Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks

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  • User moves from its home network to a foreign networkThe correspondent node does not need to be aware of the user’s mobilityMobility is handled by the Distributed Mobility Controller (a service which may have several instances)Data follows the user and it is delivered to the edge of the network as ordered by the Distributed Cloud Storage ControllerRouters keep some data cached to ensure better performance when data is not stored nearby
  • Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks

    1. 1. Universität ZürichInformation-Centric Networking inMobile NetworksTorsten Braun, Universität Bern, Switzerlandbraun@iam.unibe.ch, cds.unibe.ch
    2. 2. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Overview > Future Internet > Information-Centric Networking (ICN) — Content-Centric Networking — Service-Centric Networking — ICN and Cloud Computing > ICN in Mobile / Wireless Networks — Mobility — Delay/Disruption-Tolerant and Opportunistic Networks > Conclusions Zürich, 22.02.2013 2
    3. 3. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Future Internet > The current Internet is based on principles of the 1960s with the main purpose to interconnect large computers. > Today, Internet users are mainly interested in retrieving content and accessing services with increasing demand for mobility & security > Increasing bandwidth demand due to — (personalized) multimedia data streams — Cloud computing and storage, visualization on (mobile / high-resolution) end systems — Huge amounts of data from measurements and scientific experiments — Internet of Things, Internet of Services, … > New approaches, e.g., Information-Centric Networking, need more research, development, testing etc. Zürich, 22.02.2013 3
    4. 4. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Motivation for Information-Centric Networking > Today’s network traffic is dominated by information retrieval rather than point-to-point communication between machines or humans. > Circuit communication model is not considered as appropriate any more. > Future communication architecture should focus on information objects instead of nodes. > Today, wires and memories solve complimentary aspects of the same problem: — Wires move information in space. — Memories move information in time. > Future communications architecture should unify both issues. > Flash crowds are difficult to avoid in IP-based networks. Zürich, 22.02.2013 4
    5. 5. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Traditional Web Retrieval / Web Services search engine / service registry user’s end system web server / web service DNS server Zürich, 22.02.2013 5
    6. 6. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Key Principles and Functions of ICN > Naming of content rather than hosts/interfaces — Content independent of devices that store it — Naming is location independent (receiver mobility support !) > Receivers (subscribers) request content. > Senders (publishers) advertise and deliver content. > Receivers and senders do not have to be aware of each other and are decoupled in time. > Functions needed — Name resolution to match subscriptions and publications — Routing and path formation — Forwarding content from publisher to subscriber Pentikousis, K.; Chemouil, P.; Nichols, K.; Pavlou, G.; Massey, D.; "Information-centric networking", IEEE Communications Magazine, vol.50, no.7, pp.22-25, July 2012 Zürich, 22.02.2013 6
    7. 7. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Content Distribution with ICN /unibe.ch/braun/lecture/os/20130219 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Zürich, 22.02.2013 7
    8. 8. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Naming Approaches > Human-readable, hierarchical names — supports aggregation — needs coordination — Example: CCN > Flat (self-certifying) names — Often based on hashing content name and/or owner’s public key — Aggregation more difficult but more flexible. — Example: PSI Zürich, 22.02.2013 8
    9. 9. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Name Resolution and Data Transport > Decoupled — Name resolution and data transport are independent of each other, cf. DNS, with possibly different nodes for resolution and data transport — allows different, possibly already existing transport mechanisms, also multi-path — Example: PSI > Coupled — Nodes for both name resolution and data transport with inverse data path compared to search path — rather disruptive technology — Local routing procedures advantageous in case of short link disruptions — Example: CCN Zürich, 22.02.2013 9
    10. 10. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Wireless/Mobile Networks Publish/Subscribe Internetworking (PSI) > Information producer publishes information item to rendezvous system consisting of rendezvous nodes. > Information consumer subscribes to information item. > Rendezvous system — matches announcements and subscriptions — triggers delivery from information producer to information consumer, e.g. using OpenFlow > Various caching strategies: on-path, off-path, replication publication path establishment subscription Medellin, October 5, 2012 10
    11. 11. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Content-Centric Networking (CCN) > Combination of content lookup and message routing > Idea: describe the user’s interests in the message header, but not where to get it. > Messages (using XML encoding) — Interest: content name, selector — Data: content name, signature (info), data > Hierarchical content names — Example: /unibe.ch/braun/lecture/os/20130219 > Related Projects — NDN = Named Data Networking, www.named-data.net — CCNx = Open Source Core Software Project for Content-Centric Networking, www.ccnx.org Van Jacobson, Diana K. Smetters, James D. Thornton, Michael F. Plass, Nicholas H. Briggs, and Rebecca L. Braynard: Networking named content, 5th international conference on Emerging networking experiments and technologies (CoNEXT 09). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1-12. Zürich, 22.02.2013 11
    12. 12. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks IP Model FIB FIB: Forwarding Information Base Zürich, 22.02.2013 12
    13. 13. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Interest Message Processing in CCN 1. Longest prefix match on content name in Content Store: returning data and discarding Interest 2. Pending Interest Table match: adding request to PIT and discarding Interest 3. Forwarding Information Base match: forwarding of Interest towards data — FIB population by announcements of content availability Zürich, 22.02.2013 13
    14. 14. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Match in Content Store CS FIB Name Data PIT Name CS: Content Store FIB: Forwarding Information Base PIT: Pending Interest Table Zürich, 22.02.2013 14
    15. 15. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Match in Forwarding Information Base CS FIB PIT Name Zürich, 22.02.2013 15
    16. 16. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Match in Pending Interest Table Name CS FIB PIT x Zürich, 22.02.2013 16
    17. 17. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks CCN Naming > Hierarchical naming allowing aggregation > Examples — /unibe.ch/braun/lecture/os/20130219 — /unibe.ch/N10/R306/Projector > Support for simple operations — %C1.org.ccnx.frobnicate~1~37 — command in the namespace org.ccnx — operation is frobnicate, which takes 1 and 37 as arguments Zürich, 22.02.2013 17
    18. 18. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks CCN Routing > Longest Prefix Match Routing (as in IP) > FIB entries should be populated proactively for known content. > Alternatively, searching for content, e.g., using flooding Zürich, 22.02.2013 18
    19. 19. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks CCN Evaluation > Advantages — Automatic content distribution — Minimization of latency: < 1 round-trip-time — Minimization of bandwidth — Local congestion control — Built-in security > Challenges — Routing protocols — Hierarchical naming — Source mobility — Services Zürich, 22.02.2013 19
    20. 20. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Service-Centric Networking (SCN) > ICN/CCN is content-centric and encodes a few operations on content as extensions of names. > Proposal: Service-Centric Networking — Extension of content-centric networking to support services, possibly operating on content. — Description of a service using content naming scheme, e.g., /google.com/file-service — Service request (response) in Interest (Data) message > Services — Infrastructure services, e.g., cloud computing services — Client-oriented services, e.g., web services — Continuous content retrieval and streaming services, e.g., A/V conferencing, streaming — Event services, e.g., exceeding sensor data thresholds or stocks data — In-network services, e.g., aggregation and filtering of (sensor) data Braun, T.; Hilt, V.; Hofmann, M.; Rimac, I.; Steiner, M.; Varvello, M.: Service-Centric Networking, 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC), pp.1-6, Kyoto, 5-9 June 2011 Zürich, 22.02.2013 20
    21. 21. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Service-Centric Network SCN network SCN router Service request/response Zürich, 22.02.2013 21
    22. 22. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Advantages of SCN > No service lookup and service registry > Caching of service data > Extended caching of multimedia data (transcoding) > Location-based services > Optimized service selection Zürich, 22.02.2013 22
    23. 23. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Uniform Naming for Services (Functions) and Content (Data) > Services perform (data) processing and are represented by functions to be invoked. Content stores for data. > Service-centric networking should support both data and functions. > Object-orientated programming paradigm integrates both functions and data into objects. Method calls among objects to invoke functions. > Proposal: Object names for both services (functions) and content (data), e.g., — /youtube.com/rendering — /unibe.ch/braun/lecture/os/20130219 > Advantages of object-oriented approach — Uniform naming — Services can be implemented as a set of cooperating objects Zürich, 22.02.2013 23
    24. 24. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks SCN Object Types function1 read read function2 content content function1 data data function3 function2 1: Content Object 2: Service Object 3: Content/Service Object Zürich, 22.02.2013 24
    25. 25. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Example: Real-time Audio Conferencing Sent audio Echo Trans- Mixing data cancellation coding Received audio data Zürich, 22.02.2013 25
    26. 26. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Real-Time Audio Conferencing Service /echocancel /transcode /mix/todaysconf /transcode /john/audiostream_original /mix/todaysconf /mix/todaysconf /mix/todaysconf/audiostream /john/audiostream_ec /john/audiostream_trans main main main main /john/audiotool /echocancel /transcode /mix/todaysconf write read write read write read write read generated echo-cancelled transcoded mixed audio audio audio audio /john/audiostream /john/ /john/audiostream /mix/todaysconf/ _original audiostream_ec _trans audiostream Zürich, 22.02.2013 26
    27. 27. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks SCN Prototype Evaluation publisher 4 ccndp time [s] 5 200 150 client1 1/8 3 6 100 user ccnd 1 1 2/7 CCN router 50 17/20 11/12 186 31 4 18/19 conversion 0 client2 ccndr service & 1-8 9-16 17-20 10 13/14 user 9 ccnd 15 repository 2 16 2 1-8: Client 1 retrieves bit map image (36 MB) 9-16: Client 2 retrieves JPEG image (6 MB) Torsten Braun, Andreas Mauthe, Vasilios Siris: Service-Centric Networking Extensions, 17-20: Client 1 retrieves JPEG image 28th ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, Coimbra, Portugal, March 18 - 22, 2013 Zürich, 22.02.2013 27
    28. 28. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks ICN and Cloud Computing > ICN can be used to — find/call cloud services (computation, storage) — deploy cloud services — support caching of data stored in the cloud Zürich, 22.02.2013 28
    29. 29. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks EU FP7 Integrated Project: mobile-cloud-networking.eu > Integration of — Radio Access Network — Mobile Core Network — Data Centre (computing, storage, applications) into (decentralized) cloud computing infrastructure (management!) > Advantages: elasticity, costs, performance, e.g., by exploitation of user location for service provisioning → Follow Me Cloud Zürich, 22.02.2013 29
    30. 30. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Mobile Cloud Network Architecture Zürich, 22.02.2013 30
    31. 31. Follow-Me Cloud
    32. 32. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Benefits of ICN in Wireless Networks > Broadcast property of wireless medium → single Interest to many neighbor nodes > No beaconing required to learn about neighbor nodes > Reduced delay and network load due to possible caching > Request/Response based routing in mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) could be replaced by Interest/Data exchange, cf. Directed Diffusion > Support of short mobile nodes’ encounters > ICN architectures inherently support receiver mobility ! > Issues — Source mobility — Disruptions Zürich, 22.02.2013 32
    33. 33. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Source Mobility > Problem — Finding a source’s location at the beginning of and when source is moving during communication. > Solutions — Routing-based approaches – (Proactive) updating of routing tables in case of moving sources → issues on scalability and convergence — Indirection – (Home) agent forwards all Content Requests to mobile source, cf. Mobile IP. → location-based identifiers, cf. location/identity separation. — Resolution – Receiver requests location-based identifier for a content name in a Content Request. – Approach adds resolution phase and requires resolution entities in visited networks. > Conclusions and Suggestions — Both content names and locators might be needed to efficiently support ICN source mobility. — Flexible use of content names / locators, possibly using late binding Vasilios Siris, Torsten Braun et al.: Content-Centric Networking Architectures for Moving Objects, COST Action IC0906, STSM Report, 2012, http://cost-winemo.org/ Zürich, 22.02.2013 33
    34. 34. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks CCN in Delay/Disruption-Tolerant (DTN) and Opportunistic Networks Name Origin of Data Interest /feeds.sf.tv/podcast/10vor10 me - /youtube.com/movies/ mydaughter - DesperateHousewives Encounter … … … /unibe.ch/braun/lecture/os/ me, + 20130219 mystudent … … … Possible message exchange at encounter 1. Exchange of interests, possibly with priority of own / friends’ interests 2. Exchange of relevant data Zürich, 22.02.2013 34
    35. 35. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Content-Centric Networks and DTN/Opportunistic Networks > Content-Centric Networks and Delay/Disruption-Tolerant Networks seem to be a good match. — No needs for beacons and neighbour lists — Exploitation of wireless broadcast media — Efficient exchange of Interests and Data > Publish / Subscribe approaches might be less beneficial here. > Issue: Possibly short encounters require — Efficient data transfer — Resume functionality Zürich, 22.02.2013 35
    36. 36. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks CCN in Opportunistic Networks > Scenario: 1 source and 1 consumer > Evaluation of pipelining and resume functionality — Resume: continuation of data transfer after disruption — Transfer time of 5 MB file using PCEngines ALIX wireless mesh nodes with different Data message sizes Zürich, 22.02.2013 36
    37. 37. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks CCN in Opportunistic Networks: Pipelining > Pipelining and TCP-lilke control of pipeline sizes > Transfer time for different maximum pipeline sizes Zürich, 22.02.2013 37
    38. 38. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Conclusions > Information-Centric Networking attracts huge research interest and has potential to — save bandwidth — reduce delay — save energy — support receiver mobility — operate efficiently in wireless networks — support delay/disruption-tolerant and opportunistic networks > Challenges — storage in routers — routing strategies — source mobility — more general services — resume operations Zürich, 22.02.2013 38
    39. 39. Torsten Braun: Information-Centric Networking in Mobile Networks Thank You for Your Attention ! > braun@iam.unibe.ch > http://cds.unibe.ch > http://www.slideshare.net/torstenbraun Zürich, 22.02.2013 39

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