A smart Multi-hop hierarchical routing protocolfor Efficient VIdeo communication over wireless       multimedia sensor net...
Overview Introduction Related Work MEVI - Concept and Protocol Operation Evaluation Conclusions
Introduction to WMSNs I Multimedia       content    has   growing  importance. Availability of inexpensive hardware such...
Introduction to WMSNs II   Multimedia content can enhance sensor data    information collected.   WMSNs will enable a wi...
WMSN Challenges I Multimedia content generates huge  amount of data to be transmitted over  WMSNs. WMSNs are restricted ...
WMSN Challenges II   Efficient and reliable communication    between the nodes should be used    considering    ◦ Multi-h...
WMSN Challenges III   Existing hierarchical routing protocols    have certain drawbacks    ◦ High overhead for cluster cr...
Multi-hop hierarchical routing protocol forEfficient VIdeo communication (MEVI) I   MEVI considers    ◦ use of heterogene...
Multi-hop hierarchical routing protocol forEfficient VIdeo communication (MEVI) II   MEVI concepts    ◦ Opportunistic sch...
Related Work
Related Work                  LEACH          EEQAR           PEMuRMultimedia data   Periodically   Periodically    Periodi...
MEVI –Concept and Protocol Operation
Target Scenario
Protocol Operation I   Multimedia transmissions are triggered by    sensors.   Two operational modes    ◦ Normal mode   ...
Protocol Operation II
Intra-Cluster Communication I   Period designated to nodes (non-CHs)    ◦ Cluster creation    ◦ Cluster members send sens...
Intra-Cluster Communication II
Inter-Cluster Communication I   Period when CHs and BS communicate    with each other using multi-hop    communication.  ...
Inter-Cluster Communication II MEVI exploits a reactive scheme to find  routes from CHs to BS on-demand. Reactive route ...
Performance Evaluation
Simulation Parameters                        second                        seconds
Network Lifetime – Scenario 1
Network Lifetime – Scenario 2
Video Quality Level
Video Quality Level: SSIM   Video quality for a node, which is 36 m    away from BS
Video Quality Level:VQM
Video Quality
A smart Multi-hop hierarchical routing protocolfor Efficient VIdeo communication over wireless       multimedia sensor net...
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A smart Multi-hop hierarchical routing protocol for Efficient VIdeo communication over wireless multimedia sensor networks - MEVI

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  • 12/01/08
  • 12/01/08
  • The importance of multimedia in the next years Small hardware are able to ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the environment. 12/01/08
  • The multimedia data made available de development of WMSN 12/01/08
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  • 12/01/08
  • Propose multi-hop using LQI, energy and hop count to select routes Increase the video quality, since it uses reliable routes MEVI, propose a scheme to create cluster which includes a minimal overhead – energy efficiency 12/01/08
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  • MEVI relies on a hierarchical network architecture with heterogeneous nodes The nodes have heterogeneous capabilities and are divided into the following classes: (i) non-multimedia-aware nodes; and (ii) multimediaaware powerful nodes. CHs are used for routing, slot allocation, synchronizing non-CH transmissions, multimedia retrieval and data aggregation Non-multimedia-aware nodes are source nodes and multimedia-aware powerful nodes are destination nodes. 12/01/08
  • Simulations were carried out and repeated 20 times to have a confidence interval of 95%. For scenario 1 (small) use lower transmission power and for scenario 2 (bigger) user higher transmission power The Container video sequence with a QCIF resolution was chosen from the Video Trace Library. Container is the video with similar motion and complexity as expected for a fire detection system. 12/01/08
  • Shows the number of nodes per round that are still alive The number of nodes alive per round is same for MEVI in both versions, due to the fact that the main difference between them is that the multi-hop version includes a route discovery between CHs and BS. MEVI considers that CH are equipped with a alternative energy source Compared with LEACH, for Scenario 1, MEVI in both versions increased its network lifetime by 60%. The reason for this is that in LEACH the CH requires higher transmission power when it sends its packets to the BS, which consumes more energy. Additionally, MEVI reduces the signaling overhead to create clusters and considers two kinds of nodes 12/01/08
  • SSIM ranges from 0 to 1. higher value means better video quality VQM ranges fro 0 to 5, lower value means better performance. SD = Standard Deviation 12/01/08
  • SSIM ranges from 0 to 1. higher value means better video quality Single-hop protocols have almost the same video quality level. Since the transmitting nodes use the same transmission power at the same distance. However, MEVI multi-hop increases the video quality by 20% for SSIM and 40% for VQM. This is due to the fact that the proposed cross-layer solution selects reliable paths based on perceived network conditions. 12/01/08
  • VQM ranges fro 0 to 5, lower value means better performance. Single-hop protocols have almost the same video quality level. Since the transmitting nodes use the same transmission power at the same distance. However, MEVI multi-hop increases the video quality by 20% for SSIM and 40% for VQM. This is due to the fact that the proposed cross-layer solution selects reliable paths based on perceived network conditions. 12/01/08
  • The figure shows the video quality of a frame perceived by the user. The figure shows the Frame 266 SIM = 0.8 VQM = 1.0 SSIM = 0.5 VQM = 2.5 Thus, using QoE metrics, it is possible to get results more accurate related to the video quality from the user perspective 12/01/08
  • 12/01/08
  • A smart Multi-hop hierarchical routing protocol for Efficient VIdeo communication over wireless multimedia sensor networks - MEVI

    1. 1. A smart Multi-hop hierarchical routing protocolfor Efficient VIdeo communication over wireless multimedia sensor networks - MEVI D. Rosário, R. Costa, H. Paraense, K. Machado, E. Cerqueira and T. Braun
    2. 2. Overview Introduction Related Work MEVI - Concept and Protocol Operation Evaluation Conclusions
    3. 3. Introduction to WMSNs I Multimedia content has growing importance. Availability of inexpensive hardware such as sensors, CMOS cameras, and microphones allow capturing multimedia sensor data from the environment. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) for carrying multimedia data needed
    4. 4. Introduction to WMSNs II Multimedia content can enhance sensor data information collected. WMSNs will enable a wide range of potential applications in both civilian and military areas, which require audio and video information, e.g., ◦ Traffic management ◦ Environmental monitoring ◦ Video surveillance ◦ Industrial process control ◦ Smart cities
    5. 5. WMSN Challenges I Multimedia content generates huge amount of data to be transmitted over WMSNs. WMSNs are restricted in terms of ◦ Energy ◦ Bandwidth ◦ Memory ◦ Processing capabilities An event-driven approach should be used to avoid redundant video transmission.
    6. 6. WMSN Challenges II Efficient and reliable communication between the nodes should be used considering ◦ Multi-hop communications ◦ Cross-layer mechanism to select routes Delivery of multimedia content with a minimal level of quality according to QoS and QoE metrics.
    7. 7. WMSN Challenges III Existing hierarchical routing protocols have certain drawbacks ◦ High overhead for cluster creation ◦ Lack of efficient multi-hop communication ◦ Lack of an efficient cross-layer approach to select routes based on information about link quality level, available energy, energy consumption
    8. 8. Multi-hop hierarchical routing protocol forEfficient VIdeo communication (MEVI) I MEVI considers ◦ use of heterogeneous nodes ◦ hierarchical architecture ◦ event-based application MEVI addresses mentioned drawbacks and provides ◦ Scalability ◦ Reliability ◦ High quality videos ◦ Energy-efficiency
    9. 9. Multi-hop hierarchical routing protocol forEfficient VIdeo communication (MEVI) II MEVI concepts ◦ Opportunistic scheme for cluster formation with a minimal overhead ◦ Multi-hop communication between cluster heads (CHs) and base station (BS) ◦ Cross-layer scheme to select routes based on link quality and energy parameters
    10. 10. Related Work
    11. 11. Related Work LEACH EEQAR PEMuRMultimedia data Periodically Periodically PeriodicallytransmissionCluster Distributed Distributed CentralizedformationMessages for Beacon Not Specified Schedule from BScluster formation Join and from CH Schedule Advertisement Elected CH JoinMulti-hop Single-hop Multi-hop Multi-hopCross-layer to n/a QoS Residual Energyselect routes 11
    12. 12. MEVI –Concept and Protocol Operation
    13. 13. Target Scenario
    14. 14. Protocol Operation I Multimedia transmissions are triggered by sensors. Two operational modes ◦ Normal mode  Multimedia transmission is requested by BS when a possibility of an event occurrence is detected (soft threshold). ◦ Event mode  Nodes start multimedia transmissions when event has been detected (hard threshold). Two communication periods ◦ Intra-cluster ◦ Inter-cluster
    15. 15. Protocol Operation II
    16. 16. Intra-Cluster Communication I Period designated to nodes (non-CHs) ◦ Cluster creation ◦ Cluster members send sensed values to CHs. Clusters are created with minimal overhead using an opportunistic scheme based on transmissions of ◦ Beacons and ◦ Data
    17. 17. Intra-Cluster Communication II
    18. 18. Inter-Cluster Communication I Period when CHs and BS communicate with each other using multi-hop communication. ◦ CHs send aggregate packets to BS. ◦ BS requests multimedia content for a CH. ◦ CH sends multimedia data.
    19. 19. Inter-Cluster Communication II MEVI exploits a reactive scheme to find routes from CHs to BS on-demand. Reactive route discovery applies usual scheme using route request and reply messages. Each path has associated a Path Quality (PQ), which is used to identify best routes.
    20. 20. Performance Evaluation
    21. 21. Simulation Parameters second seconds
    22. 22. Network Lifetime – Scenario 1
    23. 23. Network Lifetime – Scenario 2
    24. 24. Video Quality Level
    25. 25. Video Quality Level: SSIM Video quality for a node, which is 36 m away from BS
    26. 26. Video Quality Level:VQM
    27. 27. Video Quality
    28. 28. A smart Multi-hop hierarchical routing protocolfor Efficient VIdeo communication over wireless multimedia sensor networks - MEVI D. Rosário, R. Costa, H. Paraense, K. Machado, E. Cerqueira and T. Braun (braun@iam.unibe.ch)

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