Enhancing Student Learning

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  • Enhancing Student Learning

    1. 1. Enhancing Student Learning Facilitating Student Discussion Online
    2. 2. From the Experts <ul><li>Salmon, G. (2003) E-moderating: The key to teaching & learning online. </li></ul><ul><li>Five stage model for moderating or facilitating discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Bender, T. (2003) Discussion-based online teaching to enhance student learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Practical applications </li></ul>
    3. 3. Welcome Activity Purpose Stage 1 <ul><li>Salmon’s Stage 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Access and Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to the platform </li></ul><ul><li>Technical support? </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bender's tips: </li></ul><ul><li>Individual contact at start </li></ul><ul><li>Personal intros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completing a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal anecdote or short descriptive stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualizing the discussion setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal learning objectives for the course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intriguing first discussion topic </li></ul><ul><li>http://dl.svrtc.org </li></ul>
    4. 4. Stage 2 - Online Socialization <ul><li>Developing sense of community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal discussion assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding of contribution for learning the topic, the course, the discipline </li></ul>
    5. 5. Stage 2 Activity Online Socialization <ul><li>Critique of student learning mock discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze for the &quot;good&quot; and the &quot;bad&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jot down your thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share thoughts </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Discussion Prompts <ul><li>Initial questions and questions within the discussions used to spur or motivate further in-depth discussion are essential to higher levels of thinking for construction of knowledge.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crafting questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/online_questions/ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Protocols, guidelines, expectations  <ul><li>Clear expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives or purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality not quantity counts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal vs. informal response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encouragement and support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Praise and model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address flamers and lurkers privately </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Awareness of cultural differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor or sarcasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emoticons </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Stage 3 - Information Exchange or Teaching <ul><li>Interaction with content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known and unknown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text, audio, video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interaction with people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines & protocols </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Information Exchange: Blogs <ul><li>http://classblogmeister.com/blog.php?blogger_id=189606&assignmentid=5175 </li></ul><ul><li>http://ithink.edublogs.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://mtnbrookseniors.blogspot.com/ </li></ul>
    10. 10. Stage 4 - Knowledge Construction <ul><li>Student role </li></ul><ul><li>Building on ideas of others </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Widening viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Online authors vs. transmitters of information </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor role </li></ul><ul><li>Providing strategic, problem- or practice-based issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer not obvious or not just one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making sense of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of ideas or challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debates, role playing, group projects </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>Weaving </li></ul><ul><li>New questions, challenges, alternatives </li></ul>
    11. 11. Summarizing Reproducing information in abbreviated form Picking out main points Original meaning kept
    12. 12. Weaving Weaving Instructions - Salmon, p. 155, 2003 Making connections A new statement Selects and adds to
    13. 13. Research Results: Two AP English Online High School Courses <ul><li>Knowledge may be constructed through student discussion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 forums studied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All reached at least Phase III </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation of meaning/co-construction of knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phase IV and V responses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing and modification of proposed synthesis or co-construction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement statement(s)/applications of newly-constructed meaning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher % Phase III than Course 1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Stage 5 - Development <ul><li>Higher levels of critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect, articulate and evaluate one’s own thinking and processes for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul>
    15. 15. Stage 5 Activity Development <ul><li>Discussion continues – http://practiceandtech.blogspot.com </li></ul><ul><li>or e-mail [email_address] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From research, implications are that students can socially construct knowledge or learning through online discussions. From your personal experiences, would you agree or disagree with this implication? Why? •There is also research that implies teacher facilitation can enhance student learning in online student interactions. From consideration of Salmon's model and reflecting on your own facilitation of student discussions, is there a need or not a need for any modifications? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Questions, Thoughts? <ul><li>Linda Townsend </li></ul><ul><li>ITTIP </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>434-517-0717 </li></ul>

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