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  1. 1. Chapter 2 <ul><li>Hazards - Biological, Chemical, Physical </li></ul>
  2. 2. Objective <ul><li>Awareness of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of certain microorganisms </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hazard <ul><li>A biological, chemical or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hazards <ul><li>In HACCP, “hazards” refer to conditions or contaminants in foods that can cause illness or injury. It does not refer to undesirable conditions or contaminants such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic fraud and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violations of regulatory food standards not directly related to safety </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hazards <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul>
  6. 6. Biological Hazards <ul><li>Microorganisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasitic worms </li></ul>
  7. 7. Microorganisms <ul><li>Microorganisms can be beneficial, even essential </li></ul><ul><li>Some microorganisms can be pathogenic. It is this class that concerns food processors and public health officials </li></ul>
  8. 8. What do microorganisms (other than viruses) need? <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Proper temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Air, no air, minimal air </li></ul>
  9. 9. Many pathogenic microorganisms reproduce by dividing in two <ul><li>When they grow, microorganisms produce by-products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeast - bread, beverages, fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid bacteria - yogurt, cheese, meats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus aureus - enterotoxin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most spoiled foods do not present a health risk, and not all food that appears normal is safe to consume </li></ul>
  10. 10. Spoilage or Decomposition <ul><li>Food spoilage or decomposition that can result in a food safety problem should be prevented or controlled by a HACCP program </li></ul>
  11. 11. Microbiological hazards include harmful: <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses, and </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bacterial Hazards <ul><li>Food infection and food intoxication </li></ul><ul><li>Sporeforming and nonsporeforming bacteria </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sporeforming Bacteria (Pathogens) <ul><li>Clostridium botulinum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteolytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonproteolytic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clostridium perfringens </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus cereus </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nonsporeforming Bacteria <ul><li>Brucella abortis , B. suis </li></ul><ul><li>Campylobacter spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenic Escherichia coli (e.g., E. coli O157:H7) </li></ul><ul><li>Listeria monocytogenes </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella spp. (e.g., S. typhimurium , S. enteriditis ) </li></ul><ul><li>Shigella spp. (e.g., S. dysinteriae ) </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus ( e.g., coagulase positive S. aureus) </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus pyogenes </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrio spp. (e.g., V. cholerae , V. parahaemolyticus , V . vulnificus ,) </li></ul><ul><li>Yersinia enterocolitica </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hazards from Viruses in Foods <ul><li>What are viruses? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do they come from? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they reproduce? </li></ul><ul><li>How can they be controlled? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some examples? (Table A) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Viral Hazards <ul><li>Very small particles that cannot be seen with a light microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Do not need food, water or air to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Do not cause spoilage </li></ul><ul><li>Infect living cells and are species specific </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce inside the host cell </li></ul><ul><li>Survive in human intestines, water or food for months </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission usually by fecal-oral route and related to poor personnel hygiene </li></ul>
  17. 17. Parasites in Foods <ul><li>Parasites are organisms that need a host to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of kinds exist worldwide, but only about 100 types are known to infect people through food contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of concern from food or water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic worms [e.g., roundworms (nematodes), tapeworms (cestodes), flukes (trematodes)] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of fecal material in transmission of parasites </li></ul>
  18. 18. Parasitic Protozoa and Worms <ul><li>Roundworms (nematodes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anisakis simplex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascaris lumbricoides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudoterranova dicepiens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trichinella spiralis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tapeworms (cestodes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diphyllobothrium latum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taenia solium , T. saginata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flukes (trematodes) </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryptosporidium parvum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entamoeba histolytica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giardia lamblia </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Chemical Hazards <ul><li>Naturally Occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Intentionally added </li></ul><ul><li>Unintentionally added </li></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Naturally Occurring Chemical Hazards <ul><li>Mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin) </li></ul><ul><li>Scombrotoxin </li></ul><ul><li>Ciguatoxin </li></ul><ul><li>Shellfish toxins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)/Domoic Acid </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Intentionally Added Chemicals - Food Additives <ul><li>Direct (allowable limits under GMPs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservatives (e.g., nitrite and sulfiting agents) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional additives (e.g., niacin, vitamin A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color additives (e.g., FD&C Yellow No. 5) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals <ul><li>Agricultural chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prohibited substances (21 CFR, Part 21.189) </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic elements and compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., lead, zinc, arsenic, mercury, cyanide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary direct and indirect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., lubricants, cleaning compounds, sanitizers, paint </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Physical Hazard <ul><li>Any potentially harmful extraneous matter not normally found in food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul></ul>