Parallel forms 21st sept.

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Parallel forms 21st sept.

  1. 1. Parallel forms Ann Hogue, ‘The essentials of English’
  2. 2. <ul><li>PARALLELISM is a rule of grammar that says words in a sentence that have the same function must be in the same form </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>When you connect ideas by coordination, you must use parallel, or matching, forms. This means that you must join nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs, prepositional phrases with prepositional phrases, and so on. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Not parallel: Kayo is beautiful, young and a talented violinist. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel: Kayo is beautiful, young and talented. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel: Kayo is a beautiful young woman and a talented violinist. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Not parallel: She has played with orchestras both in Europe and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel: She has played with orchestras in both Europe and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel: She has played with orchestras both in Europe and in Asia </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>When you connect ideas with and , but , or and yet , write the connected ideas in parallel form. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>Newborn babies don’t do much during their first few weeks; they only eat, sleep, wet and cry. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Which is correct? </li></ul><ul><li>greeting a customer, escort them to a table and offer a beverage </li></ul><ul><li>to greet customers, escorting them to tables and offering them a beverage. </li></ul><ul><li>to greet customers, escorting them to a table, and to offer a beverage. </li></ul><ul><li>greeting customers, escorting them to a table and offering beverages. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. 1: errors and ways to fix them. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>When you connect ideas with both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor , and whether…or , use parallel forms after both parts of the paired conjunction. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>My grandmother can speak both French and Vietnamese fluently. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. 2: errors and ways to fix them. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Special tips <ul><li>You can omit repeated words that are not necessary for parallel structure. </li></ul><ul><li>The students like Mr. Gibbs’ class because of his friendly manner, his clear explanations, and his funny jokes. </li></ul><ul><li>My grandfather earned his living by fishing and by selling little wooden birds that he carved. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Clauses <ul><li>A parallel structure that begins with clauses must keep on with clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Changing to another pattern or changing the voice of the verb (from active to passive or vice versa) will break the parallelism. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Not Parallel: The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel: The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Correct the following sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle. </li></ul><ul><li>The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that questions would be asked by prospective buyers. </li></ul><ul><li>The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Answers… <ul><li>1. Mary likes hik ing , swimm ing , and rid ing a bicycle. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that prospective buyers would ask him questions. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings , pronunciations , correct spellings , and irregular verbs . </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Online exercises?? </li></ul><ul><li>http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/cgi-shl/quiz.pl/parallelism_quiz.htm </li></ul>

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