge. • Miter is length of point, from inside to outside. • Default miter limit is 4 times the stroke weight.
  38. 38. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect • Dashed stroke is like any other stroked path except stroke has been broken into sequence of dashes separated by gaps. • Customize dashed or dotted lines using the Stroke panel.
  39. 39. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect • Create a maximum of three different sizes of dashes and three different sizes of gaps. • When creating dashed stroke, remain conscious of cap choice in Stroke panel.
  40. 40. • Rectangle uses Exact Dashes options • Dashes distributed around the edge of the rectangle with exact measurements regardless of appearance. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect
  41. 41. • Rectangle uses Adjust Dashes option. • Dashes and gaps automatically adjusted around corners for a balanced effect. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect
  42. 42. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect • Creating pseudo-stroke effects: – Sometimes the most effective stroke is no stroke at all. – Place black-filled copy behind an illustration element, then distort the black element with Direct Selection tool so it peeks out from behind.
  43. 43. Stroke Objects for Artistic Effect Black copy pasted in back and distorted The ‘pseudo-stroke’ effect Original object
  44. 44. • Image Trace feature traces a bitmap image and converts it to a vector graphic. Use Image Trace
  45. 45. Use Image Trace • Once Image Trace has been executed, the Expand button becomes available on the Control panel. • Expanding a traced image allows you to modify the paths and points that comprise the new vector graphic.
  46. 46. Expanded traced graphic in Outline mode Use Image Trace
  47. 47. • You can use Image Trace to trace bitmap photo. • Tracing Presets on the Control panel offers a variety of ways to trace an image. • Settings in the Image Trace panel can be used to create interesting illustration effects. Use Image Trace
  48. 48. Use Image Trace Image Trace panel
  49. 49. Scanned photograph Photograph traced Use Image Trace
  50. 50. Use Live Paint Bucket Tool • In Live Paint mode the concepts of “objects” no longer applies. • You can fill and stroke negative spaces. • Live Paint Bucket tool uses two object types: – Regions – Edges
  51. 51. • Edges and regions are like fills and strokes but “live.” • Where regions overlap a third region is created that can be painted a different color. Use Live Paint Bucket Tool
  52. 52. Edge Region Edge with new color applied Region with new color applied Use Live Paint Bucket Tool
  53. 53. To paint objects with Live Paint Bucket tool: • Select object • Click Live Paint Bucket tool • Click a color in Swatches panel • Click a region to be filled Use Live Paint Bucket Tool
  54. 54. • When any object is moved, overlapping areas changes shape and fill accordingly. • This is the “live” aspect. Use Live Paint Bucket Tool
  55. 55. Moving an object in a Live Paint group Rectangle moved to the left Use Live Paint Bucket Tool
  56. 56. • Painting Virtual regions Six paths Four regions Appearance of regions based on paths being moved Use Live Paint Bucket Tool
  57. 57. To insert new objects into a live paint group: • Switch to Selection tool. • Double-click inside any of the regions of the group. Use Live Paint Bucket Tool
  58. 58. Gray rectangle indicates intersection mode New object is added to the live paint group Use Live Paint Bucket Tool
  59. 59. • Use Expand command to release Live Paint group into its component regions. • Select live paint group. • Click Expand button on Control panel. Use Live Paint Bucket Tool
  60. 60. • To use Live painting edges: • Double-click Live Paint Bucket tool. • Click Paint Strokes check box in Live Paint Bucket Options dialog box. Use Live Paint Bucket Tool
  61. 61. Paint Strokes check box Use Live Paint Bucket Tool