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Dissociative Identity Disorder


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Dissociative Identity Disorder

  1. 1. Dissociative Identity Disorder Multiple Personality Disorder Tori Filliater
  2. 2. The Name of the Disorder • DID was called Multiple Personality Disorder until 1994, when the name was changed to reflect a better understanding of the condition—namely, that it is characterized by a fragmentation, or splintering, of identity rather than by a proliferation, or growth, of separate identities. • Dissociative Identity Disorder is a subtype of dissociative disorders. – Other dissociative disorders: • Dissociative amnesia • Dissociative fugue • Depersonalization Disorder
  3. 3. Descriptive Features • Characterized by "switching" to alternate identities when you're under stress • Feeling the presence of one or more other people talking or living inside your head – Each identity may have their own name, personal history and characteristics, including marked differences in manner, voice, and gender.
  4. 4. Symptoms • Presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of behavior • Inability to recall important personal information • The disturbance is not because of direct physical effects of a substance or general medical condition • In children, the symptoms cannot be attributed to imaginary friends or fantasy play
  5. 5. Specific Culture, Age, and Gender Features • It has been suggested that the recent relatively high rates of the disorder reported in the United States might indicate that this is a culture-specific syndrome. • In preadolescent children, particular care is needed in making the diagnosis because the manifestations may be less distinctive than in adolescents and adults. • Dissociative Identity Disorder is diagnosed three to nine times more frequently in adult females than in adult males; in childhood, the female-to-male ratio may be more even, but data are limited. • Females tend to have more identities than do males, averaging 15 or more, whereas males average approximately 8 identities.
  6. 6. Prevalence in Society • Some believe that the greater awareness of the diagnosis among mental health professionals has resulted in the identification of cases that were previously undiagnosed. In contrast, others believe that the syndrome has been over diagnosed in individuals who are highly suggestible. • Although no controlled study has been conducted in the United States, an estimate of the prevalence of DID in the U.S. population is from 1 in 500 to 1 in 5,000, or between 250,000 and 2,500,000 people.
  7. 7. Course • Dissociative Identity Disorder appears to have a fluctuating clinical course that tends to be chronic and recurrent. • The average time period from first symptom presentation to diagnosis is 6-7 years. • Episodic and continuous courses have been described. • The disorder may become less manifest as individuals age beyond their late 40's, but may reemerge during episodes of stress or trauma or with Substance Abuse.
  8. 8. Familial Patterns • Several studies suggest that Dissociative Identity Disorder is more common among the first-degree biological relatives of persons with the disorder than in the general population.
  9. 9. Groups • There appears to be a biological component given the fact that most people with DID have a family history of the disorder. • It has also been found that people who are easily hypnotized are more susceptible to DID. • The stress comes from severe physical, emotional, and/or sexual abuse at a developmental stage in childhood.
  10. 10. Diagnostic Criteria • Two or more distinct identities or personality states are present, each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self. • At least two of these identities or personality states recurrently take control of the person's behavior. • The person has an inability to recall important personal information that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. • The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (such as blackouts or chaotic behavior during alcohol intoxication) or a general medical condition (such as complex partial seizures).
  11. 11. Treatment • There's no "cure" for dissociative identity disorder, long-term treatment is very successful, if the patient stays committed. – Effective treatment includes • Psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, medications, family therapy, art or music therapy, and clinical hypnosis. • Because oftentimes the symptoms of dissociative disorders occur with other disorders, such as anxiety and depression, dissociative disorder may be treated using the same drugs prescribed for those disorders. A person in treatment for a dissociative disorder might benefit from antidepressants or anti-anxiety medication.
  12. 12. Article Summary • May 1, 2014 – A man in Greenville, South Carolina sexually assaulted and killed his own baby blames his crime on his alternate personality. • The man describes the personalities as “One is Lloyd, and the other is the Bad Side.” • Lloyd claims that he it only a witness to his other personalities wrongdoing. blames-multiple-personality-disorder/25740938
  13. 13. Psychologists • Donald C. Goff, an instructor in Harvard University’s department of psychiatry found that the average number of identities of past to recent cases had increased from three to twelve.
  14. 14. Functioning in Everyday Life • Chronic identity dissociation may result in serious impairment or inability to function. • Some people with Dissociative Identity Disorders can hold highly responsible jobs, contributing to society in a variety of professions, the arts, and public service -- appearing to function normally to coworkers, neighbors, and others with whom they interact daily. • Dissociative Identity Disorder is a coping mechanism to escape the fear and trauma of the event that gave the person the disorder.
  15. 15. Fun Facts • Previously called multiple personality disorder • People with DID are above average intelligence, and highly creative • More than 75% of DID victims report having personalities in their system who are under 12 years of age. • Personalities of the opposite sex or with differing styles are also common. Personalities within a multiple system often hold conflicting values and behave in ways that are incompatible with one another.
  16. 16. Dissociative Personality Disorder in the Media
  17. 17. Alison Dilaurentis and Vivian Darkbloom • Alison Dilaurentis is a character from Pretty Little Liars that was killed in the first episode. Her 4 friends discover after her death that Alison has had an alternate persona named Vivian Darkbloom. She would put on a brown wig and change who she was. • The media portrays Alison’s disorder as intelligent because Alison uses Vivian Darkbloom to hunt down the person who is stalking Alison. This is actually very accurate of how a person with dissociative identity disorder would act because their intelligence is higher than normal. Even though Alison is a lying dissociated girl, she’s portrayed as a genius.
  18. 18. Celebrities with Dissociative Identity Disorder • Herschel Walker • Roseanne • Adam Durtiz • Marilyn Monroe • Britney Spears • Lady Gaga
  19. 19. Britney Spears • Troubled singer's 'favourite' identity appears to involve talking with a British accent, inspired by her latest boyfriend, Birmingham-born paparazzo boyfriend Adnan Ghalib. • Sources claim the singer, 26, is suffering from dissociative identity disorder, which leads the sufferers to take on various personalities to dissociate them from reality. • Those with the disorder take on different identities to help them cope under severe stress. • Britney is said to have been showing a variety of different personalities. Besides "The British girl", other alter egos include "the weepy girl", "the diva" and "the incoherent girl”. • Apparently when Britney "returns" from one of her episodes, she has no recollection of what she did or said during the time as her assumed personality.
  20. 20. Dissociative Identity Disorder Art
  21. 21. Play ^^
  22. 22. Works Cited • %20attachment%20disorder.htm • • about-trauma/201301/the-media-and- dissociative-identity-disorder • o.htm • 508197/The-faces-Britney-Singer-multiple- personality-disorder--thinks-shes-British.html