IntroductionFor every industry or business, to get increased sales and better name amongst consumers and fellow companies it isimportant to maintain a level of quality. In the garment industry quality control is practiced right from the initial stageof sourcing raw materials to the stage of final finished garment. For textile and apparel industry product quality iscalculated in terms of quality and standard of fibres, yarns, fabric construction, color fastness, surface designs and thefinal finished garment products. However quality expectations for export are related to the type of customer segmentsand the retail outlets. There are a number of factors on which quality fitness of garment industry is based such as –performance, reliability, durability, visual and perceived quality of the garment. Quality needs to be defined in terms ofa particular framework of cost.The national regulatory quality certification and international quality Programs like ISO 9000 series lay down the broadquality parameters based on which companies maintain the export quality in the garment and apparel industry. Heresome of main fabric properties that are taken into consideration for garment manufacturing for export basis:•Overall look of the garment.•Right formation of the garment.•Feel and fall of the garment.•Physical properties.•Color fastness of the garment.•Finishing properties.•Presentation of the final produced garment.There are certain quality related problems in garment manufacturing that should not be over looked:•Sewing defects - Like open seams, wrong stitching techniques used, same color garment, but usage of different colorthreads on the garment, miss out of stitches in between, creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and rawedges are some sewing defects that could occur so should be taken care of.•Color effects - Color defects that could occur are – difference of the color of final produced garment to the sampleshown, accessories used are of wrong color combination and mismatching of dye amongst the pieces.•Sizing defects - Wrong gradation of sizes, difference in measurement of a garment part from other, for example-sleeves of ‘XL’ size but body of ‘L’ size. Such defects do not occur has to be seen too.Garment defects - During manufacturing process defects could occur like faulty zippers, irregular hemming, loosebuttons, raw edges, improper button holes, uneven parts, inappropriate trimming, and difference in fabric colors.
Stone Washed Denim:Stonewashed jeans are jeans that have been treated to produce a faded, worn appearance. This is usually accomplishedeither by washing the jeans with pumice in a rotating drum, or also by using chemicals to create the appearance withoutthe use of a rotating drum. Stonewashed jeans were a popular fashion trend in the 1970s.In the 2000sstonewashed jeans were heavily distressed, with pre-made holes, frayed edges and extensive fading causedby sandblasting.Front Panel•Waist Band•Front Panel•Zipper fly Panel•Front Leg partsBack Panel•Waist Band•Back Panel•Back Leg Parts
Defect AnalysisVarious Probable Defects (including trim defects):•Broken buttons•Broken snaps•Broken stitching•Defective snaps•Different shades within the same garment•Dropped stitches•Exposed notches•Exposed raw edges•Holes•Inoperative zipper•Loose / hanging sewing threads•Misaligned buttons and holes•Missing buttons•Needle cuts / chews•Open seams•Pulled / loose yarn•Stain•Unfinished buttonhole•Zipper too short
Pre production DefectsPattern defects in garment:•Some parts of pattern are missing, probably because the marker did not include the correct number ofparts.•Mixed parts, probably because the marker is not correctly labeled, resulting in a marriage of wrongsized parts.•Patterns not facing in correct direction on napped fabrics.•Not all patterns facing in same direction (either way) on a one-way fabric. Patterns not aligned withrespect to the fabric grain.•Poor line definition (e.g. too thick chalk; indistinctly printed line, perforated lay not powdered) leadingto inaccurate cutting.•Skimpy marking, caused by either the marker did not use the outside edge of the pattern; or thepattern was moved or swung after partial marking to squeeze the pattern into a smaller space foreconomizing the fabric.•Marking back from miniature markers also can cause trouble unless the miniature marker making is inthe hands of experienced operators. Alternatively the full size pattern may be having worn out edges.•Generous marking, especially in combination with skimpy marking results in components being sewntogether with puckering and pleating.•When the marker is too wide, the garment parts at the edges of the lay get cut with bits missing.•Not enough knife clearance freedom. Wrong check matching, i.e. lines across the seam are notmatching.•Wrong check boxing, i.e. checks are not showing a full or partial box across the seam.•Notches and drill marks omitted, indistinct or misplaced
Spreading defects in garment:•Not enough plies to cover quantity of garments required.•Plies misaligned, resulting in garment parts getting cut with bits missing in some plies at the edge of thespread.•Narrow fabric, causes garment parts at the edge of the lay getting cut with bits missing.•Incorrect tension of plies, i.e. fabric spread too tight or too loose.•This will result in parts not fitting in sewing, and finished garments not meeting size tolerances. Not allplies facing in correct direction (whether one way as with nap, or one way either way as with somecheck designs). This happens when fabric is not spread face down, face up, or face to face as required.•Unacceptable damages in the garment parts. Parts not fully included owing to splicing errors.•Spread distorted by the attraction or repulsion of plies caused by excessive static electricity.•Plies are not spread accurately one above another for cutting. This results in mismatching checks.
Cutting defects in garment:•Failure to follow the marker lines resulting in distorted garment parts.•Top and bottom plies can be a different size if the straight knife is allowed to lean, or if a round knife isused on too high a spread.•Notches, which are misplaced too deep, too shallow, angled, omitted, or wrong type to suit fabric.•Drill marks, which are misplaced, wrong drill to suit fabric, omitted, not perpendicular through thespread.•Frayed edges, scorched or fused edges, caused by a faulty knife, not sharp enough, or rotating at too higha speed.•Garment part damaged by careless use of knife, perhaps overrunning cutting previous piece. Markerincorrectly positioned on top of spread.•Garment parts have bits missing at edge of lay.•If too tight or too loose then garment parts are distorted.•Slits opened inaccurately or omitted.
Name of thedefectDescription Defect Picture Cause RemedyBrokenStitchesWhere the threadis being brokenwhere one seamcrosses anotherseam (ex: bartacks on top ofwaistbandstitching)resulting in stitchfailure.NeedleCutting Use a higher performancethread. Use a larger diameterthread on operations wherethe thread is being cut. Make sure the proper stitchbalance is being used. (Ona chain stitch seam ondenim, normally a 60%/40%relationship of Needlethread to looper thread inthe Seam is maintained). Use needles with thecorrect needle point. Change the needles atregular intervals onoperations where theNeedle Cuts are occurringfrequently.UnravelingSeamsThis causesseam failureunless the seamis Re stitched.Generally occurson 401 chainstitch seamswhere either thestitch has beenbroken or askipped stitch hasoccurred. Use a high performancethread that will minimizebroken stitches and skippedstitches; Insure proper machinemaintenance and sewingmachine adjustments; Observe sewing operatorsfor correct material handlingtechniques.Production Defects
Re StitchedSeamsWhere there is a"splice" on the stitchline. If this occurs onTopstitching, thenthe seam does notappear to be nice.1. Thread breaksor thread run-outduring sewing;or2. Cut or brokenstitches during asubsequenttreatment of thefinished product(I.e., stonewashing). Use a better quality sewingthread. This may includegoing to a higherperformance threaddesigned to minimize sewinginterruptions. Insure proper machinemaintenance and sewingmachine adjustments; Make sure sewing machinesare properly maintained andadjusted for the fabric andsewing operation. Observe sewing operatorsfor correct material handlingtechniques.SkippedStitchesSkips are usuallyfound where oneseam crossesanother seam andmost of the timeoccurs right beforeor right after theheavy thickness.Where the stitchforming devicemisses theneedle loop orthe needlemisses thelooper loop. Use core spun thread. Use minimum thread tensionto get a balanced stitch. Use the ideal foot, feed andplate that help to minimizeflagging. Training sewing operatorsNOT to stop on thethickness. Make sure the machine isfeeding properly withoutstalling. Make sure the machine isnot back feeding.
Ragged /Inconsistent EdgeWhere the edge ofthe seam is eitherextremely "ragged"or "rolls" inside thestitch. Make sure the sewingmachine knives aresharpened and changedoften; The knives should beadjusted properly inrelationship to the "stitchtongue" on the needleplate to obtain theproper seam width orwidth bite.Wavy Seams onStretch DenimWhere the seamdoes not lay flay andis wavyDue to the fabricstretching as itwas sewn orduringsubsequentlaundering andhandlingoperations. Use minimum presserfoot pressure Instruct sewingoperators to use properhandling techniques andnot stretch the fabric asthey are making theseam. Where, available, usedifferential feed tocompensate for thestretch of the fabric.Ropy Hem Where hem is notlaying flat and isskewed inappearanceUsually caused bypoor operatorhandling. Instruct the sewingoperator to make surethey get the hem startedcorrectly in the folderbefore they start sewing.Also, make sure theydont hold backexcessively as the seamis being sewn. Use minimum roller orpresser foot pressure.
Twisted Legs Is where the sideseam twistsaround to thefront of the pantand distorts theappearance ofthe jeans.Usually caused bypoor operatorhandling. Instruct the sewingoperator to match the frontand back properly so theycome out the same length.Sometimes notches areused to insure properalignment. They should NOT trim offthe front or back withscissors to make themcome out the same length. Make sure the cut partsare of equal length comingto the assembly operation. Check fabric quality andcutting for proper skew. Make sure the sewingmachine is adjustedproperly for uniformfeeding of the top andbottom plies.DisappearingStitches inStretch DenimIs where thethread looksmuch smaller onseams sewn inthe warp directionthan in the weftdirection of thefabric. Shorterstitch length Pooroperatorhandling Use a heavier thread sizeon topstitching. Go to a longer stitch length(from 8 to 6 spi). Make sure the threadtensions are as loose aspossible so the thread sitson top of the fabric ratherthan burying in the fabricon seams sewn in thewarp.
Name of thedefectDescription Defect Picture Cause RemedyThreaddiscolorationafter LaundryA commondiscoloration wouldbe the pick-up of agreenish orturquoise tint.It is the threadpicks up the indigodyes from thefabric giving thethread a dirtyappearance. Use thread with propercolor fastnesscharacteristics. Correct PH level (too low)and Water Temperature(too low) during laundry. Use the proper chemicals& laundry cycles. Use Denimcol PCC inwash or similar additive. Do not overload washerswith too many garments atone time.PoorColorfastnessafter LaundryIt changes to adifferent coloraltogether.It is where thethread does notwash downconsistently in thegarment Use thread with propercolor fastnesscharacteristics. Use threads from the samethread supplier and do notmix threads in a garment. Always do preproductiontesting on denim garmentsusing new colors to assurethat they will meet yourrequirements. Make sure sewingoperators select thread bytype and color number anddo not just pick a thread offthe shelf because it looksclose in color.Post Production Defects
Saggingor RollingPocketsWhere thepocket doesnot lay flatand rolls overafterlaundering. Impropercutting ofPocket Improperfolderfunctionin Excessiveholdingback ofpocket bytheoperator Make sure thesewing operatorsare not holdingback excessivelywhen setting thefront pocket. Make sure the hemis formed properlyand that excessivefabric is not beingput into the folderthat will cause thehem to roll over. Check to makesure pocket is cutproperly and thatpocket curve is nottoo deep. Use areinforcement tapeon the inside of thepocket that mayhelp prevent thefront panel fromstretching alongthe bias where thefront pocket is set. The type andweight of denim,along with thefabric construction,may contribute tothis problem.
Broken Stitches(I)Where thread isbeing compromisedby the chemicalsused duringlaundering resultingin loss or change ofcolor and seamfailure.ChemicalDegradation Use a higher performance thread thathas greater resistance to chemicaldegradation. It is recommended to go to larger threadsizes when the Denim Garments will besubject to harsh chemical washes. To achieve the best laundering resultsmake sure that the water temperaturesand PH Levels are correct and that theproper amounts and sequence ofchemical dispersion are withinguidelines. Make sure the garments are beingrinsed properly to neutralize thechemicals in the fabric. Monitor the drying process, cycle times,and temperatures to make sure they arecorrect so that the best possible garmentquality can be achieved.Broken Stitches(II)Where thread onthe stitch line isbroken duringstone-washing,sand blasting, handsanding, etc.Broken stitchesmust be repaired byre stitching over thetop of the stitch-line.due to abrasionduring stone-washing, sandblasting, handsanding, etc. Use a higher performance thread; Use a larger diameter thread onoperations where excessive abrasion isoccurring. Make sure stitches are balance properly,susceptible to abrasion. Monitor the Finishing Cycle forcompliance to specifications.
Name of the defects Present/AbsentBroken Stitches AbsentUnraveling Seams AbsentRe stitched Seams PresentDefect Checklist in the garmentProduction Defects
Skipped Stitches PresentRagged / Inconsistent Edge PresentWavy Seams on Stretch Denim PresentRopy Hem AbsentTwisted Legs Present
Disappearing Stitches in StretchDenimPresentName of the defect Present/AbsentThread discoloration afterLaundryPresentPoor Colorfastness after Laundry AbsentSagging or Rolling Pockets AbsentBroken Stitches (I) AbsentBroken Stitches (II) AbsentPost Production Defects