Am learningproject rome2011

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Drop-out and Support Services:
Analysis of Depressing Factors

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Am learningproject rome2011

  1. 1. Drop-out and Support Services: Analysis of depressing factors 2nd Firb – Am learning seminar Am-learning inferences to develop online distance learning - Contribution for reflection Torstein Rekkedal Professor, Norwegian School of Information Technology, Director R & D, NKI Distance Education, Norway
  2. 2. NKI Online Distance Education <ul><li>One of Europe’s largest providers of online distance education </li></ul><ul><li>More than 120 000 enrolments in online courses since 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Broad range of subjects from secondary to bachelor level </li></ul><ul><li>About 100 programmes and 400 courses online </li></ul><ul><li>About 12 000 active online students in about 40 countries </li></ul><ul><li>About 70 % women </li></ul><ul><li>Individual start and progress schedules/individual follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of potential learning partners </li></ul><ul><li>Global student catalogue with 1200 profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Open intake of qualified students/always room for more students </li></ul>
  3. 3. Student support – what is it? <ul><li>Teaching and guidiance – facilitation of learning through learning materials </li></ul><ul><li>Tutoring/two-way communication through media based non-contiguous communication </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Counselling, guidance and follow-up of students – ”non-academic” support </li></ul>Student support services: ”… those parts of a distance or electronic learning system, which are additional to the provision of course content. ” Thorpe, 2001
  4. 4. Teaching and learning philosophies – theories of distance education <ul><li>Independence and autonomy (Michael G. Moore) </li></ul><ul><li>” transactional distance” (dialogue and structure) </li></ul><ul><li>” learner autonomy” </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization of teaching and learning (Otto Peters) </li></ul><ul><li>” specialization and division of labour” </li></ul><ul><li>Gudied didactic conversation – teaching-learning conversation </li></ul><ul><li>(Börje Holmberg) </li></ul><ul><li>” empathy” and ”supporting organisation” </li></ul><ul><li>” Continuity of concern for students” (David Sewart) </li></ul><ul><li>” The new paradigm – educational transaction and control” (D. A. Garrison) </li></ul><ul><li>New practice with new technology – ”transaction and control” ”social constructivistic learning” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Drop out and completion Tinto, V. (1975). Model for drop out from college
  6. 6. Drop out and completion Kember, D. (1995). Model for drop out from distance education
  7. 7. Drop out and completion Batjelsmit, G. W. (1988). Model for drop out from distance education
  8. 8. Student support in e-learning <ul><li>Student support services: ”… those part of a distance or electronic learning system, which are additional to the provision of course content. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Student support applies both to counselling and advice on all aspects of distance study as well as to teaching and guidance within the specific course. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumption: Adult distance students are busy people for whom online learning is an activity that has to be accomodated with other responsibilities in family, work and society </li></ul><ul><li>Support should not imply added on work but rather lessen the “burden” of study </li></ul>
  9. 9. Student support at NKI <ul><li>Turn-around time </li></ul><ul><li>Following up students and introduction to study techniques </li></ul><ul><li>The personal tutor-counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Universal accessibility and synthetic speech </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting management solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer systems for progression planning and assignment submission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student presentations (closed, restricted to programme, open, global) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning and flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleague guidance between tutors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student support services in e-learning (EU Project) </li></ul><ul><li>” The Learning Room” – support for vocational rehabilitation students </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Personalizing teaching in a large- scale system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspects included in the experiment: </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Student support at NKI <ul><li>Turn-around time </li></ul><ul><li>Following up students and introduction to study techniques </li></ul><ul><li>The personal tutor-counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Universal accessibility and synthetic speech </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting management solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer systems for progression planning and assignment submission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student presentations (closed, restricted to programme, open, global) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning and flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleague guidance between tutors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student support services in e-learning (EU Project) </li></ul><ul><li>” The Learning Room” – support for vocational rehabilitation students </li></ul>
  12. 12. Individual adaption of learning materials <ul><ul><li>Learning materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal adaptation and acessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech synthesis of all web materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in tutor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual choice of routes through materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual choice of exercises and tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary submissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualization and media integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No real individualization of the pre-produced learning message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The FIRB AM-Learning project represents an interesting innovation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Student support at NKI <ul><li>Turn-around time </li></ul><ul><li>Following up students and introduction to study techniques </li></ul><ul><li>The personal tutor-counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Universal accessibility and synthetic speech </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting management solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer systems for progression planning and assignment submission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student presentations (closed, restricted to programme, open, global) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning and flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleague guidance between tutors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student support services in e-learning (EU Project) </li></ul><ul><li>” The Learning Room” – support for vocational rehabilitation students </li></ul>
  14. 14. Student support at NKI <ul><li>NKI introduced the individual planning system in 2004 </li></ul>assignments that are completed assignments that are delayed according to the plan assignments that are planned
  15. 15. Student support at NKI <ul><li>NKI students have individual progress plans </li></ul>Copyright: Atle Løkken
  16. 16. Student support at NKI <ul><li>The student presentation of my colleague, Aleksander Dye </li></ul>
  17. 17. Student support at NKI <ul><li>NKI has 1600 global student presentations </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nki.no/pp/ </li></ul>www.youtube.com/MortenFP#p/a/u/0/gyQ1u977iwk
  18. 18. Student support at NKI <ul><li>Turn-around time </li></ul><ul><li>Following up students and introduction to study techniques </li></ul><ul><li>The personal tutor-counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Universal accessibility and synthetic speech </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting management solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer systems for progression planning and assignment submission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student presentations (closed, restricted to programme, open, global) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning and flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleague guidance between tutors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student support services in e-learning (EU Project) </li></ul><ul><li>” The Learning Room” – support for vocational rehabilitation students </li></ul>
  19. 19. Student support at NKI <ul><li>Six Dimensions of Freedom </li></ul>It is a challenge to combine individual flexibility and cooperation
  20. 20. Student support at NKI <ul><li>NKI’s Philosophy on Online Learning: </li></ul>We facilitate individual freedom within a learning community in which online students serve as mutual resources without being dependent on each other. We build on adult education principles and seek to foster benefits from both individual freedom and cooperation in online learning communities. Cooperative learning is based on voluntary participation in a learning community
  21. 21. Student support at NKI <ul><li>Cooperative learning: </li></ul>
  22. 22. What do students prefer? <ul><li>Results from 2011 evaluation study: </li></ul>Individual flexibility is absolutely most important Individual flexibility is more important than co-operation Both aspects are of equal importance Possibilities for co-operation is more important than individual flexibility Possibilities for co-operation is absolutely most important
  23. 23. Student support at NKI <ul><li>Turn-around time </li></ul><ul><li>Following up students and introduction to study techniques </li></ul><ul><li>The personal tutor-counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Universal accessibility and synthetic speech </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting management solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer systems for progression planning and assignment submission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student presentations (closed, restricted to programme, open, global) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning and flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleague guidance between tutors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student support services in e-learning (EU Project) </li></ul><ul><li>” The Learning Room” – support for vocational rehabilitation students </li></ul>
  24. 24. Student Support in the NKI Online Distance Education System
  25. 25. Student Support in the NKI Online Distance Education System Prospective phase – information/guidance
  26. 26. Student Support in the NKI Online Distance Education System Start-up phase
  27. 27. Student Support in the NKI Online Distance Education System Learning phase
  28. 28. Student Support in the NKI Online Distance Education System Graduation and after graduation
  29. 29. Survey <ul><ul><li>Needs for and satisfaction with support services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Prospective phase </li></ul><ul><li>Direct personal contact with advisors important </li></ul><ul><li>Registration/start-up phase </li></ul><ul><li>Technical support services important, but little used </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to study techniques important and should be improved </li></ul><ul><li>Learning phase </li></ul><ul><li>Most important quality of feedback/quick turn-around time </li></ul>
  30. 30. Survey - Statistics
  31. 31. Survey - Statistics Relationship between “ Usefulness/Importance ” of the support elements and “ Satisfaction ” with the support elements.
  32. 32. Conclusions from the EU Student support in E-learning project <ul><ul><li>The students find all support services provided to be important, and they are generally satisfied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Priory should be given to: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>            Close follow up and support during the start-up phase concerning how to get started and how to make personal progression plans. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>            Introduction to efficient techniques for online learning, specifically for students with little experience from independent learning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>            Follow-up and guidance of tutors who do not satisfy requirements concerning turn- around time and quality of comments/feedback to students. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>            Developing course forums to function better for students who want more interaction with fellow students, without requiring too much participation for students who prefer more individual studies. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Student support at NKI <ul><li>Turn-around time </li></ul><ul><li>Following up students and introduction to study techniques </li></ul><ul><li>The personal tutor-counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Universal accessibility and synthetic speech </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting management solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer systems for progression planning and assignment submission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student presentations (closed, restricted to programme, open, global) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning and flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colleague guidance between tutors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student support services in e-learning (EU Project) </li></ul><ul><li>” The Learning Room” – support for vocational rehabilitation students </li></ul>
  34. 34. Research study on measures to support disadvantaged learners - 1 <ul><li>Vocational rehabilitation clients </li></ul><ul><li>Special needs </li></ul><ul><li>Previous experiences with distance and online learning with little success </li></ul><ul><li>Class room and blended learning solutions not suitable </li></ul>
  35. 35. Research study on measures to support disadvantaged learners - 2 <ul><li>Individual distance learning in the ‘learning room’: </li></ul><ul><li>Online study as regular individual online student at NKI </li></ul><ul><li>Individual choice of courses and study programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Access to equipment, hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Personal work space for study </li></ul><ul><li>Personal support, follow-up and adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Support in making study and progression schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation for clients with special needs, reading/writing disabilities, number disabilities, visual handicaps etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance from local supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities for cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Social support from fellow students </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities for study relevant practice </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of life/compulsory attendancy according to agreement </li></ul>
  36. 36. Research study on measures to support disadvantaged learners - 3 <ul><li>Study status October 2010 for regular students and vocational rehabilitation students started 2006-2009 in the four programmes, Accounting, Salary and Personnel work, Office worker and Caretaker. </li></ul>Results – views of students, case handlers and local counselors
  37. 37. Research study on measures to support disadvantaged learners - 4 <ul><li>The research was important because the increased use of the solution and in guiding the work of further development and transfer to other target groups, such as prison inmates. </li></ul><ul><li>The interviews demonstrated a consistent satisfaction with the solution among (experienced) casehandlers, local counsellors and rehabilitation students. </li></ul><ul><li>The general experiences indicated student success and satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The statistical results demonstrated that online learning with adequate local support functions even better than expectations for competence development for vocational rehabilitation clients. </li></ul><ul><li>The rehabilitation clients who receives adequate support achieve better than the population of regular online learners at NKI. </li></ul>Conclusions:
  38. 38. The Am learning project and student support <ul><li>To me it is quite clear that the am-learning project complements research on drop-out, completion and student support by focusing on another important aspect of learning – message perception, adaptation and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>It seems clear that the research of the am-learning project of measuring verbal skills and search for effective it based solutions to support the individual on decoding and understanding of messages is a great supplement to previous distance and online learning research. </li></ul><ul><li>From our own research there are many indications that reading and text coding is one of the most important aspects of online learning regardless of subject and level </li></ul><ul><li>Support in text understanding is crucial for many disadvantaged learners – relevant research indicates also that measures to support disadvantaged learners also benefit the average student. </li></ul><ul><li>However – as authentic academic learning also involves hard mental work is always a question whether reducing cognitive struggle in decoding and understanding concepts increases learning efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>If the project is able to demonstrate that the am-project solutions really increase learning efficiency by automatically adapting messages according to individual needs, it would represent an important step forward in individualized learning support for distance learners. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Thank you! <ul><li>NKI Internet College: http://www.nki.no/ </li></ul><ul><li>Powerpoint Presentation: http://home.nettskolen.nki.no/torstein/attachments/article/3/am-learningprojectRome2011.ppt </li></ul><ul><li>Torstein Rekkedal home page: http://home.nettskolen.nki.no/torstein/ </li></ul>

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