Chapter 3: What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge? Students must have opportunities to practice.In the Classroom The next day he briefly summarizes the content from the video. Discusses metaphor with students. Introduces students to a metaphor activity reading. Next day he reviews the homework by students presenting his or her metaphor. Whole- Class discussion.Research and Theory Students must have a sound foundation on which to build new awareness. Repeated exposure to the knowledge. Schemata Development Multiple exposures over time facilitate the assimilation (gradually integrating new knowledge into a learner’s existing knowledge base) process. For accommodation (changing existing knowledge structures), interaction with content must challenge existing perceptions. Schemata are packets in which knowledge is organized and stored. Schemata are shared by and created by groups as they interact around a common topic. There are three types: -Accretion: The accumulation or addition of new knowledge than we can add to the old one over time. -Tuning: A transition between accretion and restructuring. -Restructuring: reorganizing knowledge so that it might produce new insights. Developing Procedural Is oriented towards skills, strategies or processes. Knowledge Is shaped by the learner. Automaticity: Executed the process without consciously thinking about the parts of the process. Controlled processing: He must typically think about the process to execute the steps effectively. Fluency: describes the development of a skill or process to the level of automaticity or controlled processing. It must be practiced. Small amount of material at time. Engage in the cognitive processing activities of organizing, reviewing, rehearsing, summarizing, comparing, and contrasting. Effective practice involves students examining and shaping the initial steps (mentioned above). Developing Declarative Informational in nature. Knowledge Review and revision. Students need about four exposures to new informational knowledge to adequately integrate it into their knowledge base. Three activities that qualify as useful ways to deepen students’ understanding of declarative knowledge. -Revision: It needs to have structure and guidance, and requires from students to add new information to the topic being revised as well as correct errors and clarify distinctions. -Error analysis: Faulty logic (if something occur once, it will occur systematically); attack (disprove a point by discrediting the other person); weak references (using sources that have no credibility); and misinformation (confusing the facts). -Identifying similarities and differences: comparing (identifying similarities); contrast (identifying differences); classifying (grouping those which are alike); creating metaphors (identifying a general or basic pattern); and creating analogies (identifying the relationship between two sets of items).
Homework Teacher - assigned task intended for students to perform outside school hours. Doing homework causes improve academic achievement. Homework for young children should help them develop good study habits (long term developmental effect). Time spent Homework must be realistic in length and difficulty given the students’ abilities to work independently. 10 minutes per night, per grade level (including all subject areas). Too much homework may diminish its effectiveness, or even become counterproductive. It is the proportion of homework completed that appears to produce the strongest achievement gains. Parent Such assignments cause students and their parents or other family members to involvement become engaged in conversations that relate to the academic curriculum and thus extend the students’ learning. Interactive homework. Conclusions The most defensible purposes for homework are practice, preparation, and about parent – child relations. homework Overall: positive effect of homework. The amount of time should be carefully considered as well as the grade levels. Homework should be structured to ensure high completion rates. Identify learning goals. Homework is meant to be done by students without the help of a teacher overseeing the process. Parents and guardians should be provided with guidelines regarding how to help without homework.Action Steps.Action step 1. Provide students with Comparing: identifying similarities and differences among or between thingstasks that require them to examine and ideas. e. g. Sentence stem for comparing, diagramming, double bubble, andsimilarities and differences. comparison matrix (easily expanded to include added elements to compare and(Declarative knowledge) more characteristics on which elements are compared. Classifying: grouping things that are alike into categories based on their characteristics (sort content into categories). e.g. using a chart Categories can be chosen by the students. Creating metaphors: identifying a general or basic pattern that connects information that is not related on the literal or surface level (abstract level). General characteristics that unite the two seemingly unrelated elements. Creating analogies: identifying the relationship between two sets of items (A is to B as C is to D). e.g. graphic representation.Action step 2. Help students Faulty logicidentifying errors in thinking. -Contradiction: presenting conflicting information.(Declarative knowledge) -Accident: failing to recognize that an argument is based on an exception to a rule. - False cause: confusing a temporal (time) order of events with causality or oversimplifying the reasons behind some event or occurrence. -Begging the question: using statements that are simply the equivalent of the original claim. -Evading the issue: changing the topic. -Arguing from ignorance: Justified simply because its opposite has not been proven true. -Composition/ division: asserting something about a whole that is really only
true of its parts is composition. Attacks -Poisoning the well: a person’s unwillingness to consider anything that may contradict his or her opinion. -Arguing against the person: rejecting a claim using derogatory facts. -Appealing to force: threats to establish the validity of a claim. Weak references -Sources that reflect biases: accepting information we already believe to be true or consistently rejecting information that goes against what we believe. -Sources that lack credibility: using a source that is not reputable for a given topic. -Appealing to authority: using a source that is not reputable for a given topic. -Appealing to the people: based on its popularity. -Appealing to emotion: “sob story” as a proof for a claim. Misinformation -Confusing the facts: using information that seems to be factual but that has been changed in such a way that It is no longer accurate. -Misapplying a concept or generalization: wrongly applying a concept. These types of errors must be directly taught to students and exemplified in concrete terms. It also helps students to construct valid support for their own conclusions.Action step 3. Provide opportunities Initially provide structured practice sessions spaced close together.for students to practice skills, Students should be provided a clear model of the procedure and even a chancestrategies, and processes. or two to try it themselves.(Procedural knowledge) Structured means that the practice tasks are designed in such a way as to maximize students’ success rates. Volunteers are asked to describe how they used the strategy with the target words. Provide practice sessions that are gradually less structured and more varied. Teacher has presented a clear model and allowed students brief chances to try the model (simple versions). In later practice sessions, more complex aspects are required. Share their new awareness regarding the strategy. When appropriate, providing practice sessions that help develop fluency. If a procedure is necessary for students’ future success in school or in life, enough practice must be provided for students to develop the procedure to a level of fluency. The teacher might have students keep track of their progress. To see their progress over time and helps them pinpoint whether they need to focus on accuracy, speed, or both.Action step 4. Determine the extent Using cooperative learning techniques (small groups).to which cooperative groups will be Small groups to check their work for accuracy and describe their personalused. approaches.Action step 5. Assigned purposeful Homework helps students deepen their knowledge.homework that involves appropriate Homework enhances students’ fluency with procedural knowledge by keepingparticipation from the home. students track of their accuracy and speed. Homework introduces new content. Some basic understanding or sections of somethingAction step 6. Have students Periodically students are asked to review what they have recorded in theirsystematically revise and make notebooks with an emphasis on identifying those things about which they werecorrections in their academic accurate initially and those things about which they were inaccurate initially.notebooks.
Summary What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge? New knowledge Procedural Declarative knowledge knowledge Practice Error Identify Use of analysis similarities & differences Cooperative Homework Revision work activities