Toxicology: Poisonous plants Digital Collection 2009 Stephanie Friedman  s26124042
<ul><li>1.  Acokanthera Oblongifolia   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous principle :  Cardiac glycos...
Acokanthera Oblongifolia
<ul><li>2. Aconitum Vulparia   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name  : Wolfsbane </li></ul><ul><li>Po...
Aconitum Vulparia Flowers
<ul><li>3.  Albizia versicolor   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : Poison pod albizia/ grootblaa...
Albizia versicolor
<ul><li>4.  Amaranthus thunbergii   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name  :  pigweed/ marog/misbredie...
Amaranthus thunbergii
<ul><li>5.  Argemone Mexicana   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name  :   Prickly Poppy/ Mexican Popp...
Argemone mexicana
<ul><li>5.  Asclepias Fruiticosa   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name   :  Milkweed/ Melkbos/tontel...
Asclepias fruiticosa Leaves Fruit
<ul><li>6.  Atropa Belladona   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name  :  Deadly nightshade </li></ul><...
Atropa Belladona Berry
<ul><li>7.  Cannabis Sativa   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name  :Indian hemp/marijuana/Dagga </li...
Cannabis sativa
<ul><li>8. Catharanthus Roseus   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name  :  Madagascar Periwinkle / isi...
Catharanthus roseus
<ul><li>9.  Cestrum Laevigatum   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  Inkberry/ inkbessie </li></ul...
Flowers Berries Cestrum Laevigatum
<ul><li>10. Chelidonium majus   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  greater celandine/ tetterwort....
Chelidonium majus
<ul><li>11. Chenopodium bonus-henricus  Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name :  Good King Henry / Poo...
Chenopodium bonus-henricus
<ul><li>12.  Clivia miniata   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name:  Bush Lily/Orange Lily/clivia/bos...
Berries Clivia miniata
<ul><li>13.  Cotyledon orbiculata   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  Plakkie/ pigs ears /kouter...
Cotyledon orbiculata
<ul><li>14. Cucumbis myriocarpus   Collected by Shaun Currie </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  Striped wild cucumber/ wildek...
Cucumbis myriocarpus
<ul><li>15.  Cynanchum africanum   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  bobbejaantou/klimop/ monkey...
Cynanchum africanum Flowers
<ul><li>16.  Datura stramonium   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  Thorn apple/ jimson weed/ sti...
Datura stramonium
<ul><li>17.  Dichapetalum Cymonsum   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name  :  poison leaf/ gifblaar/ ...
Secondary veins form loops near leaf margin. Dichapetalum cymosum
<ul><li>Gifveld includes  … </li></ul><ul><li>Burkea Africana, Ochna pulchra, Terminalia sericea, Parinari capensis, Fodog...
<ul><li>Indicator if Gifblaar  -  Burkea Africana </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name :  wild seringa/ wildesering </li></ul><ul...
Burkea africana
<ul><li>Indicator of  Gifblaar   -  Ochna Pulchra   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name   :  peeling...
Ochna pulchra Tree form
<ul><li>Terminalia sericea   Collected by Shaun Currie </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  silver terminalia </li></ul><ul><li...
Terminalia sericea
<ul><li>Indicator and Confuser of gifblaar -  Parinari capensis </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  Grysappel </li></ul><ul><l...
Parinari capensis Grey ventral surface of leaves of  P. capensis.
<ul><li>Confuser of Gifblaar -  Pygmaeothamnus zeyheri </li></ul><ul><li>Common name :  goorappel </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic ...
Pygmaeothamnus zeyheri Confuser of Gifblaar
<ul><li>18. Fodogio homblei (Gousiekte) - Indicator of Gifveld </li></ul><ul><li>Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul...
Fodogio homblei Gousiekte
<ul><li>19.  Duranta erecta   Collected by Steph Friedman   </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:   golden dewdrops </li></ul><ul...
Duranta Erecta
<ul><li>20.  Erythrina lysistemon   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name  :  common coral tree/lucky-...
Erythrina lysistemon
<ul><li>21.  Hedera helix   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : Common ivy/ Algerian ivy/ Canary i...
Hedera helix - Ivy Berries
<ul><li>22. Hydrangea macrophylla   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  bigleaf hydrangea,penny Ma...
Hydrangea macrophylla
<ul><li>23. Hypericum perforatum   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  St John’s Wort </li></ul><u...
Hypericum perforatum
Hypericum hircium
Hypericum androsaemum
<ul><li>24.  Lantana camara   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name   :  tick berry/ wilderoosmaryn </...
Flower Berries
<ul><li>25.  Nerium Oleander   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : oleander/selonsroos </li></ul><...
Nerium oleander
<ul><li>26.   Nicotiniana glauca   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Wild tobacco/tree tobacco/Mu...
Nicotiniana glauca
<ul><li>27. Persea Americana   Collected by Nina Kisch </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  Avocado </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic pri...
Persea americana Avocado Fruit
<ul><li>28. Pteridium Aquilinum   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name :  Bracken fern. </li></ul><ul...
Pteridium aquilinum
<ul><li>29. Rhododendron ponticum  Collected bySsteph Friedman   </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  Common Rhododendron </li>...
Rhododendron ponticum
<ul><li>30. Ricinus communis   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : Castor oil plant </li></ul><ul>...
Ricinus communis
<ul><li>31. Ruta Graveolens   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  Common Rue/ Herb-of-grace </li><...
Ruta graveolens
<ul><li>32 .  Solanum incanum   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  Thorn apple/ bitterappel/ gifa...
Solanum Incanum
<ul><li>33. Taxus baccata   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name  :European Yew </li></ul><ul><li>Tox...
Taxus buccata Berries
<ul><li>34. Tribulus terrestris  Collected by Nina Kisch </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:   devil’s thorn/ dubbeltjie/ duwwe...
Tribulus terrestris
<ul><li>35. Xanthium strumarium   Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name:  Large cocklebur, kankerroos ...
Xanthium strumarium
<ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>Botha C.J., Myburgh J.G., Toxicology 400 class notes. Pretoria University.  2008 </l...
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Tox Project- Steph Friedman

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  • Tox Project- Steph Friedman

    1. 1. Toxicology: Poisonous plants Digital Collection 2009 Stephanie Friedman s26124042
    2. 2. <ul><li>1. Acokanthera Oblongifolia Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous principle : Cardiac glycosides(cardenolide)– ouabain,acokantherin </li></ul><ul><li>Date : May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Pretoria Botanical Gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Grows in dry bushveld and sandy ground, especially the dunes along the eastern coast </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : Evergreen shrub/small tree; can reach a height of 5m </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Acute intoxication results. Signs to watch for are nausea, excessive salivation, purging,posterior paresis,tremores,bloat and ruminal stasis, exhaustion and irregularities in breathing and heart rates. Intake of a high concentration may lead to rapid heart failure and death. Ouabain is a common and highly toxic arrow poison in East Africa. Medicinal uses: treat snake bite, headache and abdominal pain. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Acokanthera Oblongifolia
    4. 4. <ul><li>2. Aconitum Vulparia Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : Wolfsbane </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous Principle : Aconitine - diterpenoid alkaloid </li></ul><ul><li>Date : 14 July 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Vienna, Austria and Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Central and Southern Europe, especially in Alps near creeks and meadows. Mountain areas of Northern hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : perennial growing up to 1m with ascending/trailing stems. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Roots, seeds, leaves and honey containing pollen of Aconitum, reported to be poisonous. Clinical sings include muscle tremors,ataxia,weakness,muscle twitching, respiratory distress and collapse. Sudden death or non-specific illness can result in cattle from ingestion.Toxic dose: 300-400g of fresh root in horses and 5g dried root in dogs. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Aconitum Vulparia Flowers
    6. 6. <ul><li>3. Albizia versicolor Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : Poison pod albizia/ grootblaarvalsdoring </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle : 4-methylpyridoxine </li></ul><ul><li>Date : March 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Pretoria Botanical gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Common is woodlands,bushlands and wooded grasslands..Occurs from Ethiopia to as far south as Natal,SA. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: Deciduos tree up to 20m tall </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Young pods can cause poisoning of cattle and sheep resulting in ‘albiziosis’. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CNS stimulation results in hypersensitivity, tetanic convulsions, opisthotonus or orthotonus, nystagmus hyperpyrexia followed by periods of normality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polypnoea, froth around the mouth, respiratory arrest. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Albizia versicolor
    8. 8. <ul><li>4. Amaranthus thunbergii Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : pigweed/ marog/misbredie </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Nitrate poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Date : April and May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Port Elizabeth and Onderstepoot, Pretoria </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat : Cosmopolitan weeds, distibuted all over world. Wild form occurs over most of SA. Seen in disturbed places. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : Weedy annual with erect leafy stems and soft, broad pointed leaves on long stalks Common on roadsides, disturbed soils and around cattle kraals/pens. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Most common species affected are cattle,sheep and swine. Fatalities seen when hungry animals allowed to consume large quantites of fresh dried plants. Most striking lesion is retroperitoneal oedema. Diagnosis by evidence of consumption of plant material. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Amaranthus thunbergii
    10. 10. <ul><li>5. Argemone Mexicana Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : Prickly Poppy/ Mexican Poppy/Bloudissl </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principe : Isoquinoline alkaloid – berbine and protopine </li></ul><ul><li>Date : 16 May 2009 and 14 July 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Vienna, Austria and Onderstepoort toxicology garden </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Very common, occurring throughout South Africa on old lands and disturbed soil. Indigenous to Central America and West Indies. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : Annual or Perrennial herb of up to 1m tall. Self seeding and troublesome. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Mexican poppy is prickly and unpalatable, therefore rarely eaten by domestic animals. Seeds may contaminate grain, posing threats of intoxication especially to chickens and cattle. Largely affects the cardiovascular system. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Argemone mexicana
    12. 12. <ul><li>5. Asclepias Fruiticosa Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : Milkweed/ Melkbos/tontelbos/lebegana </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Cardiac glycoside -Gomphoside and Afroside </li></ul><ul><li>Date : March and May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Onderstepoort Residence, Pretoria </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat : Most occur in USA. Found over most of SA, in disturbed places. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : Perennial herb 1-2 m tall with milky sap. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Grazing animals typically affected. Acute intoxication results. Clinical signs – trembling, staggering,dyspnoea,bloating,mydriasis,respiratory depression and death. Not very palatable but grazed during drought and toxicity maintained in dried form(hay). </li></ul>
    13. 13. Asclepias fruiticosa Leaves Fruit
    14. 14. <ul><li>6. Atropa Belladona Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : Deadly nightshade </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Tropane alkaloids.Atropine, L-hyoscyamine, </li></ul><ul><li>scopolamine </li></ul><ul><li>Date : 12 July 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Vienna, Austria an Internet due to blurry picture of whole plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Western to South Eastern Europe,Western Asia, Northen Africa. Usually in clear cut areas,at edges of woods,scattered in forests. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : perennial herb with erect stems and spreading branches. Paired leaves, one large and one small. Shiny, black,cherry sized fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Whole plant poisonous,ebrries especially.Symptoms include mydriasis,tachycardia,tachypnoea. Toxicosis due to contaminated fodder and grain. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Atropa Belladona Berry
    16. 16. <ul><li>7. Cannabis Sativa Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name :Indian hemp/marijuana/Dagga </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol </li></ul><ul><li>Date : 14 July 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Vienna, Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution :Native of Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : Large erect 1-2 m unbranched cosmopolitan weed. Bristle retort hairs on leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Side effects include tachycardia,mydriasis,rise in blood pressure,ataxia,tremors. Behaviour can be aggressive or bizarre. Eyes become glazed, gait uncertain and they bump into furniture. Most exposures usually involve dogs, following accidental ingestin of cannabis resin,leaves,cookies left around by drug users. Diagnosis difficult due to nature of product,owner not likely to volunteer nature of cause! Case seen where cattle died after eating from bales of ‘pressed hay’-(previous owner of farm was a drug dealer). </li></ul>
    17. 17. Cannabis sativa
    18. 18. <ul><li>8. Catharanthus Roseus Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : Madagascar Periwinkle / isisushlungu (Zulu) </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Mixture Indole Alkaloids </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Collection : 17 May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Nina park, Pretoria North </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Commonly grown in gardens and also found as roadside weed in KZN and Mpumalanga </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : Perennial herb </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Indole alkaloids are irritants top the skin and respiratory tract and causes damage to the cornea of the eye. Medically it is used to treat Hodgkin’s disease and other lymphoma’s </li></ul>
    19. 19. Catharanthus roseus
    20. 20. <ul><li>9. Cestrum Laevigatum Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Inkberry/ inkbessie </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: A carboxyatractyloside - Diterpenoid </li></ul><ul><li>Date: June 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Onderstepoort sports field,Pretoria </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Occurs over large part of Eastern SA. Found mainly in moister areas, it grows at the margins of bush or forests. It also grows in drier areas near water courses. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: A much branched shrub or tree of about 2m but may reach 10 and become a small tree. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Toxic to the liver resulting peracute death. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIT symptoms include salivation, rumen stasis,abominal pain and consipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNS symptoms-weakness, ataxia, arched back, out-streched neck, aggressiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver symptoms- icterus.Characteristic lesions seen on post-mortem. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Flowers Berries Cestrum Laevigatum
    22. 22. <ul><li>10. Chelidonium majus Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: greater celandine/ tetterwort. </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous principle: isoquinoline alkaloids - celandine </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 14 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Vienna, Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Native to Europe and Mediterranean basin.Widespread in North america. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: erect and may reach 30-120cm high. Bright opaque yellow sap. </li></ul><ul><li>Comment: acute toxicity. Cytostatic. Immune system stimulant and CNS sedatuve. Alkaloids known to stimulate heart and lungs of frogs, cats and dogs. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Chelidonium majus
    24. 24. <ul><li>11. Chenopodium bonus-henricus Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : Good King Henry / Poor mans asparagus/Perrennial goosefoot </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Saponins, Nitrates and Oxalic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 8 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Kew Gardens,London,England </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Native to central and southern Europe. Found in rich pastures,farmyards,roadsides. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form: Annual or Perrennial plant growing up to 40-80cm high. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish. Tradionally plants put in stream to kill fish for food, </li></ul>
    25. 25. Chenopodium bonus-henricus
    26. 26. <ul><li>12. Clivia miniata Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name: Bush Lily/Orange Lily/clivia/boslelie </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Isoquinoline alkaloid (eg: lycorine). </li></ul><ul><li>Date : 21 May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Pretoria Botanical Gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Found in fairly moist soil with a fair amount of sunlight.Naturally it occurs in the eastern coastal parts of the country (from the Eastern Cape up to Swaziland and Mpumalanga). </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : Shade loving perrenials with fleshy, tuberous rhizomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Both the leaves and the rhizomes of this plant are highly toxic. Toxicity causes salivation, vomition and diarrhoea and can also lead to paralysis and collapsing of the animal. Used in traditional medicine. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Berries Clivia miniata
    28. 28. <ul><li>13. Cotyledon orbiculata Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Plakkie/ pigs ears /kouterie/ imphewula/seredile </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: Cardiac glycoside (bufadenolide) </li></ul><ul><li>Date: March 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Pretoria Botanical gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Widespread over SA. Prefers sandy, well drained soils. Often occurs in the shelter of other plants and stones. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: Occurs as a succulent shrub about 60cm high. Fleshy bright green leaves often with a distinct red margin. Does also oocur in open situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains cumulative bufadenolides, and causes krimpsiekte a paretic, neuromuscular condition which is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the Little karoo and southern Great karoo. Eaten in dry season when other grazing unpalatable. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Cotyledon orbiculata
    30. 30. <ul><li>14. Cucumbis myriocarpus Collected by Shaun Currie </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Striped wild cucumber/ wildekomkommer/ Streepwildekomkommer </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle : Triterpenoid - Cucurbitacin A-L </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 23 April 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Roodeplaat </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Widely distributed through interior of SA. Disturbed soils such as cultivated lands and old lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : twinning perennial creeper with trailing,hairy stems </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: -Seeds are the only poisonous part of the plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large intake; collapse and sudden death without notable clinical signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less severe cases- Diarrhoea, Polypnoea </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Cucumbis myriocarpus
    32. 32. <ul><li>15. Cynanchum africanum Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: bobbejaantou/klimop/ monkey rope </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: Steroid glycoside - Cynafoside B and H </li></ul><ul><li>Date: April 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Lovemore park, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape and Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Common in shrubs and trees in bush clumps along the west coast and eastern Cape( from Namaqualand to Eastern Cape) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: Climber, common in trees and shrubs. All parts exude a milky latex. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Poisoning syndrome= cynanchosis. This CNS toxin results in staggering gait and tremors followed by spasms and convulsions which results finally in paralysis which may last for days or weeks </li></ul>
    33. 33. Cynanchum africanum Flowers
    34. 34. <ul><li>16. Datura stramonium Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Thorn apple/ jimson weed/ stinkblaar/ malpitte/ ijoyi </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: Atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 8 July 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Kew gardens, London, England </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Disturbed areas, it is a pioneer species.Widely distributed in SA. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: Weed, which grows to a height of 1,5m </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : This plant affects the CNS. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High doses block transmission of autonomic impulses at the ganglia and neuromuscular junctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical sings - mydriasis, cycloplegia, dry mouth, colic, tremors, convulsions, respiratory paralysis and coma. In horses there have been cases of gastric dilation resulting in rupture and unresponsive paralytic ileus. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Datura stramonium
    36. 36. <ul><li>17. Dichapetalum Cymonsum Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : poison leaf/ gifblaar/ makhouw </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Monofluoroacetic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Date : 21 May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Pretoria Botanical gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : From Gauteng northwards and westwards. Isolated area in extreme north of KZN. Found on northern slopes or sandy flats. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : Woody underground tree (very deep roots), tips of branches protrude from the soil. Alternate leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Young leafy parts most toxic. Third most important poisoning in SA. Cattle that ingest lethal amounts, drop dead after drinking water or exercise. Monofluoroacetic acid interferes with the Krebs cycle acetic acid metabolism,leading to fatal loss of cellular respiration. Latent period of 4-24hrs. Forms part of plant community – Gifveld. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Secondary veins form loops near leaf margin. Dichapetalum cymosum
    38. 38. <ul><li>Gifveld includes … </li></ul><ul><li>Burkea Africana, Ochna pulchra, Terminalia sericea, Parinari capensis, Fodogio homblei. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators of Gifblaar </li></ul><ul><li>Burkea Africana( wild seringa ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ochna Pulchra ( peeling plane / lekkerbreek )-tree form </li></ul><ul><li>Confusers </li></ul><ul><li>Ochna pulchra ( shrublet form) </li></ul><ul><li>Pymaeothamnus zeyheri ( goorappel) </li></ul><ul><li>Parinari capensis ( grysappel) </li></ul><ul><li>Pachystigms pygmaeum ( gousiektebossie) </li></ul><ul><li>Pachystigma thamnus( smooth gousiektebossie) </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Indicator if Gifblaar - Burkea Africana </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : wild seringa/ wildesering </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Gifblaar indicator, non-toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Collection :21 May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Pretoria Botanical gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : In warm subtropical dry areas. Limpopo, North- West, Mpumalanga and rocky northern slopes of Magaliesberg. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : Medium sized tree, growing up to 10m in height. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Indicator of Gifblaar </li></ul>
    40. 40. Burkea africana
    41. 41. <ul><li>Indicator of Gifblaar - Ochna Pulchra Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : peeling plane/ lekkerbreek </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : gifblaar indicator, non-toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Collection : 21 May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Pretoria Botanical gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Indicator of gifblaar, found in North- West, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and rocky northern slopes of Magaliesberg. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : small tree 3-7m/shrublet form 0.25m </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Confused with gifblaar in its shrublet form. Identified by its spirally alternate leaf form. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Ochna pulchra Tree form
    43. 43. <ul><li>Terminalia sericea Collected by Shaun Currie </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: silver terminalia </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle : None </li></ul><ul><li>Date : 2 Feb 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Roodeplaat </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat: Frequently on sandy soils and often at vlei margins and in open woodland </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : Small to medium sized tree, usually 4-6m high </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: An indicator of veld containing gifblaar. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Terminalia sericea
    45. 45. <ul><li>Indicator and Confuser of gifblaar - Parinari capensis </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Grysappel </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle : None </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 13 March 2008 Collected by Gary campbell </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Roodeplaat </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: common in sandy areas . Northern slopes of Magaliesberg. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : It is a creeping shrub only a few centimeters in height and growing in colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Indicator of gifblaar, it can be differentiated from gifblaar as the upper side of the leaf is bright green and smooth and the lower side of the leaf is greyer and velvety. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Parinari capensis Grey ventral surface of leaves of P. capensis.
    47. 47. <ul><li>Confuser of Gifblaar - Pygmaeothamnus zeyheri </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : goorappel </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle : non- toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Place of collection : CRC, Pretoria Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Date of collection : May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Sandy soil and northern slopes of Magaliesberg. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : 100- 150mm high plant </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Gifblaar confuser, apex of the leaves slightly twisted. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Pygmaeothamnus zeyheri Confuser of Gifblaar
    49. 49. <ul><li>18. Fodogio homblei (Gousiekte) - Indicator of Gifveld </li></ul><ul><li>Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Wild date, wildedadel, bosluisbessie </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: Pavettamine </li></ul><ul><li>Date : March 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Die Wilgers, Pretoria </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Found in the sour bushveld to the north and east of Pretoria in sandy soil. It is found in veld characterized by Burkea africana and Ochna pulchra trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : A perennial herb or shrublet with numerous erect stems up to 50cm high </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : -Gousiekte results - Young sprouts are very toxic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After a latent period of 6-8 weeks animals suddenly die usually after being frightened, handled or herded. The minority may show signs of CHF. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is due to toxins affecting the synthesis of new myosin or the breakdown of the hearts contractile proteins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only ruminants are suseptable as the toxin is pH-labile and destroyed pH< 2,5 </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Fodogio homblei Gousiekte
    51. 51. <ul><li>19. Duranta erecta Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: golden dewdrops </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle : unknown (said to be saponin) </li></ul><ul><li>Place of collection : Port Elizabeth </li></ul><ul><li>Date of collection: April 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Indigenous to Central America, popular garden shrub in SA. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: Quick growing spiny evergreen shrub up to 3m with blue flowers and yellow berries. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Suspected of causing livestock poisoning and children dying after berry ingestion. Affects the central nervous system. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Duranta Erecta
    53. 53. <ul><li>20. Erythrina lysistemon Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : common coral tree/lucky-bean tree </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Isoquinoline alkaloid </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Collection : July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Onderstepoort, Pretoria </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Occurs from North-west Province,Limpopo,Gauteng,Mpumalanga through to KZN. Grows in scrub forest,,wooded kloofs,dry woodlands,coastal dune bush. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : Medium sized deciduous tree with thick stems, covered with prickles. Pods with red seeds (‘lucky beans’) </li></ul><ul><li>Comments :Not very toxic. Mainly applied as topical application for sores, wounds, arthritis. Accidental poisoning can occur. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Erythrina lysistemon
    55. 55. <ul><li>21. Hedera helix Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : Common ivy/ Algerian ivy/ Canary ivy/ Madeira ivy </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle : Triterpenoid saponins and falcarinol,a polyyne </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 8 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Kew Gardens, London, England </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : This creeper grows in sun or shade, in rocky outcrops or marshes </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : Creeper which grows walls and trees to a height of 30m. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Ingestion of berries often (not always) causes vomiting and stomach cramps. Skin reactions ( contact dermatitis) seen. Respiratory depression. </li></ul>
    56. 56. Hedera helix - Ivy Berries
    57. 57. <ul><li>22. Hydrangea macrophylla Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: bigleaf hydrangea,penny Mac/ Hotensia </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: Cyanogenic glycoside - hydrangin </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 14 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Kew Gardens, London, England </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Commonly grown in gardens and landscapes. Native to Japan and Korea. Shrub can neutralize in compatible conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: Rounded shrub with opposite serrated leaves. Flowers arranged in huge ball-shaped clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Comment: Signs of poisoning include </li></ul><ul><li>GI signs – vomiting, diarrhea,colic </li></ul><ul><li>Tachypnoea, respiratory distress and cherry red blood. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Hydrangea macrophylla
    59. 59. <ul><li>23. Hypericum perforatum Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: St John’s Wort </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: Hypericin – primary photosensitizing chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 8 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Kew Gardens, London, England </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Indigenous to Europe which has become a noxious, invasive toxic weed in SA. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: yellow flowering,stoloniferous perennial herb. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Ingestion by livestock causes photosensitization, CNS depression,spontaneous abortion and can lead to death. Behavioural signs are general restlessness and skin irritation. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Hypericum perforatum
    61. 61. Hypericum hircium
    62. 62. Hypericum androsaemum
    63. 63. <ul><li>24. Lantana camara Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : tick berry/ wilderoosmaryn </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Triterpenoid </li></ul><ul><li>Date : 16 May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Nina Park , Pretoria North </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Noxious weed of tropical American origin. Widely distributed in SA due to seed dispersal by birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : Weedy shrub/ untidy climber </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : One of most common causes of livestock poisonings. Triterpenoids are icterogenic causing jaundice as a result of liver damage. Photosensitivity results from damage to liver parenchyma. Clinical signs include anorexia, severe depression, icterus and photosensitivity. Lantana poisoning usually only occurs in cattle. </li></ul>
    64. 64. Flower Berries
    65. 65. <ul><li>25. Nerium Oleander Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : oleander/selonsroos </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: Cardiac glycoside, oleandrin a (non-cumulative bufadenolide) </li></ul><ul><li>Date: May 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Onderstepoort campus UP </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Occurs as a weed in cool moist areas of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : Branched woody shrub up to 6m high </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : -All parts of the plant are poisonous -Acute intoxication results in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIT symptoms such as ruminal atony, bloat and stasis, salivation and diarrhoea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CVS symptoms such as positive inotrophy, and negative chronotrophy and dromotrophy leading to brady cardia and arrhythmiasand fibrillation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuro muscular system symptoms such as tremors, lagging behind the herd, posterior paresis progressing to paralysis. Restlessness, transient hypersensitivity and nervousness may result. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory system symptoms include depression, dyspnoea, later paralysis seen as periods of apnoea </li></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Nerium oleander
    67. 67. <ul><li>26. Nicotiniana glauca Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Wild tobacco/tree tobacco/Mustard tree </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: Pyridine alkaloid, anabasaine </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 13 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Kew gardens, London, England </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Originally from Bolivia and Argentina. Often found in disturbed soil, along river banks. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: Erect shrub or small tree. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death results from respiratory paralysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teratogenic defects result from consumption of this plant by the dam during pregnancy </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Nicotiniana glauca
    69. 69. <ul><li>27. Persea Americana Collected by Nina Kisch </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Avocado </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: fatty acid derivative - Persin </li></ul><ul><li>Date: April 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Nelspruit </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Native to central and South America. Seen throughout SA in gardens. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: Large tree that grows up to 20m </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Animals such as cats,dogs,cattle,goats,rabbits,rats,fish,birds and horses can be harmed or killed when they consume avocado leaves,bark, skin or pit. Symptoms of poisoning include GIT irritation,vomiting,diarhhea, respiratory distress,congestion and even death. </li></ul>
    70. 70. Persea americana Avocado Fruit
    71. 71. <ul><li>28. Pteridium Aquilinum Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name : Bracken fern. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : Ptaquiloside. </li></ul><ul><li>Date : 13 April 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Humansdorp, Eastern Cape </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Humid, high rainfall area in shaded area with moist soil. Weedy in disturbed areas and fields. Distributed throughout South Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : Shrub with underground stems growing to a height of approximately 1.5 metres. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : These plants do not usually cause intoxication unless grazing is deficient. These plants often grow and therefore cause poisoning after a veld fire. Symptoms of intoxication include drowsiness, dyspnoea, unsteady gait, staggers, weakness, tremors and convulsions. </li></ul>
    72. 72. Pteridium aquilinum
    73. 73. <ul><li>29. Rhododendron ponticum Collected bySsteph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Common Rhododendron </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous principle: Glycoside known as andromedotoxin or grayanotoxin </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 8 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Kew Gardens, London, England </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Native to Europe and Southwest Asia.Occurs from Bulgaria to Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : shrub with ovate evergreen or deciduous leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Signs include </li></ul><ul><li>GIT disturbances withing +- 6hrs after ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Anorexia, depression </li></ul><ul><li>Salivation, mausea, vomition </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphora,bradycardia,weakness,stupor,coma,convulsions and death may result. </li></ul>
    74. 74. Rhododendron ponticum
    75. 75. <ul><li>30. Ricinus communis Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name : Castor oil plant </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous principle : Ricin (lectin) </li></ul><ul><li>Date : 13 April 09 and May 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Humansdorp,Eastern Cape and Onderstepoort ,Pretoria </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : It is a widespread weed, which grows along roadsides, cultivated lands and other disturbed places </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : A highly branched shrub or small tree growing up to 4m. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs can appear a few hours to a few days after poisoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severs watery, haemorrhagic diarrhoea results, as well as abdominal pain, weakness and dehydration </li></ul></ul>
    76. 76. Ricinus communis
    77. 77. <ul><li>31. Ruta Graveolens Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Common Rue/ Herb-of-grace </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: Furocoumarins - rutin ( a volatile oil ), alkaloids , coumarin derivatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Date: 14 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Vienna, Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Native to Southern Europe and Mediterranean countries. Prefers hot and dry soil conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form: small bush-like Perennial shrub </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Rue contains pilocarpine which can induce abortions in horses.Can cause phototoxicity in and dermatitis. Skin irritation following contact and sunlight.Can cause stomach pain,vomiting,exhaustion and convulsions </li></ul>
    78. 78. Ruta graveolens
    79. 79. <ul><li>32 . Solanum incanum Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Thorn apple/ bitterappel/ gifappel/grysbitterapple </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: solanaceae glycoalkaloids ( slanine) </li></ul><ul><li>Date : April 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Humansdorp, Eastern Cape </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Disturbed areas, in the eastern half of the country, it may be found in woodlands, the margins forests </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : A robust herb </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Signs of toxicity include – salivation,diarrhea,vomiting,bloat,rapid pulse and breathing, even paralysis. </li></ul>
    80. 80. Solanum Incanum
    81. 81. <ul><li>33. Taxus baccata Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common Name :European Yew </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Principle : diterpenoid taxoids in folliated branches- taxane </li></ul><ul><li>Date of Collection : 8 July 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality : Kew gardens, London, England </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution : Woods and scrub.All over Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Form : Tree that can reach heights of 15m.Dioecious, single trunk, with spread out branches. Leaves are flattened and needle like </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : 100-200g fatal for horse.500g for a cow. Presence of leaves in digestive tract indicate poisoning.Circumstances leading to consumption – plant clippings, fallen branches, animal could reach tree. </li></ul>
    82. 82. Taxus buccata Berries
    83. 83. <ul><li>34. Tribulus terrestris Collected by Nina Kisch </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: devil’s thorn/ dubbeltjie/ duwweltjie/ inkunzane </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: triterpenoid (steroidal saponin) </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Nelspruit </li></ul><ul><li>Date: April 09 </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Common weed in South Africa, also found in Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : Creeping weed with a semi- perennial underground stem and root system, therefore spreads horizontally along the ground, small leaflets and attractive yellow flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : Causes geeldikkop, a hepatogenous photosensitization of sheep and goats that ingest young wilted plants. </li></ul>
    84. 84. Tribulus terrestris
    85. 85. <ul><li>35. Xanthium strumarium Collected by Steph Friedman </li></ul><ul><li>Common name: Large cocklebur, kankerroos </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic principle: Carboxyatractyloside </li></ul><ul><li>Date: April 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Locality: Ondertsepoort , Pretoria </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat and Distribution: Grows in disturbed soil and also next to streams. Found as weed throughout SA. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth form : Erect annual weed g ro wing to a height of 1,2m </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: Affects the liver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical signs occur several hours after ingestion, animals show GIT pain, muscle weakness and sometimes opisthotonus and convulsions. </li></ul></ul>
    86. 86. Xanthium strumarium
    87. 87. <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>Botha C.J., Myburgh J.G., Toxicology 400 class notes. Pretoria University. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Kellerman T.S., Coetzer J.A.W., Naude T.W. & Botha C.J. Plant poisoning and mycotoxicoses of Livestock in South Africa. Oxford University Press, Cape Town. 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Van Wyk B., van Heerden F.& van Oudtshoorn B. Poisonous plants of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria. 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Resources </li></ul>

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