Earth Sciences 4. The properties of rocks and minerals reflect the processes that formed them. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. how to differentiate among igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks by their properties and methods of formation (the rock cycle). b. how to identify common rock-forming minerals (including quartz, calcite, feldspar, mica, and hornblende) and ore minerals using a table of diagnostic properties.
Crystals Fossils Gas bubbles Glassy Ribbonlike Sand orSmall, flat Imprints of "Holes," like surface layers pebblessurfaces that leaves, Swiss A shiny and Straight or Individualare shiny or shells, cheese, in the smooth wavy stripes stones,sparkly, liketiny mirrors. insects, or rock. surface, like of different pebbles, or other items colored colors in the sand grains glass rock. visible in the in the rock. rock.
Igneous-”Firemade” from cooled lavaMetamorphic-created from heat and pressureSedimentary-pebbles and gravel form layers sometimes with fossils
All rocks on earth wereoriginally igneous asthats the only methodentirely new rock canbe formed. Basalt
Crystallize from molten material Rhyolite Quick cooling = fine grainsSlow cooling = coarse grains Magma - below the Earths surface Lava - erupts onto the Earths surface Obsidian = volcanic glass
Igneous rocks are Lava Erupting recognized by: the interlocking texture of the grains the presence of vesicles (holes) in extrusive igneous rocks may be dark-colored and heavy may display two grain sizes, one much larger than the other
Metamorphic rocks Gneiss Rocks are recognized by: the interlocking texture of large grains foliation (layering) •Schist Rocks banded light and dark colors "ching" sound instead of a "chunk" sound when tapped
Mylonite –forms along fault zones Heat & Pressure
Define the rock cycle. Use a simple diagram with lables http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/K12/rkcycle/ rkcycleindex.html
5. Waves, wind, water, and ice shape and reshape the Earths land surface. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. some changes in the Earth are due to slow processes, such as erosion, and some changes are due to rapid processes, such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes. b. natural processes, including freezing/thawing and growth of roots, cause rocks to break down into smaller pieces. c. moving water erodes landforms, reshaping the land by taking it away from some places and depositing it as pebbles, sand, silt, and mud in other places (weathering, transport, and deposition).