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Gardening 101


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Gardening introduction for Prince Edward Island Canada or zone 5b. Very basic and mostly focused on raised bed gardens especially using recycled materials.

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Gardening 101

  1. 1. Gardening Before grocery stores there were gardens!
  2. 2. Overview ● What to Grow? ● Where to get seeds? ● Seed vs Transplants ● Seed Tapes/Homemade Plant Pots ● Record keeping ● Where/how to grow? ● Natural pest/weed control ● Questions
  3. 3. What to Grow and How much? ● What do you eat? And how easy is it to grow in zone 5b (PEI)? ● Easy to grow crops – beans, lettuce, carrots, beets, turnips/rutabagas ● Harder crops – tomatoes, eggplant or delicate plants ● Lemons – inside maybe, Sweet Potatoes - yes ● How much? Start recording your usage. Then when planning orders for seed check how much seed i.e. 50 beets? Preserving? Pickles/Salsa etc. ● New to gardening...start small and build.
  4. 4. Sweet Potatoes on PEI
  5. 5. Where to get seeds? ● Local vs Canadian vs US – Veseys, Seed bank, Hope Seeds, William Dam Seeds, Salt Spring Seeds, Halifax Seeds, Richters, etc. – Stokes, Johnnys, etc. ● Organic, hybrid, heirloom, treated seeds – Organic no Genetically Modified Organisms, pesticides etc. – Hybrid – improved seeds by cross breeding, great for better crops but saving seeds is a gamble. – Heirloom – great for seed saving – Treated seeds (coated to prevent bugs eating but have herbicides on them – corn/beans etc.)
  6. 6. Seed vs Transplants ● Consider time, space, cost, experience? – Time – you will need to have time to start them and the planning around growing. – Space – where will you start plants? – Cost it is cheaper to buy seeds and/or start yourself $3.95 for 50 seeds vs $1-4 plant. Cost for soil to transplant etc. – Experience – you will need to know about germination, soil temperatures etc.
  7. 7. Germination Rates/Soil Temperatures ● Germination – the process by which plants grow from seed. 90% germination means 90% of the seeds came up to form a plan. Days to Germination – days until you seed the seed sprout or break through the soil. 5 days to 21days! ● Soil temperatures – too cold or too hot impact differently on whether your seed 'takes' or not. 40F-80F or 4C to 27C
  8. 8. Indoor Gardens
  9. 9. Seed Tapes/Homemade Plant Pots Click to see how to make pots
  10. 10. Record Keeping ● To prevent disease I.e crop rotation – Cover Crops/heavy feeders vs light feeders. ● To track crop harvest times – More organized more crops in space ● What works and what doesn't? ● When to plant I.e biodynamic gardening – Farmers Almanac
  11. 11. Sample Planning Record
  12. 12. Where and How to Grow? ● Good drainage ● Good soil ● Compost, Compost, Compost! ● Row North to South for best sun ● Raised beds best for poor soil ● Old tires ● Good for short rooted plants ● Fill with good soil
  13. 13. Where and How to Grow? ● Straw beds easy/cheap $2/bail ● Holds moisture, heat, and encourages fungi often good nematodes.
  14. 14. Where and How to Grow? ● Use recycled materials to create raised beds ● Make sure you can reach to centre from sides. Great for no tilling and height for easier gardening
  15. 15. Where and How to Grow? ● Wood pallets often free to take ● Good for short rooted plants ● Can be heavy and hard to pull boards
  16. 16. Where and How to Grow? ● Raised beds with mulch between garden in Ch'town ● Raised beds with grass currently.
  17. 17. Garden Inputs/Costs ● Feed your garden just like we feed our bodies... ● Coffee grounds, straw, leaves, egg shells, wood ash, seaweed, wood chips, grass clippings etc. ● Purchased lime (wood ash) to make soil more alkaline, coffee grounds (sulphates) to make soil more acidic. ● Add minerals – seaweed (Phosphorus), epsom salt (Magnesium), crushed baked egg shells (Calcium), etc. ● Ideal PH vegetable garden soils are 6.0 to 6.5. Vegetable plants do not grow well in acid soils with a pH of 4.5 to 5.5 or in alkaline soils with a pH above 7.5.
  18. 18. Natural pest/weed control ● Companion planting (Three sisters corn, beans, and squash) (Potatoes/beans) ● Mulches (seaweed, woodchips, straw, etc.) ● Natural insecticides (Pyrethrum) ● Nematodes
  19. 19.
  20. 20. 7/30/companion-planting-guide/
  21. 21. Resources ● Mother Earth ● Farmers Almanac ●
  22. 22. Thank you – Questions?