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Interim tests for CELLUWOOD project

Interim tests for CELLUWOOD materials.

CELLUWOOD ( “Laminated Strong Eco-Material for Building Construction Made of Cellulose-Strengthened Wood - Final Outcomes”) is a four years EU project, funded under the Eco Innovation research initiative. The project aims to develop a new range of structural elements made of wood by introducing innovative production elements and includes the use of cellulose instead of petroleum-based glue in the lamination of the timber products. The ‘physical’ results will be the strong eco-beams and columns and their most sustainable manufacturing technologies, in addition to significant environmental and cost benefits of the innovation. These are achieved by the introduction of the (new) technologies from other sectors (e.g. cellulose velvet, biocomposite reinforcement and bio-resin) for innovative uses in the defect removal and repairing, facilitating innovation in the use of nano/micro cellulose and bio-resin technologies in timber reengineering, and the development, testing and demonstration of the novel initiative products.

The CELLUWOOD products include strong glulam Eco-beams and columns manufactured by using bio-based lignin resins and nanocellulose enhanced glue systems. Both innovative building products provide significant environmental benefits.

Coordinator and responsible of the project at AIDIMA: Miguel Ángel Abián

In the case of AIDIMA, this project is co-funded by IVACE (Instituto Valenciano de Competitividad Empresarial) and by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

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Interim tests for CELLUWOOD project

  1. 1. Interim tests for CELLUWOOD materials Project meeting 7-8 July 2014, Valencia (Spain) AIDIMA (Miguel Ángel Abián)
  2. 2. 2 WP 8: ASSESSMENT OF CELLUWOOD MATERIAL
  3. 3. 3 Previously, in WP7 some lignin, PUR and MUF beams where manufactured at TECNIFUSTA for interim testing. Those interim tests led to changes in the formulation of the lignin resin by CHIMAR in order to achieve a satisfactory and effective final resin. In 2014, 20 complete beams (nominal dimensions: 120 x 120 x 2200 mm) were manufactured at TECNIFUSTA in collaboration with CHIMAR and AIDIMA: • 10 beams with their lamellae glued by the final lignin resin developed in the project (CELLUWOOD beams). • 10 beams with their lamellae glued by commercial PUR. All lamellae were made of timber classified as C24. 10 commercial beams (nominal dimensions: 120 x 120 x 2200 mm) made with MUF resin were used in order to compare strength and behaviour with the other 20 beams. The commercial beams are classified as GL24h. All beams were made of Picea abies wood.
  4. 4. 4 Measurement of the moisture content of timber Preparation of the lignin resin for its application
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  12. 12. PUR beams 12
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  15. 15. 15 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS (ULTRASOUNDS): PUR BEAMS
  16. 16. 16 Beam 1 (moisture content: 11.2%; dimensions: 120 x 123 x 2201 mm). Beam 1 (PUR resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,619 12,890 33.5 C30 2nd glue line 5,621 12,901 33.6 C30 1st lamella 5,682 13,883 35.1 C35 2nd lamella 5,635 12,988 33.9 C30 3rd lamella 5,513 12,223 30.8 C30 Beam 2 (moisture content: 10.4%; dimensions: 120 x 122 x 2199 mm). Beam 2 (PUR resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,651 12,879 33.4 C30 2nd glue line 5,862 14,204 38.7 C35 1st lamella 5,604 12,586 32.3 C30 2nd lamella 5,714 13,276 35.0 C35 3rd lamella 5,812 13,889 37.5 C35 Beam 3 (moisture content: 11.1%; dimensions: 119 x 122 x 2202 mm). Beam 3 (PUR resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,913 15,146 42.4 C40 2nd glue line 5,573 13,015 34.0 C30 1st lamella 6,001 15,692 44.6 C40 2nd lamella 5,828 14,615 40.3 C40 3rd lamella 5,528 12,731 32.9 C30
  17. 17. 17 Beam 4 (moisture content: 11.4%; dimensions: 120 x 122 x 2198 mm). Beam 4 (PUR resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,651 13,086 34.3 C30 2nd glue line 5,382 11,401 27.6 C27 1st lamella 5,746 13,686 36.6 C35 2nd lamella 5,483 12,037 30.1 C30 3rd lamella 5,312 10,961 25.8 C24 Good results (good quality timber), and good glue lines. We need to analyze the results in more detail.
  18. 18. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS (ULTRASOUNDS): COMMERCIAL MUF BEAMS 18 GL24
  19. 19. 19 Beam 1 (moisture content: 10.4%; dimensions: 120 x 120 x 2202 mm). Beam 1 (MUF resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,721 13,324 35.2 C35 2nd glue line 5,515 12,028 30.1 C30 1st lamella 5,691 13,133 34.5 C30 2nd lamella 5,487 11,850 29.4 C27 3rd lamella 5,501 11,939 29.7 C27 Beam 2 (moisture content: 10.9%; dimensions: 121 x 120 x 2201 mm). Beam 2 (MUF resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,376 11,365 27.4 C27 2nd glue line 5,602 12,779 33.1 C30 1st lamella 5,350 11,196 26.8 C24 2nd lamella 5,607 12,784 33.2 C30 3rd lamella 5,661 13,151 34.5 C30 Beam 3 (moisture content: 10.3%; dimensions: 122 x 120 x 2198 mm). Beam 3 (MUF resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,602 12,986 33.9 C30 2nd glue line 5,529 12,532 32.1 C30 1st lamella 5,623 12,991 33.9 C30 2nd lamella 5,631 13,171 34.6 C30 3rd lamella 5,404 11,743 28.9 C27
  20. 20. 20 Beam 4 (moisture content: 10.4%; dimensions: 120 x 120 x 2201 mm). Beam 4 (MUF resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,431 11,915 29.6 C27 2nd glue line 5,363 11,487 27.9 C27 1st lamella 5,204 10,481 24.1 C24 2nd lamella 5,405 11,743 28.9 C27 3rd lamella 5,350 11,196 26.8 C24 Beam 5 (moisture content: 10.1%; dimensions: 119 x 120 x 2203 mm). Beam 5 (MUF resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,445 11,587 28.3 C27 2nd glue line 5,676 13,038 34.1 C30 1st lamella 5,457 11,592 28.3 C27 2nd lamella 5,487 11,851 29.4 C27 3rd lamella 5,706 13,228 34.8 C30 Good results (good quality timber), and good glue lines. We need to analyze the results in more detail.
  21. 21. 21 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS (ULTRASOUNDS): LIGNIN BEAMS
  22. 22. 22 Beam 1 (moisture content: 12.4%; dimensions: 121 x 123 x 2103 mm). Beam 1 (lignin resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,783 14,127 38.4 C35 2nd glue line 5,661 13,358 35.3 C35 1st lamella 5,928 15,032 42.0 C40 2nd lamella 5,691 13,547 36.1 C35 3rd lamella 5,616 13,078 34.2 C30 Beam 2 (moisture content: 11.9%; dimensions: 121 x 122 x 2107 mm). Beam 2 (lignin resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,737 13,835 37.2 C35 2nd glue line 5,721 13,739 36.9 C35 1st lamella 5,661 13,358 35.3 C35 2nd lamella 5,783 14,127 38.4 C35 3rd lamella 5,646 13,265 34.9 C30 Beam 3 (moisture content: 12.2%; dimensions: 121 x 119 x 2104 mm). Beam 3 (lignin Wave MOE MOR Classification resin) speed (m/s) (N/mm2) (N/mm2) 1st glue line 6,062 15,876 45.3 C45 2nd glue line 5,721 13,739 36.9 C35 1st lamella 6,167 16,534 47.0 C45 2nd lamella 5,863 14,624 40.4 C40 3rd lamella 5,752 13,932 37.6 C35
  23. 23. 23 Beam 4 (moisture content: 11.7%; dimensions: 120 x 122 x 2101 mm). Beam 4 (lignin resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,783 14,127 38.4 C35 2nd glue line 5,661 13,358 35.3 C35 1st lamella 5,944 15,136 42.4 C40 2nd lamella 5,616 13,078 34.2 C30 3rd lamella 5,721 13,738 36.9 C35 Beam 5 (moisture content: 8.9%; dimensions: 120 x 121 x 2105 mm). Beam 5 (lignin resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,631 12,550 32.1 C30 2nd glue line 5,668 13,407 35.5 C35 1st lamella 5,404 11,121 28.5 C27 2nd lamella 5,722 13,117 34.4 C30 3rd lamella 5,692 12,926 33.6 C30 Beam 6 (moisture content: 12.1%; dimensions: 121 x 121 x 2102 mm). Beam 6 (lignin resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,445 12,002 30.1 C30 2nd glue line 5,363 11,487 27.9 C27 1st lamella 5,376 11,572 28.3 C27 2nd lamella 5,417 11,828 29.3 C27 3rd lamella 5,194 10,425 23.7 C20
  24. 24. 24 Beam 7 (moisture content: 11.1%; dimensions: 120 x 123 x 2108 mm). Beam 7 (lignin resin) Wave speed (m/s) MOE (N/mm2) MOR (N/mm2) Classification 1st glue line 5,896 14,624 40.4 C40 2nd glue line 5,879 14,517 39.9 C35 1st lamella 5,828 14,201 38.7 C35 2nd lamella 5,930 14,839 41.2 C40 3rd lamella 5,651 13,086 34.3 C30 Good results (good quality timber), and good glue lines. We need to analyze the results in more detail.
  25. 25. DESTRUCTIVE TESTS ACCORDING TO EN 408 EN 408:2011+A1:2012 Timber structures – Structural timber and glued laminated timber – Determination of some physical and mechanical properties specifies test methods for determining most of the strength and stiffness properties of structural and glued laminated timber. 25 Section 10. Determination of global modulus of elasticity in bending Section 19. Determination of bending strength
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  27. 27. 27 Breaking of a commercial MUF beam
  28. 28. 28 Breaking of a commercial MUF beam
  29. 29. 29 Breaking of a PUR beam
  30. 30. 30 Breaking of a PUR beam
  31. 31. 31 Breaking of a lignin beam (separation of the lamellas)
  32. 32. 32 Breaking of a lignin beam (separation of the lamellas)
  33. 33. 33 Breaking of a lignin beam (crack)
  34. 34. 34 Breaking of a lignin beam (crack)
  35. 35. 35 22000 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 MOE (MPa) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MUF PUR LIGNIN
  36. 36. 36 Average MOE (MPa) 12285 15020 17372 18000 17000 16000 15000 14000 13000 12000 11000 10000 MUF PUR LIGNIN The average MOE for lignin beams is 41,4% greater than the average MOE for MUF beams
  37. 37. 37 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 MOR (MPa) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MUF PUR LIGNIN
  38. 38. 38 50,65 Average MOR (MPa) 53,55 56,72 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 MUF PUR LIGNIN The average MOR for lignin beams is 12% greater than the average MOR for MUF beams
  39. 39. 39 On-going work and research 1) Mechanical characterization of small pieces of lignin beams 2) Analysis of the quality of gluing in broken lignin beams
  40. 40. Thank you very much for your attention

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