An Introduction To Human Rights


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  • An Introduction To Human Rights

    1. 1. An introduction to human rights
    2. 2. Citizenship Criteria <ul><li>Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Global Interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict Resolution </li></ul>
    3. 3. Presentation outline <ul><li>Background to Kosovo and the UN action </li></ul><ul><li>What are human rights? </li></ul><ul><li>The case for Kosovo </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights abuses in Kosovo </li></ul><ul><li>The Army in Kosovo </li></ul>
    4. 4. Background to Kosovo and the UN action
    5. 5. The former Yugoslavia
    6. 7. Kosovo <ul><li>Population of Serbia, including Kosovo: 10 million </li></ul><ul><li>Population of Kosovo: 1.9 million </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic mix within Kosovo: </li></ul><ul><li>88% Kosovar Albanians </li></ul><ul><li>6% Serbian </li></ul><ul><li>6% Others </li></ul>
    7. 8. Build up to UN Action <ul><li>1989 – Milosevic ends self rule in Kosovo </li></ul><ul><li>1998 – Major Serb offensive in Kosovo. Over 250,000 Albanians flee </li></ul><ul><li>Sept 1998 – UN calls for ceasefire in Kosovo </li></ul>
    8. 9. The UN takes action <ul><li>June 1999 – After a bombing campaign, the UN sends in the Kosovo Force (KFOR). This includes the British Army </li></ul><ul><li>Kosovo becomes the only country in the world administered directly by the UN until peace is fully restored in the region </li></ul>
    9. 10. What are human rights?
    10. 11. Human rights <ul><li>All human beings have dignity that must be respected </li></ul><ul><li>All individuals are entitled to human rights (no discrimination) </li></ul><ul><li>They apply wherever you are </li></ul><ul><li>They are international standards that give a legal and moral framework for democracy </li></ul>
    11. 12. The United Nations (UN) <ul><li>It promotes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>It was established in 1945 to maintain world peace </li></ul><ul><li>It represents all the countries in the world </li></ul>
    12. 13. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) <ul><li>Personal rights (dignity, equality) </li></ul><ul><li>Rights of the individual in society (privacy, freedom of movement, right to marry) </li></ul><ul><li>Public freedom and political rights (freedom of thought, opinion) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic, cultural and social rights (health, education, leisure) </li></ul>
    13. 14. Human rights developments <ul><li>European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights Act for the UK (1998) </li></ul>
    14. 15. Articles from Human Rights Act <ul><li>Article 3 Freedom from torture and inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Article 6 The right to a fair trial </li></ul><ul><li>Article 11 Freedom of assembly and association </li></ul>
    15. 16. The case for Kosovo
    16. 17. Why did action have to be taken? <ul><li>“ There has been organised, systematic rape of women, usually in front of husbands and children. Young men have been forced to dig graves, then shot. Whole villages have been razed to the ground. These acts remain the essential justification for NATO’s action.” </li></ul><ul><li>Tony Blair </li></ul>
    17. 18. Why should Britain be involved? <ul><li>“ The British people are by instinct an internationalist people. We believe that as well as defending our rights, we should discharge our responsibilities in the world. We do not want to stand idly by and watch humanitarian disasters or the aggression of dictators go unchecked. We want to give a lead, we want to be a force for good.” </li></ul><ul><li>George Robertson (Sec. State for Defence) </li></ul>
    18. 19. Human rights abuses in Kosovo
    19. 20. Human rights abuses from 1991 <ul><li>In schools – lessons taught in Serbian, not Albanian, even though 82% of the population were Albanians </li></ul><ul><li>Albanian language radio and TV closed </li></ul><ul><li>All signs changed to the Serbian language </li></ul>
    20. 21. Human rights abuses after 1996 <ul><ul><ul><li>Detention without trial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seizing and destruction of property </li></ul></ul></ul>ETHNIC CLEANSING <ul><li>Torture </li></ul><ul><li>Rape </li></ul><ul><li>Mass murder </li></ul>
    21. 22. The Army in Kosovo
    22. 23. Aims of KFOR <ul><li>Establish an impartial armed force to see ‘fair play’ in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Start to rebuild community confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Help to remove the climate of fear </li></ul>
    23. 24. What did KFOR do? <ul><li>Arrested those actively interfering with the human rights of others </li></ul><ul><li>Uncovered scenes of mass murder and torture </li></ul><ul><li>Started to rebuild essential services – temporary shelter, airport, hospitals </li></ul>
    24. 25. How KFOR saw themselves <ul><li>“ You know you’ve done something; you’re happy to see them happy – it’s good.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Many people are still scared of their neighbours, so we are trying desperately to make sure that both sides come together.” </li></ul><ul><li>Quotes from KFOR soldiers, British Army </li></ul>