LEADERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, BIOETHICS AND RESEARCH1. Ms. Castro is newly-promoted to a patient care manager position. She updates her knowledge on the theories inmanagement and leadership in order to become effective in her new role. She learns that some managers have lowconcern for services and high concern for staff. Which style of management refers to this?A.Organization ManB.Impoverished ManagementC.Country Club ManagementD.Team ManagementAnswer: (C) Country Club ManagementCountry club management style puts concern for the staff as number one priority at the expense of the delivery ofservices. He/she runs the department just like a country club where every one is happy including the manager.2. Her former manager demonstrated passion for serving her staff rather than being served. She takes time to listen,prefers to be a teacher first before being a leader, which is characteristic ofA.Transformational leaderB.Transactional leaderC.Servant leaderD.Charismatic leaderAnswer: (C) Servant leaderServant leaders are open-minded, listen deeply, try to fully understand others and not being judgmental3. On the other hand, Ms. Castro notices that the Chief Nurse Executive has charismatic leadership style. Which ofthe following behaviors best describes this style?A.Possesses inspirational quality that makes followers gets attracted of him and regards him with reverenceB.Acts as he does because he expects that his behavior will yield positive resultsC.Uses visioning as the core of his leadershipD.Matches his leadership style to the situation at hand.Answer: (A) Possesses inspirational quality that makes followers gets attracted of him and regards him withreverenceCharismatic leaders make the followers feel at ease in their presence. They feel that they are in good handswhenever the leader is around.4. Which of the following conclusions of Ms. Castro about leadership characteristics is TRUE?A.There is a high correlation between the communication skills of a leader and the ability to get the job done.B.A manager is effective when he has the ability to plan well.C.Assessment of personal traits is a reliable tool for predicting a manager’s potential.D.There is good evidence that certain personal qualities favor success in managerial role.Answer: (C) Assessment of personal traits is a reliable tool for predicting a manager’s potential.It is not conclusive that certain qualities of a person would make him become a good manager. It can only predict amanager’s potential of becoming a good one.5. She reads about Path Goal theory. Which of the following behaviors is manifested by the leader who uses thistheory?A.Recognizes staff for going beyond expectations by giving them citationsB.Challenges the staff to take individual accountability for their own practiceC.Admonishes staff for being laggards.D.Reminds staff about the sanctions for non performance.Answer: (A) Recognizes staff for going beyond expectations by giving them citationsPath Goal theory according to House and associates rewards good performance so that others would do the same6. One leadership theory states that “leaders are born and not made,” which refers to which of the following theories?A.TraitB.CharismaticC.Great ManD.Situational
Answer: (C) Great ManLeaders become leaders because of their birth right. This is also called Genetic theory or the Aristotelian theory7. She came across a theory which states that the leadership style is effective dependent on the situation. Which ofthe following styles best fits a situation when the followers are self-directed, experts and arematured individuals?A.DemocraticB.AuthoritarianC.Laissez faireD.BureaucraticAnswer: (C) Laissez faireLaissez faire leadership is preferred when the followers know what to do and are experts in the field. This leadershipstyle is relationship-oriented rather than task-centered.8. She surfs the internet for more information about leadership styles. She reads about shared leadership as apractice in some magnet hospitals. Which of the following describes this style of leadership?A.Leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the leader’s personality and the specificsituationB.Leaders believe that people are basically good and need not be closely controlledC.Leaders rely heavily on visioning and inspire members to achieve resultsD.Leadership is shared at the point of care.Answer: (D) Leadership is shared at the point of care.Shared governance allows the staff nurses to have the authority, responsibility and accountability for their ownpractice.9. Ms. Castro learns that some leaders are transactional leaders. Which of the following does NOT characterize atransactional leader?A.Focuses on management tasksB.Is a caretakerC.Uses trade-offs to meet goalsD.Inspires others with visionAnswer: (D) Inspires others with visionInspires others with a vision is characteristic of a transformational leader. He is focused more on the day-to-dayoperations of the department/unit.10. She finds out that some managers have benevolent-authoritative style of management. Which of the followingbehaviors will she exhibit most likely?A.Have condescending trust and confidence in their subordinatesB.Gives economic or ego awardsC.Communicates downward to the staffD.Allows decision making among subordinatesAnswer: (A) Have condescending trust and confidence in their subordinatesBenevolent-authoritative managers pretentiously show their trust and confidence to their followers11. Harry is a Unit Manager I the Medical Unit. He is not satisfied with the way things are going in his unit. Patientsatisfaction rate is 60% for two consecutive months and staff morale is at its lowest. He decides to plan and initiatechanges that will push for a turnaround in the condition of the unit. Which of the following actions is a priority forHarry?A.Call for a staff meeting and take this up in the agenda.B.Seek help from her manager.C.Develop a strategic action on how to deal with these concerns.D.Ignore the issues since these will be resolved naturally.Answer: (A) Call for a staff meeting and take this up in the agenda.This will allow for the participation of every staff in the unit. If they contribute to the solutions of the problem, they willown the solutions; hence the chance for compliance would be greater.
12. She knows that there are external forces that influence changes in his unit. Which of the following is NOT anexternal force?A.Memo from the CEO to cut down on electrical consumptionB.Demands of the labor sector to increase wagesC.Low morale of staff in her unitD.Exacting regulatory and accreditation standardsAnswer: (C) Low morale of staff in her unitLow morale of staff is an internal factor that affects only the unit. All the rest of the options emanate from the topexecutive or from outside the institution.13. After discussing the possible effects of the low patient satisfaction rate, the staff started to list down possiblestrategies to solve the problems head-on. Should they decide to vote on the best change strategy, which of thefollowing strategies is referred to this?A.CollaborationB.Majority ruleC.DominanceD.CompromiseAnswer: (B) Majority ruleMajority rule involves dividing the house and the highest vote wins.1/2 + 1 is a majority.14. One staff suggests that they review the pattern of nursing care that they are using, which is described as aA.job descriptionB.system used to deliver careC.manual of procedureD.rules to be followedAnswer: (B) system used to deliver careA system used to deliver care. In the 70’s it was termed as methods of patient assignment; in the early 80’s it wascalled modalities of patient care then patterns of nursing care in the 90’s until recently authors called it nursing caresystems.15. Which of the following is TRUE about functional nursing?A.Concentrates on tasks and activitiesB.Emphasizes use of group collaborationC.One-to-one nurse-patient ratioD.Provides continuous, coordinated and comprehensive nursing servicesAnswer: (A) Concentrates on tasks and activitiesFunctional nursing is focused on tasks and activities and not on the holistic care of the patients16. Functional nursing has some advantages, which one is an EXCEPTION?A.Psychological and sociological needs are emphasized.B.Great control of work activities.C.Most economical way of delivering nursing services.D.Workers feel secure in dependent roleAnswer: (A) Psychological and sociological needs are emphasized.When the functional method is used, the psychological and sociological needs of the patients are neglected; thepatients are regarded as ‘tasks to be done ‘17. He raised the issue on giving priority to patient needs. Which of the following offers the best way for settingpriority?A.Assessing nursing needs and problemsB.Giving instructions on how nursing care needs are to be metC.Controlling and evaluating the delivery of nursing careD.Assigning safe nurse: patient ratioAnswer: (A) Assessing nursing needs and problems
This option follows the framework of the nursing process at the same time applies the management process ofplanning, organizing, directing and controlling18. Which of the following is the best guarantee that the patient’s priority needs are met?A.Checking with the relative of the patientB.Preparing a nursing care plan in collaboration with the patientC.Consulting with the physicianD.Coordinating with other members of the teamAnswer: (B) Preparing a nursing care plan in collaboration with the patientThe best source of information about the priority needs of the patient is the patient himself. Hence using a nursingcare plan based on his expressed priority needs would ensure meeting his needs effectively.19. When Harry uses team nursing as a care delivery system, he and his team need to assess the priority of care fora group of patients, which of the following should be a priority?A.Each patient as listed on the worksheetB.Patients who needs least careC.Medications and treatments required for all patientsD.Patients who need the most careAnswer: (D) Patients who need the most careIn setting priorities for a group of patients, those who need the most care should be number-one priority to ensurethat their critical needs are met adequately. The needs of other patients who need less care ca be attended to later oreven delegated to assistive personnel according to rules on delegation.20. She is hopeful that her unit will make a big turnaround in the succeeding months. Which of the following actions ofHarry demonstrates that he has reached the third stage of change?A.Wonders why things are not what it used to beB.Finds solutions to the problemsC.Integrate the solutions to his day-to-day activitiesD.Selects the best change strategyAnswer: (C) Integrate the solutions to his day-to-day activitiesIntegrate the solutions to his day-to-day activities is a expected to happen during the third stage of change when thechange agent incorporate the selected solutions to his system and begins to create a change.21. Julius is a newly-appointed nurse manager of The Good Shepherd Medical Center, a tertiary hospital locatedwithin the heart of the metropolis. He thinks of scheduling planning workshop with his staff in order to ensure aneffective and efficient management of the department. Should he decide to conduct a strategic planning workshop,which of the following is NOT a characteristic of this activity?A.Long-term goal-settingB.Extends to 3-5 years in the futureC.Focuses on routine tasksD.Determines directions of the organizationAnswer: (C) Focuses on routine tasksStrategic planning involves options A, B and D except C which is attributed to operational planning22. Which of the following statements refer to the vision of the hospital?A.The Good Shepherd Medical Center is a trendsetter in tertiary health care in the Philippines in the next five yearsB.The officers and staff of The Good Shepherd Medical Center believe in the unique nature of the human personC.All the nurses shall undergo continuing competency training program.D.The Good Shepherd Medical Center aims to provide a patient-centered care in a total healing environment.Answer: (A) The Good Shepherd Medical Center is a trendsetter in tertiary health care in the Philippines inthe next five yearsA vision refers to what the institution wants to become within a particular period of time.23. The statement, “The Good Shepherd Medical Center aims to provide patient-centered care in a total healingenvironment” refers to which of the following?A.Vision
B.GoalC.PhilosophyD.MissionAnswer: (B) GoalB24. Julius plans to revisit the organizational chart of the department. He plans to create a new position of a PatientEducator who has a coordinating relationship with the head nurse in the unit. Which of the following will likely depictthis organizational relationship?A.BoxB.Solid lineC.Broken lineD.Dotted lineAnswer: (C) Broken lineThis is a staff relationship hence it is depicted by a broken line in the organizational structure25. He likewise stresses the need for all the employees to follow orders and instructions from him and not fromanyone else. Which of the following principles does he refer to?A.Scalar chainB.DisciplineC.Unity of commandD.OrderAnswer: (C) Unity of commandThe principle of unity of command means that employees should receive orders coming from only one manager andnot from two managers. This averts the possibility of sowing confusion among the members of the organization26. Julius orients his staff on the patterns of reporting relationship throughout the organization. Which of the followingprinciples refer to this?A.Span of controlB.HierarchyC.Esprit d’ corpsD.Unity of directionAnswer: (B) HierarchyHierarchy refers to the pattern of reporting or the formal line of authority in an organizational structure.27. He emphasizes to the team that they need to put their efforts together towards the attainment of the goals of theprogram. Which of the following principles refers to this?A.Span of controlB.Unity of directionC.Unity of commandD.Command responsibilityAnswer: (B) Unity of directionUnity of direction means having one goal or one objective for the team to pursue; hence all members of theorganization should put their efforts together towards the attainment of their common goal or objective.28. Julius stresses the importance of promoting ‘esprit d corps’ among the members of the unit. Which of thefollowing remarks of the staff indicates that they understand what he pointed out?A.“Let’s work together in harmony; we need to be supportive of one another”B.“In order that we achieve the same results; we must all follow the directives of Julius and not from other managers.”C.“We will ensure that all the resources we need are available when needed.”D.“We need to put our efforts together in order to raise the bar of excellence in the care we provide to all ourpatients.”Answer: (A) “Let’s work together in harmony; we need to be supportive of one another”
The principle of ‘esprit d’ corps’ refers to promoting harmony in the workplace, which is essential in maintaining aclimate conducive to work.29. He discusses the goal of the department. Which of the following statements is a goal?A.Increase the patient satisfaction rateB.Eliminate the incidence of delayed administration of medicationsC.Establish rapport with patients.D.Reduce response time to two minutes.Answer: (A) Increase the patient satisfaction rateGoal is a desired result towards which efforts are directed. Options AB, C and D are all objectives which are aimed atspecific end.30. He wants to influence the customary way of thinking and behaving that is shared by the members of thedepartment. Which of the following terms refer to this?A.Organizational chartB.Cultural networkC.Organizational structureD.Organizational cultureAnswer: (D) Organizational cultureAn organizational culture refers to the way the members of the organization think together and do things around themtogether. It’s their way of life in that organization31. He asserts the importance of promoting a positive organizational culture in their unit. Which of the followingbehaviors indicate that this is attained by the group?A.Proactive and caring with one anotherB.Competitive and perfectionistC.Powerful and oppositionalD.Obedient and uncomplainingAnswer: (A) Proactive and caring with one anotherPositive culture is based on humanism and affiliative norms32. Stephanie is a new Staff Educator of a private tertiary hospital. She conducts orientation among new staff nursesin her department. Joseph, one of the new staff nurses, wants to understand the channel of communication, span ofcontrol and lines of communication. Which of the following will provide this information?A.Organizational structureB.PolicyC.Job descriptionD.Manual of proceduresAnswer: (A) Organizational structureOrganizational structure provides information on the channel of authority, i.e., who reports to whom and with whatauthority; the number of people who directly reports to the various levels of hierarchy and the lines of communicationwhether line or staff.33. Stephanie is often seen interacting with the medical intern during coffee breaks and after duty hours. What type oforganizational structure is this?A.FormalB.InformalC.StaffD.LineAnswer: (B) InformalThis is usually not published and oftentimes concealed.34. She takes pride in saying that the hospital has a decentralized structure. Which of the following is NOTcompatible with this type of model?A.Flat organizationB.Participatory approachC.Shared governance
D.Tall organizationAnswer: (D) Tall organizationTall organizations are highly centralized organizations where decision making is centered on one authority level.35. Centralized organizations have some advantages. Which of the following statements are TRUE?1. Highly cost-effective2. Makes management easier3. Reflects the interest of the worker4. Allows quick decisions or actions.A.1 & 2B.2 & 4C.2, 3& 4D.1, 2, & 4Answer: (A) 1 & 2Centralized organizations are needs only a few managers hence they are less expensive and easier to manage36. Stephanie delegates effectively if she has authority to act, which is BEST defined as:A.having responsibility to direct othersB.being accountable to the organizationC.having legitimate right to actD.telling others what to doAnswer: (C) having legitimate right to actAuthority is a legitimate or official right to give command. This is an officially sanctioned responsibility37. Regardless of the size of a work group, enough staff must be available at all times to accomplish certainpurposes. Which of these purposes in NOT included?A.Meet the needs of patientsB.Provide a pair of hands to other units as neededC.Cover all time periods adequately.D.Allow for growth and development of nursing staff.Answer: (B) Provide a pair of hands to other units as neededProviding a pair of hands for other units is not a purpose in doing an effective staffing process. This is a function of astaffing coordinator at a centralized model.38. Which of the following guidelines should be least considered in formulating objectives for nursing care?A.Written nursing care planB.Holistic approachC.Prescribed standardsD.Staff preferencesAnswer: (D) Staff preferencesStaff preferences should be the least priority in formulating objectives of nursing care. Individual preferences shouldbe subordinate to the interest of the patients.41. Stephanie considers shifting to transformational leadership. Which of the following statements best describes thistype of leadership?A.Uses visioning as the essence of leadership.B.Serves the followers rather than being served.C.Maintains full trust and confidence in the subordinatesD.Possesses innate charisma that makes others feel good in his presence.Answer: (A) Uses visioning as the essence of leadership.Transformational leadership relies heavily on visioning as the core of leadership.
42. As a manager, she focuses her energy on both the quality of services rendered to the patients as well as thewelfare of the staff of her unit. Which of the following management styles does she adopt?A.Country club managementB.Organization man managementC.Team managementD.Authority-obedience managementAnswer: (C) Team managementTeam management has a high concern for services and high concern for staff.43. Katherine is a young Unit Manager of the Pediatric Ward. Most of her staff nurses are senior to her, veryarticulate, confident and sometimes aggressive. Katherine feels uncomfortable believing that she is the scapegoat ofeverything that goes wrong in her department. Which of the following is the best action that she must take?A.Identify the source of the conflict and understand the points of frictionB.Disregard what she feels and continue to work independentlyC.Seek help from the Director of NursingD.Quit her job and look for another employment.Answer: (A) Identify the source of the conflict and understand the points of frictionThis involves a problem solving approach, which addresses the root cause of the problem.44. As a young manager, she knows that conflict occurs in any organization. Which of the following statementsregarding conflict is NOT true?A.Can be destructive if the level is too highB.Is not beneficial; hence it should be prevented at all timesC.May result in poor performanceD.May create leadersAnswer: (B) Is not beneficial; hence it should be prevented at all timesConflicts are beneficial because it surfaces out issues in the open and can be solved right away. Likewise, membersof the team become more conscientious with their work when they are aware that other members of the team arewatching them.45. Katherine tells one of the staff, “I don’t have time to discuss the matter with you now. See me in my office later”when the latter asks if they can talk about an issue. Which of the following conflict resolution strategies did she use?A.SmoothingB.CompromiseC.AvoidanceD.RestrictionAnswer: (C) AvoidanceThis strategy shuns discussing the issue head-on and prefers to postpone it to a later time. In effect the problemremains unsolved and both parties are in a lose-lose situation.46. Kathleen knows that one of her staff is experiencing burnout. Which of the following is the best thing for her todo?A.Advise her staff to go on vacation.B.Ignore her observations; it will be resolved even without interventionC.Remind her to show loyalty to the institution.D.Let the staff ventilate her feelings and ask how she can be of help.Answer: (D) Let the staff ventilate her feelings and ask how she can be of help.Reaching out and helping the staff is the most effective strategy in dealing with burn out. Knowing that someone isready to help makes the staff feel important; hence her self-worth is enhanced.47. She knows that performance appraisal consists of all the following activities EXCEPT:A.Setting specific standards and activities for individual performance.B.Using agency standards as a guide.C.Determine areas of strength and weaknessesD.Focusing activity on the correction of identified behavior.
Answer: (D) Focusing activity on the correction of identified behavior.Performance appraisal deal with both positive and negative performance; is not meant to be a fault-finding activity48. Which of the following statements is NOT true about performance appraisal?A.Informing the staff about the specific impressions of their work help improve their performance.B.A verbal appraisal is an acceptable substitute for a written reportC.Patients are the best source of information regarding personnel appraisal.D.The outcome of performance appraisal rests primarily with the staff.Answer: (C) Patients are the best source of information regarding personnel appraisal.The patient can be a source of information about the performance of the staff but it is never the best source. Directlyobserving the staff is the best source of information for personnel appraisal.49. There are times when Katherine evaluates her staff as she makes her daily rounds. Which of the following is NOTa benefit of conducting an informal appraisal?A.The staff member is observed in natural setting.B.Incidental confrontation and collaboration is allowed.C.The evaluation is focused on objective data systematically.D.The evaluation may provide valid information for compilation of a formal report.Answer: (C) The evaluation is focused on objective data systematically.Collecting objective data systematically can not be achieved in an informal appraisal. It is focused on what actuallyhappens in the natural work setting.50. She conducts a 6-month performance review session with a staff member. Which of the following actions isappropriate?A.She asks another nurse to attest the session as a witness.B.She informs the staff that she may ask another nurse to read the appraisal before the session is over.C.She tells the staff that the session is manager-centered.D.The session is private between the two members.Answer: (D) The session is private between the two members.The session is private between the manager and the staff and remains to be so when the two parties do not divulgethe information to others.51. Alexandra is tasked to organize the new wing of the hospital. She was given the authority to do as she deems fit.51. She is aware that the director of nursing has substantial trust and confidence in her capabilities, communicatesthrough downward and upward channels and usually uses the ideas and opinions of her staff. Which of the followingis her style of management?A.Benevolent –authoritativeB.ConsultativeC.Exploitive-authoritativeD.ParticipativeAnswer: (B) ConsultativeA consultative manager is almost like a participative manager. The participative manager has complete trust andconfidence in the subordinate, always uses the opinions and ideas of subordinates and communicates in alldirections.52. She decides to illustrate the organizational structure. Which of the following elements is NOT included?A.Level of authorityB.Lines of communicationC.Span of controlD.Unity of directionAnswer: (D) Unity of directionUnity of direction is a management principle, not an element of an organizational structure.53. She plans of assigning competent people to fill the roles designed in the hierarchy. Which process refers to this?A.StaffingB.Scheduling
C.RecruitmentD.InductionAnswer: (A) StaffingStaffing is a management function involving putting the best people to accomplish tasks and activities to attain thegoals of the organization.54. She checks the documentary requirements for the applicants for staff nurse position. Which one is NOTnecessary?A.Certificate of previous employmentB.Record of related learning experience (RLE)C.Membership to accredited professional organizationD.Professional identification cardAnswer: (B) Record of related learning experience (RLE)Record of RLE is not required for employment purposes but it is required for the nurse’s licensure examination.55. Which phase of the employment process includes getting on the payroll and completing documentaryrequirements?A.OrientationB.InductionC.SelectionD.RecruitmentAnswer: (B) InductionThis step in the recruitment process gives time for the staff to submit all the documentary requirements foremployment.56. She tries to design an organizational structure that allows communication to flow in all directions and involveworkers in decision making. Which form of organizational structure is this?A.CentralizedB.DecentralizedC.MatrixD.InformalAnswer: (B) DecentralizedDecentralized structures allow the staff to make decisions on matters pertaining to their practice and communicate indownward, upward, lateral and diagonal flow.57. In a horizontal chart, the lowest level worker is located at theA.Leftmost boxB.MiddleC.Rightmost boxD.BottomAnswer: (C) Rightmost boxThe leftmost box is occupied by the highest authority while the lowest level worker occupies the rightmost box.58. She decides to have a decentralized staffing system. Which of the following is an advantage of this system ofstaffing?A.greater control of activitiesB.Conserves timeC.Compatible with computerizationD.Promotes better interpersonal relationshipAnswer: (D) Promotes better interpersonal relationshipDecentralized structures allow the staff to solve decisions by themselves, involve them in decision making; hencethey are always given opportunities to interact with one another.
59. Aubrey thinks about primary nursing as a system to deliver care. Which of the following activities is NOT done bya primary nurse?A.Collaborates with the physicianB.Provides care to a group of patients together with a group of nursesC.Provides care for 5-6 patients during their hospital stay.D.Performs comprehensive initial assessmentAnswer: (B) Provides care to a group of patients together with a group of nursesThis function is done in team nursing where the nurse is a member of a team that provides care for a group ofpatients.60. Which pattern of nursing care involves the care given by a group of paraprofessional workers led by aprofessional nurse who take care of patients with the same disease conditions and are located geographically neareach other?A.Case methodB.Modular nursingC.Nursing case managementD.Team nursingAnswer: (B) Modular nursingModular nursing is a variant of team nursing. The difference lies in the fact that the members in modular nursing areparaprofessional workers.61. St. Raphael Medical Center just opened its new Performance Improvement Department. Ms. Valencia isappointed as the Quality Control Officer. She commits herself to her new role and plans her strategies to realize thegoals and objectives of the department. Which of the following is a primary task that they should perform to have aneffective control system?A.Make an interpretation about strengths and weaknessesB.Identify the values of the departmentC.Identify structure, process, outcome standards & criteriaD.Measure actual performancesAnswer: (B) Identify the values of the departmentIdentify the values of the department will set the guiding principles within which the department will operate itsactivities62. Ms. Valencia develops the standards to be followed. Among the following standards, which is considered as astructure standard?A.The patients verbalized satisfaction of the nursing care receivedB.Rotation of duty will be done every four weeks for all patient care personnel.C.All patients shall have their weights taken recordedD.Patients shall answer the evaluation form before dischargeAnswer: (B) Rotation of duty will be done every four weeks for all patient care personnel.Structure standards include management system, facilities, equipment, materials needed to deliver care to patients.Rotation of duty is a management system.63. When she presents the nursing procedures to be followed, she refers to what type of standards?A.ProcessB.OutcomeC.StructureD.CriteriaAnswer: (A) ProcessProcess standards include care plans, nursing procedure to be done to address the needs of the patients.64. The following are basic steps in the controlling process of the department. Which of the following is NOTincluded?A.Measure actual performanceB.Set nursing standards and criteriaC.Compare results of performance to standards and objectives
D.Identify possible courses of actionAnswer: (D) Identify possible courses of actionThis is a step in a quality control process and not a basic step in the control process.65. Which of the following statements refers to criteria?A.Agreed on level of nursing careB.Characteristics used to measure the level of nursing careC.Step-by-step guidelinesD.Statement which guide the group in decision making and problem solvingAnswer: (B) Characteristics used to measure the level of nursing careCriteria are specific characteristics used to measure the standard of care.66. She wants to ensure that every task is carried out as planned. Which of the following tasks is NOT included in thecontrolling process?A.Instructing the members of the standards committee to prepare policiesB.Reviewing the existing policies of the hospitalC.Evaluating the credentials of all nursing staffD.Checking if activities conform to scheduleAnswer: (A) Instructing the members of the standards committee to prepare policiesInstructing the members involves a directing function.67. Ms. Valencia prepares the process standards. Which of the following is NOT a process standard?A.Initial assessment shall be done to all patients within twenty four hours upon admission.B.Informed consent shall be secured prior to any invasive procedureC.Patients’ reports 95% satisfaction rate prior to discharge from the hospital.D.Patient education about their illness and treatment shall be provided for all patients and their families.Answer: (C) Patients’ reports 95% satisfaction rate prior to discharge from the hospital.This refers to an outcome standard, which is a result of the care that is rendered to the patient.68. Which of the following is evidence that the controlling process is effective?A.The things that were planned are doneB.Physicians do not complain.C.Employees are contendedD.There is an increase in customer satisfaction rate.Answer: (A) The things that were planned are doneControlling is defined as seeing to it that what is planned is done.69. Ms. Valencia is responsible to the number of personnel reporting to her. This principle refers to:A.Span of controlB.Unity of commandC.Carrot and stick principleD.Esprit d’ corpsAnswer: (A) Span of controlSpan of control refers to the number of workers who report directly to a manager.70. She notes that there is an increasing unrest of the staff due to fatigue brought about by shortage of staff. Whichaction is a priority?A.Evaluate the overall result of the unrestB.Initiate a group interactionC.Develop a plan and implement itD.Identify external and internal forces.Answer: (B) Initiate a group interactionInitiate a group interaction will be an opportunity to discuss the problem in the open.
71. Kevin is a member of the Nursing Research Council of the hospital. His first assignment is to determine the levelof patient satisfaction on the care they received from the hospital. He plans to include all adult patients admitted fromApril to May, with average length of stay of 3-4 days, first admission, and with no complications. Which of thefollowing is an extraneous variable of the study?A.Date of admissionB.Length of stayC.Age of patientsD.Absence of complicationsAnswer: (C) Age of patientsAn extraneous variable is not the primary concern of the researcher but has an effect on the results of the study.Adult patients may be young, middle or late adult.72. He thinks of an appropriate theoretical framework. Whose theory addresses the four modes of adaptation?A.Martha RogersB.Sr. Callista RoyC.Florence NightingaleD.Jean WatsonAnswer: (B) Sr. Callista RoySr. Callista Roy developed the Adaptation Model which involves the physiologic mode, self-concept mode, rolefunction mode and dependence mode73. He opts to use a self-report method. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about this method?A.Most direct means of gathering informationB.Versatile in terms of content coverageC.Most accurate and valid method of data gatheringD.Yields information that would be difficult to gather by another methodAnswer: (C) Most accurate and valid method of data gatheringThe most serious disadvantage of this method is accuracy and validity of information gathered74. Which of the following articles would Kevin least consider for his review of literature?A.“Story-Telling and Anxiety Reduction Among Pediatric Patients”B.“Turnaround Time in Emergency Rooms”C.“Outcome Standards in Tertiary Health Care Institutions”D.“Environmental Manipulation and Client Outcomes”Answer: (B) “Turnaround Time in Emergency Rooms”The article is for pediatric patients and may not be relevant for adult patients.75. Which of the following variables will he likely EXCLUDE in his study?A.Competence of nursesB.Caring attitude of nursesC.Salary of nursesD.Responsiveness of staffAnswer: (C) Salary of nursesSalary of staff nurses is not an indicator of patient satisfaction, hence need not be included as a variable in the study.76. He plans to use a Likert Scale to determineA.degree of agreement and disagreementB.compliance to expected standardsC.level of satisfactionD.degree of acceptanceAnswer: (A) degree of agreement and disagreementLikert scale is a 5-point summated scale used to determine the degree of agreement or disagreement of therespondents to a statement in a study.
77. He checks if his instruments meet the criteria for evaluation. Which of the following criteria refers to theconsistency or the ability to yield the same response upon its repeated administration?A.ValidityB.ReliabilityC.SensitivityD.ObjectivityAnswer: (B) ReliabilityReliability is repeatability of the instrument; it can elicit the same responses even with varied administration of theinstrument78. Which criteria refer to the ability of the instrument to detect fine differences among the subjects being studied?A.SensitivityB.ReliabilityC.ValidityD.ObjectivityAnswer: (A) SensitivitySensitivity is an attribute of the instrument that allow the respondents to distinguish differences of the options whereto choose from79. Which of the following terms refer to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to bemeasure?A.ValidityB.ReliabilityC.MeaningfulnessD.SensitivityAnswer: (A) ValidityValidity is ensuring that the instrument contains appropriate questions about the research topic80. He plans for his sampling method. Which sampling method gives equal chance to all units in the population to getpicked?A.RandomB.AccidentalC.QuotaD.JudgmentAnswer: (A) RandomRandom sampling gives equal chance for all the elements in the population to be picked as part of the sample.81. Raphael is interested to learn more about transcultural nursing because he is assigned at the family suites wheremost patients come from different cultures and countries. Which of the following designs is appropriate for this study?A.Grounded theoryB.EthnographyC.Case studyD.PhenomenologyAnswer: (B) EthnographyEthnography is focused on patterns of behavior of selected people within a culture82. The nursing theorist who developed transcultural nursing theory isA.Dorothea OremB.Madeleine LeiningerC.Betty NewmanD.Sr. Callista RoyAnswer: (B) Madeleine Leininger
Madeleine Leininger developed the theory on transcultural theory based on her observations on the behavior ofselected people within a culture83. Which of the following statements best describes a phenomenological study?A.Involves the description and interpretation of cultural behaviorB.Focuses on the meaning of experiences as those who experience itC.Involves an in-depth study of an individual or groupD.Involves collecting and analyzing data that aims to develop theories grounded in real-world observationsAnswer: (B) Focuses on the meaning of experiences as those who experience itPhenomenological study involves understanding the meaning of experiences as those who experienced thephenomenon.84. He systematically plans his sampling plan. Should he decides to include whoever patients are admitted during thestudy he uses what sampling method?A.JudgmentB.AccidentalC.RandomD.QuotaAnswer: (B) AccidentalAccidental sampling is a non-probability sampling method which includes those who are at the site during datacollection.85. He finally decides to use judgment sampling. Which of the following actions of Raphael is correct?A.Plans to include whoever is there during his study.B.Determines the different nationality of patients frequently admitted and decides to get representations samples fromeach.C.Assigns numbers for each of the patients, place these in a fishbowl and draw 10 from it.D.Decides to get 20 samples from the admitted patientsAnswer: (B) Determines the different nationality of patients frequently admitted and decides to getrepresentations samples from each.Judgment sampling involves including samples according to the knowledge of the investigator about the participantsin the study.86. He knows that certain patients who are in a specialized research setting tend to respond psychologically to theconditions of the study. This is referred to asA.BiasB.Hawthorne effectC.Halo effectD.Horns effectAnswer: (B) Hawthorne effectHawthorne effect is based on the study of Elton Mayo and company about the effect of an intervention done toimprove the working conditions of the workers on their productivity. It resulted to an increased productivity but not dueto the intervention but due to the psychological effects of being observed. They performed differently because theywere under observation.87. Which of the following items refer to the sense of closure that Raphael experiences when data collection ceasesto yield any new information?A.SaturationB.PrecisionC.LimitationD.RelevanceAnswer: (A) SaturationSaturation is achieved when the investigator can not extract new responses from the informants, but instead, gets thesame responses repeatedly.
88. In qualitative research the actual analysis of data begins with:A.search for themesB.validation of thematic analysisC.weave the thematic strands togetherD.quasi statisticsAnswer: (A) search for themesThe investigator starts data analysis by looking for themes from the verbatim responses of the informants.89. Raphael is also interested to know the coping abilities of patients who are newly diagnosed to have terminalcancer. Which of the following types of research is appropriate?A.PhenomenologicalB.EthnographicC.Grounded TheoryD.Case StudyAnswer: (C) Grounded TheoryGrounded theory inductively develops a theory based on the observed processes involving selected people90. Which of the following titles of the study is appropriate for this study?A.Lived Experiences of Terminally-Ill Cancer PatientsB.Coping Skills of Terminally-Ill Cancer Patients in a Selected HospitalC.Two Case Studies of Terminally-Ill Patients in ManilaD.Beliefs & Practices of Patients with Terminal CancerAnswer: (B) Coping Skills of Terminally-Ill Cancer Patients in a Selected HospitalThe title has a specific phenomenon, sample and research locale.91. Ms. Montana plans to conduct a research on the use of a new method of pain assessment scale. Which of thefollowing is the second step in the conceptualizing phase of the research process?A.Formulating the research hypothesisB.Review related literatureC.Formulating and delimiting the research problemD.Design the theoretical and conceptual frameworkAnswer: (B) Review related literatureAfter formulating and delimiting the research problem, the researcher conducts a review of related literature todetermine the extent of what has been done on the study by previous researchers.92. Which of the following codes of research ethics requires informed consent in all cases governing humansubjects?A.Helsinki DeclarationB.Nuremberg CodeC.Belmont ReportD.ICN Code of EthicsAnswer: (A) Helsinki DeclarationHelsinki Declaration is the first international attempt to set up ethical standards in research involving human researchsubjects.93. Which of the following ethical principles was NOT articulated in the Belmont Report?A.BeneficenceB.Respect for human dignityC.JusticeD.Non-maleficenceAnswer: (D) Non-maleficenceNon-maleficence is not articulated in the Belmont Report. It only includes beneficence, respect for human dignity andjustice.
39. Which one of the following criteria should be considered as a top priority in nursing care?A.Avoidance of destructive changesB.Preservation of lifeC.Assurance of safetyD.Preservation of integrityAnswer: (B) Preservation of lifeThe preservation of life at all cost is a primary responsibility of the nurse. This is embodied in the Code of Ethics forregistered nurses ( BON Resolution 220 s. 2004).40. Which of the following procedures ensures that the investigator has fully described to prospective subjects thenature of the study and the subjects rights?A.DebriefingB.Full disclosureC.Informed consentD.Cover data collectionAnswer: (B) Full disclosureFull disclosure is giving the subjects of the research information that they deserve to know prior to the conduct of thestudy.94. After the review session has been completed, Karen and the staff signed the document. Which of the following isthe purpose of this?A.Agree about the content of the evaluation.B.Signify disagreement of the content of the evaluation.C.Document that Karen and the staff reviewed the evaluation.D.Serve as basis for future evaluation.Answer: (C) Document that Karen and the staff reviewed the evaluation.Signing the document is done to serve as a proof that performance review was conducted during that date and time.95. A nurse who would like to practice nursing in the Philippines can obtain a license to practice by:A.Paying the professional tax after taking the board examsB.Passing the board exams and taking the oath of professionalsC.Paying the examination fee before taking the board examsD.Undergoing the interview conducted by the Board of Nursing and taking the board examsAnswer: (B) Passing the board exams and taking the oath of professionalsFor a nurse to obtain a license to practice nursing in the Philippines, s/he must pass the board examinations and thentake the oath of professionals before the Board of Nursing.96. Reciprocity of license to practice requires that the country of origin of the interested foreign nurse complies withthe following conditions:A.The country of origin has similar preparation for a nurse and has laws allowing Filipino nurses to practice in theircountry.B.The Philippines is recognized by the country of origin as one that has high quality of nursing educationC.The country of origin requires Filipinos to take their own board examinationD.The country of origin exempts Filipinos from passing their licensure examinationAnswer: (A) The country of origin has similar preparation for a nurse and has laws allowing Filipino nursesto practice in their country.According to the Philippine Nurses Act of 2002, foreign nurses wanting to practice in the Philippines must show proofthat his/her country of origin meets the two essential conditions: a) the requirements for registration between the twocountries are substantially the same; and b) the country of origin of the foreign nurse has laws allowing the Filipinonurse to practice in his/her country just like its own citizens.97. Nurses practicing the profession in the Philippines and are employed in government hospitals are required to paytaxes such as:A.Both income tax and professional taxB.Income tax only since they are exempt from paying professional taxC.Professional tax which is paid by all nurses employed in both government and private hospitals
D.Income tax which paid every March 15 and professional tax which is paid every January 31.Answer: (B) Income tax only since they are exempt from paying professional taxAccording to the Magna Carta for Public Health Workers, government nurses are exempted from paying professionaltax. Hence, as an employee in the government, s/he will pay only the income tax.98. According to RA 9173 Philippine Nursing Act of 2002, a graduate nurse who wants to take must licensureexamination must comply with the following qualifications:A.At least 21 years old, graduate of BSN from a recognized school, and of good moral characterB.At least 18 years old, graduate of BSN from a recognized school and of good moral characterC.At least 18 years old, provided that when s/he passes the board exams, s/he must be at least 21 years old; BSNgraduate of a recognized school, and of good moral characterD.Filipino citizen or a citizen of a country where we have reciprocity; graduate of BSN from a recognized school andof good moral characterAnswer: (D) Filipino citizen or a citizen of a country where we have reciprocity; graduate of BSN from arecognized school and of good moral characterRA 9173 section 13 states that the qualifications to take the board exams are: Filipino citizen or citizen of a countrywhere the Philippines has reciprocity; of good moral character and graduate of BSN from a recognized school ofnursing. There is no explicit provision about the age requirement in RA 9173 unlike in RA7164 (old law).99. Which of the following is TRUE about membership to the Philippine Nurses Association (PNA)?A.Membership to PNA is mandatory and is stipulated in the Philippine Nursing Act of 2002B.Membership to PNA is compulsory for newly registered nurses wanting to enter the practice of nursing in thecountryC.Membership to PNA is voluntary and is encouraged by the PRC Code of Ethics for NursesD.Membership to PNA is required by government hospitals prior to employmentAnswer: (C) Membership to PNA is voluntary and is encouraged by the PRC Code of Ethics for NursesMembership to any organization, including the PNA, is only voluntary and this right to join any organization isguaranteed in the 1987 constitution of the Philippines. However, the PRC Code of Ethics states that one of the ethicalobligations of the professional nurse towards the profession is to be an active member of the accredited professionalorganization.100. When the license of the nurse is revoked, it means that the nurse:A.Is no longer allowed to practice the profession for the rest of her lifeB.Will never have her/his license re-issued since it has been revokedC.May apply for re-issuance of his/her license based on certain conditions stipulated in RA 9173D.Will remain unable to practice professional nursingAnswer: (C) May apply for re-issuance of his/her license based on certain conditions stipulated in RA 9173RA 9173 sec. 24 states that for equity and justice, a revoked license maybe re-issued provided that the followingconditions are met: a) the cause for revocation of license has already been corrected or removed; and, b) at least fouryears has elapsed since the license has been revoked.101. According to the current nursing law, the minimum educational qualification for a faculty member of a college ofnursing is:A.Only a Master of Arts in Nursing is acceptableB.Masters degree in Nursing or in the related fieldsC.At least a doctorate in nursingD.At least 18 units in the Master of Arts in Nursing ProgramAnswer: (B) Masters degree in Nursing or in the related fieldsAccording to RA 9173 sec. 27, the educational qualification of a faculty member teaching in a college of nursing mustbe masters degree which maybe in nursing or related fields like education, allied health professions, psychology.102. The educational qualification of a nurse to become a supervisor in a hospital is:A.BSN with at least 9 units of post graduate studies in nursing administrationB.Master of Arts in Nursing major in administrationC.At least 2 years experience as a headnurseD.At least 18 units of post graduate studies in nursing administration
Answer: (A) BSN with at least 9 units of post graduate studies in nursing administrationAccording to RA 9173 sec. 29, the educational qualification to be a supervisor in a hospital is at least 9 units ofpostgraduate studies in nursing administration. A masters degree in nursing is required for the chief nurse of asecondary or tertiary hospital.103. The Board of Nursing has quasi-judicial power. An example of this power is:A.The Board can issue rules and regulations that will govern the practice of nursingB.The Board can investigate violations of the nursing law and code of ethicsC.The Board can visit a school applying for a permit in collaboration with CHEDD.The Board prepares the board examinationsAnswer: (B) The Board can investigate violations of the nursing law and code of ethicsQuasi-judicial power means that the Board of Nursing has the authority to investigate violations of the nursing lawand can issue summons, subpoena or subpoena duces tecum as needed.104. When a nurse causes an injury to the patient and the injury caused becomes the proof of the negligent act, thepresence of the injury is said to exemplify the principle of:A.Force majeureB.Respondeat superiorC.Res ipsa loquiturD.Holdover doctrineAnswer: (C) Res ipsa loquiturRes ipsa loquitur literally means the thing speaks for itself. This means in operational terms that the injury caused isthe proof that there was a negligent act.105. Ensuring that there is an informed consent on the part of the patient before a surgery is done, illustrates thebioethical principle of:A.BeneficenceB.AutonomyC.Truth telling/veracityD.Non-maleficenceAnswer: (B) AutonomyInformed consent means that the patient fully understands what will be the surgery to be done, the risks involved andthe alternative solutions so that when s/he give consent it is done with full knowledge and is given freely. The actionof allowing the patient to decide whether a surgery is to be done or not exemplifies the bioethical principle ofautonomy.106. When a nurse is providing care to her/his patient, s/he must remember that she is duty bound not to do doingany action that will cause the patient harm. This is the meaning of the bioethical principle:A.Non-maleficenceB.BeneficenceC.JusticeD.SolidarityAnswer: (A) Non-maleficenceNon-maleficence means do not cause harm or do any action that will cause any harm to the patient/client. To dogood is referred as beneficence.107. When the patient is asked to testify in court, s/he must abide by the ethical principle of:A.Privileged communicationB.Informed consentC.SolidarityD.AutonomyAnswer: (A) Privileged communicationAll confidential information that comes to the knowledge of the nurse in the care of her/his patients is consideredprivileged communications. Hence, s/he is not allowed to just reveal the confidential information arbitrarily. S/he mayonly be allowed to break the seal of secrecy in certain conditions. One such condition is when the court orders thenurse to testify in a criminal or medico-legal case.
108. When the doctor orders “do not resuscitate”, this means thatA.The nurse need not give due care to the patient since s/he is terminally illB.The patient need not be given food and water after all s/he is dyingC.The nurses and the attending physician should not do any heroic or extraordinary measures for the patientD.The patient need not be given ordinary care so that her/his dying process is hastenedAnswer: (C) The nurses and the attending physician should not do any heroic or extraordinary measures forthe patientDo not resuscitate” is a medical order which is written on the chart after the doctor has consulted the family and thismeans that the members of the health team are not required to give extraordinary measures but cannot withhold thebasic needs like food, water, and air. It also means that the nurse is still duty bound to give the basic nursing care tothe terminally ill patient and ensure that the spiritual needs of the patient is taken cared of.109. Which of the following statements is TRUE of abortion in the Philippines?A.Induced abortion is allowed in cases of rape and incestB.Induced abortion is both a criminal act and an unethical act for the nurseC.Abortion maybe considered acceptable if the mother is unprepared for the pregnancyD.A nurse who performs induced abortion will have no legal accountability if the mother requested that the abortiondone on her.Answer: (B) Induced abortion is both a criminal act and an unethical act for the nurseInduced abortion is considered a criminal act which is punishable by imprisonment which maybe up to a maximum of12 years if the nurse gets paid for it. Also, the PRC Code of Ethics states that the nurse must respect life and mustnot do any action that will destroy life. Abortion is an act that destroys life albeit at the beginning of life.110. Which of the following is NOT true about a hypothesis? Hypothesis is:A.testableB.provenC.stated in a form that it can be accepted or rejectedD.states a relationship between variablesAnswer: (B) provenHypothesis is not proven; it is either accepted or rejected. Hypothesis is testable and is defined as a statement thatpredicts the relationship between variables111. Which of the following measures will best prevent manipulation of vulnerable groups?A.Secure informed consentB.Payment of stipends for subjectsC.Protect privacy of patientD.Ensure confidentiality of dataAnswer: (A) Secure informed consentSecuring informed consent will free the researcher from being accused of manipulating the subjects because by sodoing he/she gives ample opportunity for the subjects to weigh the advantages/disadvantages of being included inthe study prior to giving his consent. This is done without any element of force, coercion, threat or even inducement.112. Which of the following procedures ensures that Ms. Montana has fully described to prospective subjects thenature of the study and the subject’s rights?A.DebriefingB.Full disclosureC.Informed consentD.Covert data collectionAnswer: (B) Full disclosureFull disclosure is giving the subjects of the research information that they deserve to know prior to the conduct of thestudy113. This technique refers to the use of multiple referents to draw conclusions about what constitutes the truthA.TriangulationB.ExperimentC.Meta-analysisD.Delphi technique
Answer: (A) TriangulationTriangulation makes use of different sources of information such as triangulation in design, researcher andinstrument.114. The statement, “Ninety percent (90%) of the respondents are female staff nurses validates previous researchfindings (Santos, 2001; Reyes, 2005) that the nursing profession is largely a female dominated profession is anexample ofA.implicationB.interpretationC.analysisD.conclusionAnswer: (B) interpretationInterpretation includes the inferences of the researcher about the findings of the study.115. The study is said to be completed when Ms. Montana achieved which of the following activities?A.Published the results in a nursing journal.B.Presented the study in a research forum.C.The results of the study is used by the nurses in the hospitalD.Submitted the research report to the CEO.Answer: (C) The results of the study is used by the nurses in the hospitalThe last step in the research process is the utilization of the research findings.116. Situation : Stephanie is a nurse researcher of the Patient Care Services Division. She plans to conduct aliterature search for her study.Which of the following is the first step in selecting appropriate materials for her review?A.Track down most of the relevant resourcesB.Copy relevant materialsC.Organize materials according to functionD.Synthesize literature gathered.Answer: (A) Track down most of the relevant resourcesThe first step in the review of related literature is to track down relevant sources before copying these. The last step isto synthesize the literature gathered.117. She knows that the most important categories of information in literature review is the:A.research findingsB.theoretical frameworkC.methodologyD.opinionsAnswer: (A) research findingsThe research findings is the most important category of information that the researcher should copy because this willgive her valuable information as to what has been discovered in past studies about the same topic.118. She also considers accessing electronic data bases for her literature review. Which of the following is the mostuseful electronic database for nurses?A.CINAHLB.MEDLINEC.HealthSTARD.EMBASEAnswer: (A) CINAHLThis refers to Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature which is a rich source for literature review fornurses. The rest of the sites are for medicine, pharmacy and other health-related sites.119. While reviewing journal articles, Stephanie got interested in reading the brief summary of the article placed atthe beginning of the journal report. Which of the following refers to this?A.Introduction
B.PrefaceC.AbstractD.BackgroundAnswer: (C) AbstractAbstract contains concise description of the background of the study, research questions, research objectives,methods, findings, implications to nursing practice as well as keywords used in the study.120. She notes down ideas that were derived from the description of an investigation written by the person whoconducted it. Which type of reference source refers to this?A.FootnoteB.BibliographyC.Primary sourceD.EndnotesAnswer: (C) Primary source. This refers to a primary source which is a direct account of the investigation done by the investigator. In contrast tothis is a secondary source, which is written by someone other than the original researcher.121. She came across a study which is referred to as meta-analysis. Which of the following statements best definesthis type of study?A.Treats the findings from one study as a single piece of dataB.Findings from multiple studies are combined to yield a data set which is analyzed as individual dataC.Represents an application of statistical procedures to findings from each reportD.Technique for quantitatively combining and thus integrating the results of multiple studies on a given topic.Answer: (D) Technique for quantitatively combining and thus integrating the results of multiple studies on agiven topic.Though all the options are correct, the best definition is option D because it combines quantitatively the results and atthe same time it integrates the results of the different studies as one finding.122. This kind of research gathers data in detail about a individual or groups and presented in narrative form, which isA.Case studyB.HistoricalC.AnalyticalD.ExperimentalAnswer: (A) Case studyCase study focuses on in-depth investigations of single entity or small number of entities. It attempts to analyze andunderstand issues of importance to history, development or circumstances of the person or entity under study.123. Stephanie is finished with the steps in the conceptual phase when she has conducted the LAST step, which isA.formulating and delimiting the problem.B.review of related literatureC.develop a theoretical frameworkD.formulate a hypothesisAnswer: (D) formulate a hypothesisThe last step in the conceptualizing phase of the research process is formulating a hypothesis. The rest are the firstthree steps in this phase.124. She states the hypothesis of the study. Which of the following is a null hypothesis?A.Infants who are breastfed have the same weight as those who are bottle fed.B.Bottle-fed infants have lower weight than breast-fed infantsC.Cuddled infants sleep longer than those who are left by themselves to sleep.D.Children of absentee parents are more prone to experience depression than those who live with both parents.Answer: (A) Infants who are breastfed have the same weight as those who are bottle fed.Null hypothesis predicts that there is no change, no difference or no relationship between the variables in the study
125. She notes that the dependent variable in the hypothesis “Duration of sleep of cuddled infants is longer thanthose infants who are not cuddled by mothers” isA.Cuddled infantsB.Duration of sleepC.InfantsD.Absence of cuddlingAnswer: (B) Duration of sleepDuration of sleep is the ‘effect’ (dependent variable) of cuddling ‘cause’ (independent variable).126. Situation: Aretha is a nurse researcher in a tertiary hospital. She is tasked to conduct a research on the effectsof structured discharge plan for post-open heart surgery patients.She states the significance of the research problem. Which of the following statements is the MOST significant forthis study?A.Improvement in patient careB.Development of a theoretical basis for nursingC.Increase the accountability of nurses.D.Improves the image of nursingAnswer: (A) Improvement in patient careThe ultimate goal of conducting research is to improve patient care which is achieved by enhancing the practice ofnurses when they utilize research results in their practice.127. Regardless of the significance of the study, the feasibility of the study needs to be considered. Which of thefollowing is considered a priority?A.Availability of research subjectsB.Budgetary allocationC.Time frameD.Experience of the researcherAnswer: (A) Availability of research subjectsAvailability is the most important criteria to be considered by the researcher in determining whether the study isfeasible or not. No matter how significant the study may be if there are no available subjects/respondents, the studycan not push through.128. Aretha knows that a good research problem exhibits the following characteristics; which one is NOT included?A.Clearly identified the variables/phenomenon under consideration.B.Specifies the population being studied.C.Implies the feasibility of empirical testingD.Indicates the hypothesis to be tested.Answer: (D) Indicates the hypothesis to be tested.Not all studies require a hypothesis such as qualitative studies, which does not deal with variables but withphenomenon or concepts.129. She states the purposes of the study. Which of the following describe the purpose of a study?1. Establishes the general direction of a study2. Captures the essence of the study3. Formally articulates the goals of the study4. Sometimes worded as an intentA.1, 2, 3B.2, 3, 4C.1, 3, 4D.1, 2, 3, 4Answer: (D) 1, 2, 3, 4The purposes of a research study covers all the options indicated.
130. She opts to use interviews in data collection. In addition to validity, what is the other MOST serious weakness ofthis method?A.AccuracyB.SensitivityC.ObjectivityD.ReliabilityAnswer: (A) AccuracyAccuracy and validity are the most serious weaknesses of the self-report data. This is due to the fact that therespondents sometimes do not want to tell the truth for fear of being rejected or in order to please the interviewer.131. She plans to subject her instrument to pretesting. Which of the following is NOT achieved in doing pretesting?A.Determines how much time it takes to administer the instrument packageB.Identify parts that are difficult to read or understandC.Determine the budgetary allocation for the studyD.Determine if the measures yield data with sufficient variabilityAnswer: (C) Determine the budgetary allocation for the studyDetermining budgetary allocation for the study is not a purpose of doing a pretesting of the instruments. This is doneat an earlier stage of the design and planning phase.132. She tests the instrument whether it looks as though it is measuring appropriate constructs. Which of thefollowing refers to this?A.Face validityB.Content validityC.Construct ValidityD.Criterion-related validityAnswer: (A) Face validityFace validity measures whether the instrument appears to be measuring the appropriate construct. It is the easiesttype of validity testing.133. Which of the following questions would determine the construct validity of the instrument?A.“What is this instrument really measuring?”B.“How representative are the questions on this test of the universe of questions on this topic?”C.“Does the question asked looks as though it is measuring the appropriate construct?”D.“Does the instrument correlate highly with an external criterion?Answer: (A) “What is this instrument really measuring?”Construct validity aims to validate what the instrument is really measuring. The more abstract the concept, the moredifficult to measure the construct.134. Which of the following experimental research designs would be appropriate for this study if she wants to find outa cause and effect relationship between the structured discharge plan and compliance to home care regimen amongthe subjects?A.True experimentB.Quasi experimentC.Post-test only designD.Solomon four-groupAnswer: (C) Post-test only designPost- Test only design is appropriate because it is impossible to measure the compliance to home care regimenvariable prior to the discharge of the patient from the hospital.135. One hypothesis that she formulated is “Compliance to home care regimen is greater among patients whoreceived the structured discharge plan than those who received verbal discharge instructions.’ Which is theindependent variable in this study?A.Structured discharge planB.Compliance to home care regimenC.Post-open heart surgery patientsD.Greater compliance
Answer: (A) Structured discharge planStructured discharge plan is the intervention or the ‘cause’ in the study that results to an ‘effect’, which is complianceto home care regimen or the dependent variable.136. Situation : Alyssa plans to conduct a study about nursing practice in the country. She decides to refresh herknowledge about the different types of research in order to choose the most appropriate design for her study.She came across surveys, like the Social Weather Station and Pulse Asia Survey. Which of the following is thepurpose of this kind of research?A.Obtains information regarding the prevalence, distribution and interrelationships of variables within a population ata particular timeB.Get an accurate and complete data about a phenomenon.C.Develop a tool for data gathering.D.Formulate a framework for the studyAnswer: (A) Obtains information regarding the prevalence, distribution and interrelationships of variableswithin a population at a particular timeSurveys are done to gather information on people’s actions, knowledge, intentions, opinions and attitudes.137. She will likely use self-report method. Which of the following self-report methods is the most respected methodused in surveys?A.Personal interviewsB.QuestionnairesC.Telephone interviewsD.Rating ScaleAnswer: (A) Personal interviewsPersonal interviews is the best method of collecting survey data because the quality of information they yield is higherthan other methods and because relatively few people refuse to be interviewed in person.138. Alyssa reads about exploratory research. Which of the following is the purpose of doing this type of research?A.Inductively develops a theory based on observations about processes involving selected peopleB.Makes new knowledge useful and practical.C.Identifies the variables in the studyD.Finds out the cause and effect relationship between variablesAnswer: (C) Identifies the variables in the studyExploratory research is the first level of investigation and it deals with identifying the variables in the study.139. She reviews qualitative design of research. Which of the following is true about ethnographic study?A.Develops theories that increase the knowledge about a certain phenomenon.B.Focuses on the meanings of life experiences of peopleC.Deals with patterns and experiences of a defined cultural group in a holistic fashionD.In-depth investigation of a single entityAnswer: (C) Deals with patterns and experiences of a defined cultural group in a holistic fashionEthnographic research deals with the cultural patterns and beliefs of certain culture groups.140. She knows that the purpose of doing ethnographic study is to:A.Understand the worldview of a cultural groupB.Study the life experiences of peopleC.Determine the relationship between variablesD.Investigate intensively a single entityAnswer: (A) Understand the worldview of a cultural groupThe aim of ethnographers is to learn from the members of a cultural group by understanding their way of life as theyperceive and live it.141. Alyssa wants to learn more about experimental design. Which is the purpose of this research?A.Test the cause and effect relationship among the variable under a controlled situation
B.Identify the variables in the studyC.Predicts the future based on current interventionD.Describe the characteristics, opinions, attitudes or behaviors of certain population about a current issue or eventAnswer: (A) Test the cause and effect relationship among the variable under a controlled situationExperimental research is a Level III investigation which determines the cause and effect relationship betweenvariables.142. She knows that there are three elements of experimental research. Which is NOT included?A.ManipulationB.RandomizationC.ControlD.TrialAnswer: (D) TrialTrial is not an element of experimental research. Manipulation of variables, randomization and control are the threeelements of this type of research143. Alyssa knows that there are times when only manipulation of study variables is possible and the elements ofcontrol or randomization are not attendant. Which type of research is referred to this?A.Field studyB.Quasi-experimentC.Solomon-Four group designD.Post-test only designAnswer: (B) Quasi-experimentQuasi-experiment is done when randomization and control of the variables are not possible.144. One of the related studies that she reads is a phenomenological research. Which of the following questions isanswered by this type of qualitative research?A.” What is the way of life of this cultural group?”B.“What is the effect of the intervention to the dependent variable?”C.“What the essence of the phenomenon is as experienced by these people?”D.“What is the core category that is central in explaining what is going on in that social scene?”Answer: (C) “What the essence of the phenomenon is as experienced by these people?”Phenomenological research deals with the meaning of experiences as those who experienced the phenomenonunderstand it.145. Other studies are categorized according to the time frame. Which of the following refers to a study of variables inthe present which is linked to a variable that occurred in the past?A.Prospective designB.Retrospective designC.Cross sectional studyD.Longitudinal studyAnswer: (B) Retrospective designRetrospective studies are done in order to establish a correlation between present variables and the antecedentfactors that have caused it.146. Situation : Harry a new research staff of the Research and Development Department of a tertiary hospital istasked to conduct a research study about the increased incidence of nosocomial infection in the hospital.Which of the following ethical issues should he consider in the conduct of his study?1. Confidentiality of information given to him by the subjects2. Self-determination which includes the right to withdraw from the study group3. Privacy or the right not to be exposed publicly4. Full disclosure about the study to be conductedA.1, 2, 3B.1, 3, 4C.2, 3, 4
D.1, 2, 3, 4Answer: (D) 1, 2, 3, 4This includes all the options as these are the four basic rights of subjects for research.147. Which of the following is the best tool for data gathering?A.Interview scheduleB.QuestionnaireC.Use of laboratory data.D.ObservationAnswer: (C) Use of laboratory data.Incidence of nosocomial infection is best collected through the use of biophysiologic measures, particularly in vitromeasurements, hence laboratory data is essential.148. During data collection, Harry encounters a patient who refuses to talk to him. Which of the following is alimitation of the study?A.Patient’s refusal to fully divulge information.B.Patients with history of fever and coughC.Patients admitted or who seeks consultation at the ER and doctors officesD.Contacts of patients with history of fever and coughAnswer: (A) Patient’s refusal to fully divulge information.Patient’s refusal to divulge information is a limitation because it is beyond the control of Harry.149. What type of research is appropriate for this study?A.Descriptive- correlationalB.ExperimentC.Quasi-experimentD.HistoricalAnswer: (A) Descriptive- correlationalDescriptive- correlational study is the most appropriate for this study because it studies the variables that could be theantecedents of the increased incidence of nosocomial infection.150. In the statement, “Frequent hand washing of health workers decreases the incidence of nosocomial infectionsamong post-surgery patients”, the dependent variable isA.incidence of nosocomial infectionsB.decreasesC.frequent hand washingD.post-surgery patientsAnswer: (A) incidence of nosocomial infectionsThe dependent variable is the incidence of nosocomial infection, which is the outcome or effect of the independentvariable, frequent hand washing.151. Harry knows that he has to protect the rights of human research subjects. Which of the following actions of Harryensures anonymity?A.Keep the identities of the subject secretB.Obtain informed consentC.Provide equal treatment to all the subjects of the study.D.Release findings only to the participants of the studyAnswer: (A) Keep the identities of the subject secretKeeping the identities of the research subject secret will ensure anonymity because this will hinder providing linkbetween the information given to whoever is its source.152. He is oriented to the use of electronic databases for nursing research. Which of the following will she likelyaccess?A.MEDLINE
B.National Institute of Nursing ResearchC.American Journal of NursingD.International Council of NursesAnswer: (B) National Institute of Nursing ResearchNational Institute for Nursing Research is a useful source of information for nursing research. The rest of the optionsmay be helpful but NINR is the most useful site for nurses.153. He develops methods for data gathering. Which of the following criteria of a good instrument refers to the abilityof the instrument to yield the same results upon its repeated administration?A.ValidityB.SpecificityC.SensitivityD.ReliabilityAnswer: (D) ReliabilityReliability is consistency of the research instrument. It refers to the repeatability of the instrument in extracting thesame responses upon its repeated administration.154. Harry is aware of the importance of controlling threats to internal validity for experimental research, whichinclude the following examples EXCEPT:A.HistoryB.MaturationC.AttritionD.DesignAnswer: (D) DesignDesign is not a threat to internal validity of the instrument just like the other options.155. His colleague asks about the external validity of the research findings. Which of the responses of Harry isappropriate? The research findings can beA.generalized to other settings or samplesB.shown to result only from the effect of the independent variableC.reflected as results of extraneous variablesD.free of selection biasesAnswer: (A) generalized to other settings or samplesExternal validity refers to the generalizability of research findings to other settings or samples. This is an issue ofimportance to evidence-based nursing practice.