CHAPTER  THREE <ul><li>Planning </li></ul>Screen graphics created by: Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD Troy State University-Florida ...
Staffing  Organizations  Model Staffing Policies and Programs Staffing System and Retention Management Support Activities ...
Chapter Outline <ul><li>External Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor Mar...
Exh. 3.1:  Examples of External Influences on Staffing <ul><li>Economic expansion and contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Job gr...
General Economic Conditions, Job Growth, HR Movement Impacts HR Movement Impacts <ul><li>New labor force entrants </li></u...
Labor Markets:  Demand for Labor <ul><li>Employment patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for labor is a derived demand </...
Labor Markets:  Supply of Labor <ul><li>Trends  in supply of labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity of labor - Exh. 3.2:  La...
Labor Markets:  Other Issues <ul><li>Labor  shortages and surpluses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tight” labor markets </li></ul...
Labor Unions <ul><li>Trends  in union membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage of labor force unionized </li></ul></ul>...
Labor Unions:  Contract Clauses Affecting Staffing <ul><li>Management rights </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs and job structure </li...
What is Human Resource Planning (HRP)? <ul><li>Involves activities to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecast  an organization’s  <...
Overview:  Human Resource Planning <ul><li>Process and example </li></ul><ul><li>Initial decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Forec...
Exh. 3.4:  The Basic Elements of Human Resource Planning (5) Develop Action Plans Compare (1) Forecast Labor Requirements ...
HRP:  Process and Example <ul><li>1.   Determine future HR requirements </li></ul><ul><li>2.   Determine future HR availab...
HRP:  Initial Decisions <ul><li>Comprehensiveness of planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan-based HRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
HRP:  Forecasting HR Requirements <ul><li>Statistical techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.6:  Examples of Statistical ...
HRP:  Forecasting HR Availabilities <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine head count data for current workforce...
HRP:  Forecasting HR Availabilities  (continued) <ul><li>Replacement and Succession Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace...
HRP:  External Environmental Scanning <ul><li>External scanning  involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking trends  and  deve...
HRP:  Internal Environmental Scanning <ul><li>Internal scanning  involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal discussions with ...
HRP:  Reconciliation and Gaps <ul><li>Phase involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coming to grips with projected gaps </li></ul><...
HRP:  Action Planning <ul><li>Set objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Generate alternative activities </li></ul><ul><li>Assess al...
Staffing Planning Process <ul><li>Staffing  objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Exh. 3.14:  Staffing Alternatives to Deal with Employee Shortages and Surpluses
Staffing Planning:  Core Workforce <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing philosoph...
Exh. 3.15:  Internal vs. External Staffing
Staffing Planning:  Flexible Workforce <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories...
Legal Issues <ul><li>Affirmative Action Plans (AAPs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.20:  Example of AAP:  Essential Componen...
Ethical Issues <ul><li>Issue 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does an organization have any ethical responsibility to share with al...
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Hrm445 chapter 003

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Hrm445 chapter 003

  1. 1. CHAPTER THREE <ul><li>Planning </li></ul>Screen graphics created by: Jana F. Kuzmicki, PhD Troy State University-Florida and Western Region McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Staffing Organizations Model Staffing Policies and Programs Staffing System and Retention Management Support Activities Legal compliance Planning Job analysis Core Staffing Activities Recruitment: External, internal Selection: Measurement, external, internal Employment: Decision making, final match Organization Strategy HR and Staffing Strategy Organization Vision and Mission Goals and Objectives
  3. 3. Chapter Outline <ul><li>External Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor Markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor Unions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Resource Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process and Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasting HR Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasting HR Availabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External and Internal Environmental Scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconciliation and Gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staffing Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing Planning Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core Workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible Workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AAPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legality of AAPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EEO and Temporary Workers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Exh. 3.1: Examples of External Influences on Staffing <ul><li>Economic expansion and contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Job growth and job opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Internal labor market mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover rates </li></ul>Economic Conditions <ul><li>Labor demand: Employment patterns, KSAOs sought </li></ul><ul><li>Labor supply: Labor force, demographic trends, KSAOs available </li></ul><ul><li>Labor shortages and surpluses </li></ul><ul><li>Employment arrangements </li></ul>Labor Markets <ul><li>Negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Labor contracts: Staffing levels, staffing quality, internal movement </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance systems </li></ul>Labor Unions
  5. 5. General Economic Conditions, Job Growth, HR Movement Impacts HR Movement Impacts <ul><li>New labor force entrants </li></ul><ul><li>Current labor force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employed </li></ul></ul>Promotion Transfer Demotion New hires Internal labor market Exit Out of labor force Unemployed To new job General Economic Conditions Product markets Labor markets Inflation Interest rates Foreign exchange rates Government regulations Job Growth Positive = Expansion Neutral = Stagnation Negative = Contraction
  6. 6. Labor Markets: Demand for Labor <ul><li>Employment patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for labor is a derived demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job growth projections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment growth projections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KSAOs sought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KSAO requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing sector - Survey of skill deficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial skills - Critically required skills </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Labor Markets: Supply of Labor <ul><li>Trends in supply of labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity of labor - Exh. 3.2: Labor Force Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor force trends relevant to staffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KSAOs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other trends ??? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>KSAOs available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational attainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Labor Markets: Other Issues <ul><li>Labor shortages and surpluses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tight” labor markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Loose” labor markets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employment arrangements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-time vs. part-time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular or shift work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative employment arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.4: Usage of Alternative Employment Arrangements and Contingent Workers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Labor Unions <ul><li>Trends in union membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage of labor force unionized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private sector unionization rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public sector unionization rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contract clauses affecting staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on staffing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Spillover effects” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Labor Unions: Contract Clauses Affecting Staffing <ul><li>Management rights </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs and job structure </li></ul><ul><li>External staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Internal staffing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job posting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines of movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seniority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grievance procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Guarantees against discrimination </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is Human Resource Planning (HRP)? <ul><li>Involves activities to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecast an organization’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labor demand -- R equirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal labor supply -- Availabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare projections to determine employment gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop action plans to addressing the gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing planning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Overview: Human Resource Planning <ul><li>Process and example </li></ul><ul><li>Initial decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Forecast HR requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Forecast HR availabilities </li></ul><ul><li>External and internal environmental scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciliation and gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Action planning </li></ul>
  13. 13. Exh. 3.4: The Basic Elements of Human Resource Planning (5) Develop Action Plans Compare (1) Forecast Labor Requirements (2) Forecast Labor Availabilities (3) Conduct Environmental Scans (4) Determine Gaps
  14. 14. HRP: Process and Example <ul><li>1. Determine future HR requirements </li></ul><ul><li>2. Determine future HR availabilities </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conduct external and internal environmental scanning </li></ul><ul><li>4. Reconcile requirements and availabilities - determine gaps </li></ul><ul><li>5. Develop action plans to close projected gaps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.6: Operational Format and Example for HRP </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. HRP: Initial Decisions <ul><li>Comprehensiveness of planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan-based HRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special projects HRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population-based HRP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Job categories and levels </li></ul><ul><li>Head count - current workforce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignores scheduled time worked by each employee relative to a full workweek - FTEs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignores vacancies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roles and responsibilities </li></ul>
  16. 16. HRP: Forecasting HR Requirements <ul><li>Statistical techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.6: Examples of Statistical Techniques to Forecast HR Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judgmental techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Top-down” approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bottom-up” approach </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. HRP: Forecasting HR Availabilities <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine head count data for current workforce and their availability in each job category/level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Exh. 3.6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Markov analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.8: Use of Markov Analysis to Forecast Availabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations of Markov analysis </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. HRP: Forecasting HR Availabilities (continued) <ul><li>Replacement and Succession Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.9: Replacement Chart Example </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Succession planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.10: Succession Plan Example </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. HRP: External Environmental Scanning <ul><li>External scanning involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking trends and developments in external environment, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documenting implications for management of human resources, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring implications receive attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.11: Example of Environmental Scan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. HRP: Internal Environmental Scanning <ul><li>Internal scanning involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal discussions with key managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting employee attitude surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring key indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turnover </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying nagging personnel problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing managerial attitudes regarding HR </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. HRP: Reconciliation and Gaps <ul><li>Phase involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coming to grips with projected gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely reasons for gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing future implications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exhibit 3.12: Format and Example for Human Resource Planning (HRP) </li></ul>
  22. 22. HRP: Action Planning <ul><li>Set objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Generate alternative activities </li></ul><ul><li>Assess alternative activities </li></ul><ul><li>Choose alternative activities </li></ul>
  23. 23. Staffing Planning Process <ul><li>Staffing objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.14: Setting Numerical Staffing Objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generate alternative staffing activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.15: Staffing Alternatives to Deal with Employee Shortages and Surpluses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess and choose alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.16: Organizations’ Responses to Staffing Strategies Survey </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Exh. 3.14: Staffing Alternatives to Deal with Employee Shortages and Surpluses
  25. 25. Staffing Planning: Core Workforce <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal vs. external staffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.17: Internal vs. External Staffing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EEO / AA practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicant reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staffing flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization staffing flowchart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.18: Staffing Flowchart for Medium-Sized Printing Company </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Exh. 3.15: Internal vs. External Staffing
  27. 27. Staffing Planning: Flexible Workforce <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing firms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.16: Factors to Consider When Choosing a Staffing Firm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent contractors </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Legal Issues <ul><li>Affirmative Action Plans (AAPs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exh. 3.20: Example of AAP: Essential Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action Programs Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legality of AAPs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines for AAPs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity programs </li></ul><ul><li>EEO and temporary workers </li></ul>
  29. 29. Ethical Issues <ul><li>Issue 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does an organization have any ethical responsibility to share with all of its employees the results of its forecasting of HR requirements and availabilities? Does it have any ethical responsibility not to do this? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issue 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify examples of ethical dilemmas an organization might confront when developing an affirmative action plan (AAP). </li></ul></ul>

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