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Stevens johnson syndrome

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Stevens johnson syndrome

  1. 1. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome BY DR.TOSIF AHMAD TMO-PEDS
  2. 2. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome • Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an immune- complex–mediated hypersensitivity complex that typically involves the skin and the mucous membranes. While minor presentations may occur, significant involvement of oral, nasal, eye, vaginal, urethral, gastrointestinal, and lower respiratory tract mucous membranes may develop in the course of the illness. GI and respiratory involvement may progress to necrosis. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a serious systemic disorder with the potential for severe morbidity and even death.
  3. 3. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome • The syndrome was first described in 1922, when the American pediatricians Albert Mason Stevens and Frank Chambliss Johnson reported the cases of 2 boys aged 7 and 8 years with "an extraordinary, generalized eruption with continued fever, inflamed buccal mucosa, and severe purulent conjunctivitis." Both cases had been misdiagnosed by primary care physicians as hemorrhagic measles.
  4. 4. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome • Although several classification schemes have been reported, the simplest breaks the disease down as follows: • Stevens-Johnson syndrome - A "minor form of TEN," with less than 10% body surface area (BSA) detachment • Overlapping Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) - Detachment of 10-30% BSA • Toxic epidermal necrolysis - Detachment of more than 30% BSA
  5. 5. Pathophysiology • An idiosyncratic, delayed hypersensitivity reaction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Certain population groups appear more susceptible to develop Stevens-Johnson syndrome than the general population. Slow acetylators, patients who are immunocompromised and patients with brain tumors undergoing radiotherapy with concomitant antiepileptics are among those at most risk.
  6. 6. Pathophysiology • Antigen presentation and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–alpha by the local tissue dendrocytes results in the recruitment and augmentation of T-lymphocyte proliferation and enhances the cytotoxicity of the other immune effector cells.A "killer effector molecule" has been identified that may play a role in the activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes.The activated CD8+ lymphocytes, in turn, can induce epidermal cell apoptosis via several mechanisms, which include the release of granzyme B and perforin.
  7. 7. Pathophysiology • The death of keratinocytes causes separation of the epidermis from the dermis. Once apoptosis ensues, the dying cells provoke recruitment of more chemokines. This can perpetuate the inflammatory process, which leads to extensive epidermal necrolysis.
  8. 8. Etiology • Various etiologic factors have been implicated as causes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Drugs most commonly are blamed. The 4 etiologic categories are as follows: • Infectious • Drug-induced • Malignancy-related • Idiopathic
  9. 9. Infectious causes • Viral diseases that have been reported to cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome include the following: • Herpes simplex virus (possibly; remains a debated issue) • AIDS • Coxsackie viral infections • Influenza • Hepatitis • Mumps
  10. 10. Infectious causes • Bacterial etiologies include the following: • Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci • Diphtheria • Brucellosis • Lymphogranuloma venereum • Mycobacteria • Mycoplasma pneumoniae • Rickettsial infections • Tularemia • Typhoid
  11. 11. Infectious causes • Possible fungal causes include coccidioidomycosis, dermatophytosis , and histoplasmosis. Malaria and trichomoniasis have been reported as protozoal causes.
  12. 12. Drug-induced • Antibiotics are the most common cause of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, followed by analgesics, cough and cold medication, NSAIDs, psychoepileptics, an d antigout drugs. Of antibiotics, penicillins and sulfa drugs are prominent; ciprofloxacin has also been reported.
  13. 13. Drug-induced • The following anticonvulsants have been implicated: • Phenytoin • Carbamazepine • oxcarbazepine • Valproic acid • Lamotrigine • Barbiturates
  14. 14. Drug-induced • Antiretroviral drugs implicated in Stevens-Johnson syndrome include nevirapine and possibly other non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.Indinavir has been mentioned.
  15. 15. Drug-induced • Stevens-Johnson syndrome has also been reported in patients taking the following drugs: • Modafinil • Allopurinol • Mirtazapine • TNF-alpha antagonists • Cocaine • Sertraline • Pantoprazole • Tramadol
  16. 16. Genetic factors • There is strong evidence for a genetic predisposition to severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions such as Stevens- Johnson syndrome. Carriage of the certain human leukocyte antigens has been associated with increased risk.
  17. 17. Idiopathic • Stevens-Johnson syndrome is idiopathic in 25-50% of cases.
  18. 18. Epidemiology • The incidence rate is 7 cases per million population per year. • Cases tend to have a propensity for the early spring and winter. • Stevens-Johnson syndrome has been described worldwide in all races, although it may be more common in whites. Interestingly, disease is not limited to humans; cases have been reported in dogs, cats, and monkeys.
  19. 19. Epidemiology • SJS occurs with a worldwide distribution similar in etiology and occurrence to that in the United States. However, a study from Germany reported only 1.1 cases per 1 million person-years. • Cases have been reported in children as young as 3 months.
  20. 20. Clinical Presentation • Typically, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) begins with a nonspecific upper respiratory tract infection. This usually is part of a 1- to 14-day prodrome during which fever, sore throat, chills, headache, and malaise may be present. Vomiting and diarrhea are occasionally noted as part of the prodrome. • Mucocutaneous lesions develop abruptly. Clusters of outbreaks last from 2-4 weeks. The lesions are typically nonpruritic.
  21. 21. Clinical Presentation Typical prodromal symptoms are as follows: • Cough productive of a thick purulent sputum • Headache • Malaise • Arthralgia
  22. 22. Clinical Presentation In addition to the skin, lesions in Stevens-Johnson syndrome may involve the following parts of the body: • Oral mucosa • Esophagus • Pharynx • Larynx • Anus • Trachea • Vagina • Urethra
  23. 23. Clinical Presentation Ocular symptoms include the following: • Red eye • Tearing • Dry eye • Pain • Blepharospasm • Itching • Grittiness
  24. 24. Clinical Presentation • Foreign body sensation • Decreased vision • Burn sensation • Photophobia • Diplopia
  25. 25. Clinical Presentation • The rash can begin as macules that develop into papules, vesicles, bullae, urticarial plaques, or confluent erythema. The center of these lesions may be vesicular, purpuric, or necrotic. • The typical lesion has the appearance of a target; this is considered pathognomonic. However, in contrast to the typical lesions of erythema multiforme, these lesions have only two zones of color. The core may be vesicular, purpuric, or necrotic; that zone is surrounded by macular erythema. Some have called these targetoid lesions.
  26. 26. Clinical Presentation • Lesions may become bullous and later rupture, leaving denuded skin. The skin becomes susceptible to secondary infection. • Although lesions may occur anywhere, the palms, soles, dorsum of the hands, and extensor surfaces are most commonly affected.
  27. 27. Clinical Presentation The following signs may be noted on examination: • Fever • Tachycardia • Hypotension • Altered level of consciousness • Epistaxis • Conjunctivitis • Corneal ulcerations • Erosive vulvovaginitis or balanitis • Seizures • Coma
  28. 28. Complications Of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, 27- 50% progress to severe ocular disease. Ocular complications of Stevens-Johnson syndrome include the following: • Chronic cicatrizing conjunctivitis • Corneal epithelial defects • Corneal stromal ulcers • Corneal perforation • Endophthalmitis
  29. 29. Complications Other complications may include the following: • Gastroenterologic - Esophageal strictures • Genitourinary - Renal tubular necrosis, renal failure, penile scarring, vaginal stenosis • Pulmonary - Tracheobronchial shedding with resultant respiratory failure • Cutaneous - Scarring and cosmetic deformity, recurrences of infection through slow- healing ulcerations
  30. 30. Differential Diagnoses • Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome • Irradiation • Trauma • Progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) • Erythroderma ichthyosiform congenita • Porphyria cutanea tarda • Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita • Linear immunoglobulin A bullous disease
  31. 31. Differential Diagnoses • Paraneoplastic pemphigus • Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus • Corynebacterium diphtheriae conjunctivitis • Sebaceous cell carcinoma • Adenoviral conjunctivitis • Intraepithelial epithelioma • Acute generalized exanthematic pustulosis
  32. 32. Workup There are no specific laboratory studies (other than biopsy) that can definitively establish the diagnosis of Stevens- Johnson syndrome. • Serum levels of the following are typically elevated in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome: • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha • Soluble interleukin 2-receptor • Interleukin 6 • C-reactive protein • However, none of these serologic tests is used routinely in diagnosing and managing Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
  33. 33. Workup • Skin biopsy specimens demonstrate that the bullae are subepidermal. However, skin biopsy is not an emergency department (ED) procedure. Epidermal cell necrosis may be noted. Perivascular areas are infiltrated with lymphocytes.
  34. 34. Treatment & Management • Management of patients with Stevens- Johnson syndrome is usually provided in intensive care units or burn centers. No specific treatment of Stevens-Johnson syndrome is noted; therefore, most patients are treated symptomatically. In principle, the symptomatic treatment of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome does not differ from the treatment of patients with extensive burns.
  35. 35. Treatment & Management • Identify and stop the offending agent. • Isolate the patient. • Give IV fluids. • Give corticosteroids. • IVIG if available. • Antibiotic to treat secondary infection. • Use minimum drugs for its treatment.
  36. 36. Treatment & Management • Manage oral lesions with mouthwashes. Topical anesthetics are useful in reducing pain and allowing the patient to take in fluids. • Skin lesions are treated as burns. Areas of denuded skin must be covered with compresses of saline. • Address tetanus prophylaxis.
  37. 37. Treatment & Management • Treatment of acute ocular manifestations usually begins with aggressive lubrication of the ocular surface. As inflammation and cicatricial changes ensue, most ophthalmologists use topical steroids, antibiotics, and symblepharon lysis.
  38. 38. Prognosis • Individual lesions typically should heal within 1-2 weeks, unless secondary infection occurs. Most patients recover without sequelae. • Mortality is determined primarily by the extent of skin sloughing. When body surface area (BSA) sloughing is less than 10%, the mortality rate is approximately 1-5%. However, when more than 30% BSA sloughing is present, the mortality rate is between 25% and 35%, and may be as high as 50%. Bacteremia and sepsis appear to play a major role in increased mortality.
  39. 39. Prognosis • The SCORTEN score (a severity-of-illness score for toxic epidermal necrolysis) calculates the risk for death in both SJS and TEN on the basis of the following variables: • Age >40 years • Malignancy • Heart rate >120 • Initial percentage of epidermal detachment >10% • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level >10 mmol/L • Serum glucose level >14 mmol/L • Bicarbonate level < 20 mmol/L
  40. 40. Prognosis • Each variable is assigned a value of 1 point. Mortality rates are as follows: • 0-1 points, ≥3.2% • 2 points, ≥12.1% • 3 points, ≥35.3% • 4 points, ≥58.3% • 5 or more points, ≥90%
  41. 41. Prognosis • Other negative prognostic factors include persistent neutropenia (defined as neutropenia lasting more than 5 days), hypoalbuminemia (usually < 2 g/dL), and persistent azotemia.
  42. 42. Prognosis Survivors of Stevens-Johnson syndrome may experience numerous long-term sequelae; the most disabling are those of the eye. Cicatrization of conjunctival erosions may lead to the following: • Inverted eyelashes • Photophobia • A burning sensation in the eyes • Watery eyes • A siccalike syndrome • Corneal and conjunctival neovascularization
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