Icde prize lecture


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Prize lecture as response to the ICDE Prize of excellence for life long contribution to distance education and open learning

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Icde prize lecture

  1. 1. The NKI Internet College Based on 30 Years of Research in Distance Education ICDE Prize Lecture December 3 rd 2001 Torstein Rekkedal Director of Research and Development at NKI, Norway
  2. 2. Development of distance education <ul><li>Main factors contributing to the international development of distance education in the 70’s and 80’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>development of new media and communication technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased attention, experience and possibilities in designing printed media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased insights in methods for development and design of teaching/learning systems – included instructional technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systematic development of support, counselling and guidance systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development of distance education as a distinct area of research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the establishment of the British Open University </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. NKI <ul><li>The NKI Group – a non-profit foundation in education: </li></ul><ul><li>NKI Distance Education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each year around 15,000 active students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 programmes and 400 courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 programmes and 250 courses on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Polytechnic College (DPH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Business Training Centre (NA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NKI Publishing House </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Bates, 1994: <ul><li>“ ...I believe that increasingly the distinction between distance education and campus-based education will disappear as a consequence of technology developments, and because there will always be some time of one’s life or studies when campus-based studies will be important, the advantage in the long run lies with conventional institutions. However, given the slowness of most post-secondary institutions to respond to change, those currently working in distance teaching institutions have no need to fear for their jobs before they reach retirement!” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Keegan, 2000: <ul><li>“ The position taken up here is that web based education is best regarded as a subset of distance education and that the skills, literature and practical management decisions that have been developed in the form of educational provision known as 'distance education' will be applicable mutatis mutandis to web based education. It also follows that the literature of the field of educational research known as distance education, is of value for those embarking on training on the web.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Research activities at NKI
  7. 7. Moore, 1985: <ul><li>“ Distance education is an applied professional field, and such fields - like medicine - need two kinds of research. Obviously it needs research which helps solve problems, but it also needs basic research - that is, research which tests and extends basic knowledge which is helpful to us all - and that is the theory.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Survey and drop out studies <ul><li>Survey and drop out studies – some results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop out from distance study is larger in the initial phases of study than later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A considerable number of students do not submit one single assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a positive correlation between the age and success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is also a positive correlation between level of previous education and all measures of success in distance study, and a negative relationship between time since last school experience and success </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons: External factors – Internal factors – Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Measures taken to improve teaching and support services do have effects </li></ul>
  9. 9. Moore, 1985: <ul><li>“ If we want to know the effect of a particular teaching technique, the researcher must control the effects of other conditions and manipulate the technique in question and see the effect on the learners. This is the only sure way of evaluating practice, yet it is very seriously neglected in distance education.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Experimental design <ul><li>R : E X1 O1 </li></ul><ul><li>R : C X2 O2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R random selection into groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E is experimental group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C is control group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X1 stands for the variable that is examined, while </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X2 stands for the treatment given to the control group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O1 and O2 stand for measures of results, such as achievements/study success/completions </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Experimental studies – examples <ul><li>Turn-around time </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic follow-up and introduction to study techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-produced tutor comments </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>The use of fax in two-way communication </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Personalizing teaching in a large- scale system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspects included in the experiment: </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Online teaching and learning <ul><li>The conversion from traditional distance education delivery to online delivery and services </li></ul><ul><li>“ The real revolution (in remote/independent and self-directed learning) comes with the emergence of a number of projects and experiments based on the combined use of these three technological experiments (broadcasting, telecommunications and the computer)” (Pomonti 1979) </li></ul>
  14. 14. NKI and Online Education <ul><li>NKI Distance Education/NKI Internet College </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online distance teaching since 1987 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In continuous operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated research/educational development/technological development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>’ Mainstream’ technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3000 students in 15 countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250 courses/ 6 0 study programmes   </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 4 phases of development <ul><li>The Development of NKI Internet College – 4 ’Generations’ of Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1987 -1994: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Generation – based on the ’EKKO’ conferencing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1994 -1995: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Generation – ’The Open Electronic College’: Philosophy: Constructing a system as ’open’ as possible in relation to external networks and services, based on the Internet, e-mail and Listserve conferencing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1996-2000: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Generation – ’from small scale to large scale’ and permanent operation based on the WWW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2001- : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Generation – Introduction of a fully integrated system for development and administration of teaching/learning, logistics, invoices and salaries to handle ten thousands of students in flexible learning on hundreds of courses, programmes and tutors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Demands on a ‘virtual school’ <ul><li>The Electronic College: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It should emulate all the main tasks of a school: teaching, administrative and social. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It should be generally available concerning geography, technology, economy and student competence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It should be independent of time, i.e. continuously available and accept asynchronous communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It should emulate the different needs of human communication, one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Aspects increasing quality <ul><li>Efficient distribution of updated information </li></ul><ul><li>Two-way communication between tutor/counsellor/administration and student </li></ul><ul><li>A substitute for face-to-face teaching, introduction of group discussions and project work and cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>The public tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>Peer counselling and support </li></ul><ul><li>Free-flow discussion, academic and social meeting places </li></ul><ul><li>The electronic library </li></ul><ul><li>Registration, administration, teacher conferences etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Team development of teaching materials </li></ul><ul><li>User directory with lists of class members and fellow students </li></ul>
  18. 18. Elements of Internet based learning <ul><li>The elements of the distribution and communication system of Internet based learning </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pedagogical challenges <ul><li>Models of teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Distance Education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualised Flexible Teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching in ’The Extended Classroom’ </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Pedagogical challenges <ul><li>Tutors and teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher training for online tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>eLearning, mLearning and views on knowledge and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Student support </li></ul>
  21. 21. Student support <ul><li>John Bååth: </li></ul><ul><li>” We have four categories of students; there are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students who need student support services but don’t want them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students who need student support services and want them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students who don’t need student support services but want them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students who neither need nor want student support services.” </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Pedagogical challenges <ul><li>The development of learning materials for online students </li></ul><ul><li>Tutors and teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher training for online tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>eLearning, mLearning and views on knowledge and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Student support </li></ul><ul><li>Access to online resources </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and collaboration with fellow students </li></ul>
  23. 23. Student activity and contributions <ul><li>Student activity in conferences and contributions to discussions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A question of writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A question of content reproduction or problem based discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A question of achieving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A question of getting response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A question of teacher activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A question of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A question of free progression </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Students’ attitudes <ul><li>Students’ attitudes towards online learning </li></ul><ul><li>Why choose online study? </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Some other aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very important: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less important: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the quality of the study guide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual reading/study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>work on assignments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the tutor’s comments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual communication with the tutor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social and academic communication with fellow students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social and academic conferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cooperative learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Quality of Learning on the Internet <ul><li>Their enrolment was made easier because the course was offered on the WWW </li></ul><ul><li>They would enrol again in a WWW based course </li></ul><ul><li>They would encourage a colleague or friend to enrol in a WWW based course </li></ul><ul><li>It is fully possible to achieve excellence in courses that are taught on the WWW </li></ul>
  26. 26. Why have we succeeded? <ul><ul><li>High Level of Competence in Distance Education and IT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiasts Believing in the Idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying Standard Available Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility Based on Students’ Needs and Priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualised Start and Progression Schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-Efficient Teaching and Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research/Development – National/International Projects with External Funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible and Adaptive Organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad and Comprehensive Catalogue of Courses and Study Programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibility and Trust by The Educational Market and Legal Authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Development and Teaching Fully Integrated in an Operative Distance Teaching Organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Development of Personnel, Organisation and Administrative Systems </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Thank you! <ul><li>NKI Internet College Web Pages: http://www.nettskolen.com/in_english/ </li></ul><ul><li>Powerpoint Presentation: http://www.nettskolen.com/forskning/ICDE Prize Lecture.ppt </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture in Acrobat format: http://www.nettskolen.com/forskning/ICDE Prize Lecture.pdf </li></ul>