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Roles within media


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Roles within media

  1. 1. Roles within Media Television and Film Management, creative, editorial, technical, research, financial, organisational or administrative?
  2. 2. Film <ul><li>There are hundreds of Job roles within the film industry. All of the jobs require specialist skills in a wide range of areas, not all of them typically thought of as in the Media. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 5 sections: </li></ul><ul><li>Development  - the writing, packaging and financing of film ideas and scripts. </li></ul><ul><li>Production  - the process of setting up and shooting every scene in a film. </li></ul><ul><li>Post Production  - where all these shots are assembled, treated and mixed into a finished product. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution  - the process of selling this product to audiences, via the cinemas, retailers and rental firms. </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibition  - the cinemas which screen the film for the general public. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Contents of Film The Subsections <ul><li>Accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Art Department </li></ul><ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Casting </li></ul><ul><li>Catering </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Costume </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Editing & Post Production </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Hair and Makeup </li></ul><ul><li>Heath and Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Locations </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Performing </li></ul><ul><li>Post production Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Production Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Production Office </li></ul><ul><li>Props </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity </li></ul><ul><li>Script </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul>
  4. 4. Film Accounts <ul><li>Management, Financial and organisational </li></ul><ul><li>In every production, finances need to be carefully managed and spent by trained accountants. There job is crucial in being able to start off the production in the first place as it needs money at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs within accountancy are: </li></ul><ul><li>Production Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Production Accountant </li></ul><ul><li>Key Assistant Accountant </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Accountant </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts Trainee </li></ul>Art
  5. 5. Production Accountant <ul><li>The production Accountant works very closely with the production team. They manage all of the legal/ government work about tax and guild. They mainly manage finances and sort out all the productions schedules and budgets. They are very important to the production as they are the key planner and keep all of their finance and budget information organised for use and evidence during and after the production. A Production Accountant has a responsibility to make sure that everyone is paid on time, this includes the actors, all crew members and also the people who own locations and transport being used in the shooting process. During the production the Production Assistant must work alongside the Production team to calculate all budgets and final costs for the company. </li></ul><ul><li>The production Assistants main job is to make sure everything involving money is calculated and paid in time but they also have to sort out their Accountancy team. They have to bring together skilled professionals to be part of the team and manage them throughout the production, it is also their role to monitor Trainee Accountants and Assistants so that their work is done to the highest standard. Cost reports must be issued every week to make sure any finance is handled and any changes to the production is made affordable and fit around other budgets. </li></ul><ul><li>A production Assistant must be: </li></ul><ul><li>Organised: so they know everything that is happening within their department. Be able to sort out books with important information in them. </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics and Calculations: they must be able to work out many numbers and costs to the business efficiently and quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Patient: There is a lot of paperwork and working out given to this role and they need to be able to do it all without stress or complaints. </li></ul><ul><li>Computing: they must be able to work computer accountancy programmes to make their work quicker and more organised. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Film Art Department <ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>The setting for a film and the world created is all the responsibility of the art department, no matter what location they are in. It is essential to make a film where the world in which is being created is believable so that audiences are convinced by the story being shown. A high level of imagination and work comes from the art department to achieve such effects. The art department also employs a lot of the crew as many talented people need to be hired to create the sets, digital effects, and atmosphere of a film. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles Include: </li></ul><ul><li>Production Designer </li></ul><ul><li>Art Director/ Supervising Art Director/ Standby Art Director/ Assistant Art Director </li></ul><ul><li>Set Decorator/ Assistant Set Director </li></ul><ul><li>Production buyer/ Assistant Production Buyer </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Artist </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist Researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Artist </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboard Artist </li></ul><ul><li>Draughtsman / Junior Draughtsman </li></ul><ul><li>Drapesmaster </li></ul><ul><li>Art Department Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Art Department Coordinator </li></ul>Camera
  7. 7. Production Designer <ul><li>The Production Designer is responsible for the whole Art Department and work closely with the Director to make sure their team is achieving the visual and atmosphere envisioned by the director. They also have to work with Producers to make sure they give realistic budgets for the work they do and arrange a time their work must be completed by for production to start. The Production Designer is responsible for managing a team that plays a vital role in creating the whole atmosphere and scenes of the film. Without this team properly and professionally managed then the film might not look right and may not be appealing to the target audience. The work of a Production Designer is very difficult as they have to give a brief introduction of their work and their skills to the Director and Producer before being picked to work for them. Most Production designers are Freelance and have to look around all the time for new work to ensure income regularly. Production Designers are sometimes asked to look at scripts so that they can see if there is much room for creativity and be able to figure out the way they will create appropriate sets and atmosphere for the film. Pre production the Production Designer will tend to assist the Director and bring forth ideas for location and sets. They often work with the Director to decide which locations should be done on outside locations and where, studio sets and where they could go, or if they need to be constructed from scratch. Some sets may be edited heavily and some are all computer generated, meaning that the look of this must be decided on. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Draughtsman <ul><li>Draughtsman are very important to set design. They are overseen and work closely with the Art Director who knows all of the key plans for the sets. Draughtsman’s main job is to draw out very technical and highly detailed Blueprints which are given to the Construction department to work on. Without a Blueprint for each and every set design the construction team would not be able to start work or do their work exactly how the Art Director or Director want it. Sets are never improvised, they are always carefully planned so that every aspect meets health and safety guidelines and more importantly the Directors vision/ plan. Draughtsman must be highly skilled in calculating scale and must be able to construct highly detailed drawings of buildings and floor plans. On big productions Draughtsman may be expected to provide small models of the sets and the way they should look so the carpenters and builders can work as closely to the design as possible. </li></ul>Drapesmaster The Drapesmaster is responsible for all furnishings on set. They reproduce many high brand articles for a smaller cost and make sure the directors vision is seen within the props. The Drapesmaster is in charge of Drapesmen who design all the soft furnishings for the sets. They oversee all the furnishings put onto set such as cushions, rugs, curtains, carpets and throws. All of the small and detailed things on set which would not usually ever be looked at, but give an overall theme to the scenes, is the responsibility of the Drapesmaster. The Drapesmaster must prepare a list for the Producers of all the materials and items they need to create the desired look so that a budget can be worked out for that department accurately.
  9. 9. Film Camera <ul><li>Technical, Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Without skilled camera work many films would be unsuccessful and dull. Imaginative and well thought out camera work is essential in how successful a film is and how much is portrayed during a film. The use of a camera can give messages to an audience about the characters or locations. They are one of the most highly skilled practitioners on a film crew. </li></ul><ul><li>Camera job roles include: </li></ul><ul><li>Director of photography </li></ul><ul><li>Script supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Operator </li></ul><ul><li>1 st & 2 nd Assistant Camera Operator </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Trainee </li></ul><ul><li>Steadicam Operator </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial Director of Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Ariel Camera Pilot / camera assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Marine and Diving Camera Crew </li></ul><ul><li>Grip </li></ul><ul><li>Crane Operator </li></ul><ul><li>Video Assistant Operator </li></ul>Casting
  10. 10. Director Of Photography <ul><li>The Director of Photography has one of the most creative roles in production. They work with the Director and Production Designer to make sure they can direct the camera team towards producing specific effects wanted from the director and the atmosphere they need to create. Dop’s are in charge of putting forward and managing the whole creative vision of the film and have to work with Gaffers, Makeup Department and Costume designer. They look at the way they can place the lighting and the effects it will have on the actors and camera shot, this all has to be planned to create the correct atmosphere. During Pre Production they create a list of all the camera equipment needed, cranes, tracks and other equipment needed to move the cameras around in special camera movement, this is then given to the Production team so costs can be kept and worked out. The Dop During production will arrive early each day and make sure their camera team, gaffer and grip arrive all together. They then set up all their equipment and under the lead of the Director of Photography they discuss and go through the way they want the cameras and actors to move within each scene so the lighting can be set up in the right way. The Dop makes sure the cameras are set to the correct focus and framing before the production happens and monitor the lighting and cameras for the first parts of each take. A Director of photography must have the skills to be very creative, have skills within lighting themselves and recognize how to create certain atmospheres with the lighting. They need to skill to be part of management by directing members of their team and other teams, artistic vision is needed also to be able to see what the Director of the film wants. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Aerial Director of Photography/ Aerial Pilot <ul><li>The Ariel Director of Photography is in charge of the camera and maybe one member of his crew to operate the camera during flight. The Adop works within a helicopter or small plane and is responsible for getting the Ariel, birdseye view and skyline shots. When a major film is set within in a certain city such as New York, the skyline is commonly used to set the scene by showing a moving shot from high up of the skyline of the city. These shots are very effective to a film and clearly show the professionalism and budget used. Small independent films will not normally have a Adop or air transport, as private planes and helicopters cost too much for anyone except Hollywood. Shots from air transport can also be used during chase scenes, such as car chases, these shots show most of the action from a view the audience wouldn’t normally get therefore they are imaginative and appealing to viewers. An Aerial Director of Photography will work part time as they will not be required for a lot of the shooting, also many films can not afford the equipment needed for those aerial shots therefore the Adop will find it hard to get work. Many Adop’s work on commercials and television. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial Pilots are responsible for taking the Adop to the correct height and placement to take the shots. They are the main controller in the movement of the shot therefore must be confident flying smoothly and perfect for the shots to be successful. </li></ul>Marine & Diving Camera Crew The marine and Diving crew are mainly responsible for the safety of the actors and any animals used within a shoot in water. In a film there are a lot of safety risks with the use of water, for example running out of oxygen, animals in their natural habitat, fight scenes or chase scenes therefore all have to be monitored. The head of the Marine and Diving crew are the Diving Camera operators and the Diving Director of photography that both need to control the crew so the Directors vision for the scenes are achieved. There job is very dangerous as everything must be in perfect condition for them to have their crew to stay underwater for long periods of time. Most Underwater crews like this are small and are on more high budget films as all the underwater and waterproof equipment is expensive.
  12. 12. Film Casting <ul><li>Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>Casting is very important in a film. If the casting of actors in a film is not right, audiences will not be able to believe the film or form emotion with them. A successful movie ensures good casting, such as famous actors, which have a huge fan base, which bring a audience to the film. Casting may have to hold auditions if the director is willing to find new talent, unprofessional actors, which involves a lot of research and time. They may also have to deal with A List stars, negotiating on rates of pay and times available. </li></ul><ul><li>Casting Director </li></ul><ul><li>A casting director organises and determines all parts of finding actors for the roles within film. They work closely with the Director and Producer so they know what they are looking for exactly before they research. The casting director is in charge of working out fees and contracts for the actors and their agents involved. The casting Director also needs a lot of knowledge about actors, new and proffessional and where they can be contacted or found, their knowledge of the acting world and how to communicate effectively is crucial. </li></ul><ul><li>Casting Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>This role varies depending on how much help the Casting Director needs or wants. The main role of a casting Assistant is to help the Casting Director in finding the correct actors for the roles after reading the script. </li></ul>Catering
  13. 13. Film Catering <ul><li>Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>The only roles in catering is the catering crew. Actors and the crew work long hours therefore need to be given food to keep them motivated. The Catering crew provide the food for everyone involved on site out the back of specially designed catering trucks. The catering crew have drivers who every production day drive them to the locations where they provide three meals a day. Without Catering the crew and actors would go hungry and would refuse to work therefore they are a crucial part of the production. </li></ul>Construction
  14. 14. Film Construction <ul><li>Technical, Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Construction on films can be one of the most important and expensive processes in film. Construction involves providing the look of the film by building sets and new structures, working closely with the Art Department. This is a difficult department to work within as it can be very strenuous and long. Construction in well known films like ’The Grinch’ would have had to build new house structures in awkward and new angles for the town featured within the film. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles within construction consist of: </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Construction Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Head of Department Plasterer </li></ul><ul><li>Plasterer </li></ul><ul><li>Model Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>Head of Department Rigger/ Chargehand Rigger / Standby Rigger/ Supervising Rigger </li></ul><ul><li>Rigger </li></ul><ul><li>Carpenter / Chargehand Carpenter/ Standby Carpenter/ Trainee Carpenter </li></ul><ul><li>Chargehand Painter/ Standby Painter/ Painter </li></ul><ul><li>Scenic Artist </li></ul><ul><li>Stagehands </li></ul>Costume
  15. 15. Construction Manager <ul><li>The Construction manager sorts every part of the construction of sets out from the very beginning planning stages of how each set should look to the final touches. They work for the Production Designer who gives them plans of what they need to have their team create on location. They need to organize every part of their team to ensure the directors vision and production designers demands are met. Construction managers need to make sure their department meets expectations on time and within the correct budget otherwise the rest of the Producers and Accountants figures will have to be changed and this could effect the other departments budgets. They need the skills to be able to work under pressure and make sure their departments work is perfect in every way, also meeting health and safety expectations. The construction managers talk to their managers of Carpentry, Painting and Plastering to make sure they are all briefed on their task and organize together a way of achieving their goal, they pass on any work from the Production Designer and give it to their team to look over so they know exactly what their doing. Construction Managers have the hard job of looking round different companies and finding the right prices for the equipment and materials they need or negotiating with the seller. They also have to make sure the materials and equipment needed are transported to the studios, locations and workshops on time. Without the set the shooting for the film can not begin. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sculptor <ul><li>Sculptors are mainly freelance and self employed. Their responsibility in a production is to sculpt relevant statues needed on set out of many different materials. Sculptors use materials such as concrete, clay, foam, to create their sculptures. The sculptor must work with the props masters and Production Designers closely to know what they need to achieve and the overall feel of the props and film. The sculptor needs to have education and skills in fine art as they may be expected to create replicas of very intricate and well known statues or figures. Sculptors generally have to show the Director and Production Designer their ideas in as much detail as they can before hand in the form of miniature versions of the sculptures or free hand drawings so they can approve the decisions. </li></ul>Model Maker Carpenter Model makers work on a project-by-project basis and are mainly self employed. They work closely with the Production Designer to produce 3D props and models, like the sculptor for the sets. They need the skill to be imaginative, detailed, creative and have good sculpting skills using various materials. The visual effects unit may work with a model maker if they are trying to make a scene look like the actual thing, even if it isn't, for example creating the landscape of china but in miniature. The Model Maker would have to create miniature replicas of the well known buildings and statues so the film looks as though it is set there. To become a carpenter on a film production there needs to be a lot of past experience in carpentry to be hired. The carpenter builds, installs and removes the wooden aspects of sets and sometimes has to make the wooden structures of props or furniture for a set. A carpenter needs to be able to be creative, understand what they need to do and be able to handle pressure by sticking to a deadline. Before a shoot the carpenter may have to set up the props and sets before shooting can begin, during the shoot they may stay on site in case anything moves or needs sorting and after the shoot they help dismantle the wooden props.
  17. 17. Film Costume <ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>The costume department is responsible for anything the actors may wear. This includes the manufacturing, purchase, hire, fitting and styling. The whole believable aspect of a production can be ruined by costume. If a film is set in the 18 th century then the costume has to be researched and made/ found to fit with that era. Some directors however want their own flair on the design of the costumes and may want them to be slightly different from the norm, so as their mark is left on the film further. Costume provides information about culture, social background, period and location. If one actor was wearing a very well made tailor dress and another wearing rags, then the difference in class of the two would be clear from the costume. </li></ul><ul><li>Costume Designer </li></ul><ul><li>Wardrobe Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Costume Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Costume Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Costume Design Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Costume Daily </li></ul><ul><li>Costume Assistant </li></ul>Direction
  18. 18. Costume Designer <ul><li>The Costume Designer is in charge of designing, creating, hiring and transporting all of the costumes needed for the actors in the production. A costume designers work is crucial to the whole feel and success of the film, if they get the costumes wrong then the audience is bound to notice. The director will brief the Costume Designer on the look they want the film to have and the Costume Designer will have to be exact in what they choose or make. The costume is very important to revealing the society and time period the film was set in, the characters immediately are judged on the way they look therefore a Costume designer must know the characters personalities and be able to match their history with what they are wearing. A costume Designer is the head of their team and must direct the costume department in the correct way. They must also be in charge of the budget and costs associated with the work they have to do to make sure it is achievable with what they choose to do. Hair and Makeup fits in very much with costume as if the costumes are set in the 18 th century, the Hair and Makeup must also represent this era to be believable. </li></ul>Costume Maker The Costume Maker is directed by the Costume Designer and Production Designer to make the costumes they can not hire or buy. Some directors want the film to be new and something people have not seen before therefore original costumes must be made by the Costume Maker. They manufacture, fit and fix all of the costumes they make so that they are perfect for the actors. The Costume Maker is provided with detailed designs of the clothing required and are expected to strict to the correct budget and time frame to create all the different outfits. The costume designer is mainly given information about what costumes are needed exactly, sizes of actors and the materials, however some have to do this themselves.
  19. 19. Film Direction <ul><li>Creative, Management, Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>The most well known role in this category is the Director, the one whose name is branded on the film. His direction/ interpretation is everything to the way the film is made and portrayed. The Director provides the creative vision and style of the overall film. Another very well known role in Direction is the Runner, who does many small jobs such as getting drinks for the director and other personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>The Directors main role is to work with all the different departments and translate the script to the screen. The scriptwriter gives the Director the script and the Director has to provide their vision on the piece, create their own interpretation of the words and show it via sounds and images. The director may sometimes write the script for the film but a lot of the time they commission a scriptwriter and work with them. Directors also look at the casting and make sure their actors are up to standard, what they expected. Directors work alongside most of the crew and are very responsible for keeping their team connected, focused and motivated. Understanding of each process within film making is crucial for them to be able to give direction to every aspect of the film, so research is depth is needed for them to make a good director. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles within Direction Include: </li></ul><ul><li>Film Director </li></ul><ul><li>1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd Assistant Director </li></ul><ul><li>Runner/ Floor Runner </li></ul>Distribution
  20. 20. Film Distribution <ul><li>Administrative, organisational </li></ul><ul><li>Film distribution is something that helps a film sell and bring in the money to sustain the company. Film distribution involves launching the film and keeping it sustainable. This means that anyone working within distribution has to have knowledge of a wide range of audiences and how to reach them. They also have to know about promotion for the films. </li></ul><ul><li>In distribution the roles needed are: </li></ul><ul><li>Distributor </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing and publicity manager </li></ul><ul><li>Publicist </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Agent </li></ul>Editing and post Production
  21. 21. Distributor <ul><li>It is a Distributors job to get the widest possible market and audience for the film. They must compete to be able to release their film on television, at the cinema or on DVD. The Distributors must think of ways to get audiences to watch the film on all different types of media, this is usually agreed with the Producers, Graphics department, publicists and advertising agencies. They are in charge of the release plans for a film and must look at how to promote the film and release it in the cinema. </li></ul>Sales Agent A Film Sales Agent mainly represents film makers and helps them distribute their films. Sales Agents are mainly used for Independent filmmakers, new filmmakers who are looking to get their film into the public eye. They work with the Directors to see how they can market the film and when the films have been sold they work with distributors to negotiate the contracts. A Sales Agent must keep the work they own new and up to date as a distributor and other companies are more likely to want to buy the film from them. Therefore they attend film festivals and screenings regularly so they can meet new film makers who have interesting film ideas and already made films.
  22. 22. Film Editing and Post Production <ul><li>Creative, Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Post production is the name for the process where the final, raw copy of the film is edited before final distribution. This includes, sound & image editing, adding visual effects and adding audio that is Non-diegetic (cant be seen on screen, such as chart music). This team have to be very skilled with technology and be able to create an effect which makes the film seem very professional. A lot of pressure is put on the Post Production team as without them the film would just be separate camera shots that would not make a film. All of the camera work and sound work done within production has to be edited together in many different ways to become a film. If the post production team do not edit the film professionally then the film could fail. The director works closely with post production to make sure their vision is achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>A post production team needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Post Production Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Editor/ 2 nd assistant editor </li></ul><ul><li>Titles Designer </li></ul>Exhibition
  23. 23. Editor <ul><li>The Editor is one of the most important key roles in the producing of a film. They are not involved in any of the location shoots or cameras, but instead use the shots recorded and make them into the final format of a film. Without the Editor there would not be a film as the camera recordings would just be separate few minute clips. The Editor takes the recordings and on special film making software on the computer puts all of the chosen and best scenes and camera angle shots together to make a smooth running and professional looking film. Editors do not normally edit the sound as that is down to the film department, they are just in charge of putting the shots together into the correct order to create the story and its scenes. In big productions they often work alongside Assistant and Trainee Editors as the work may be too much for one person to be working on with a tight schedule. An Editors job is hard and needs a lot of concentration as a 1 and a half to 3 hour film made of small clips and many different camera shots takes months or years to complete. Their working hours are long and tend to be unsociable as they need to be able to work in silence and generally are in an editing suite alone. The Editor must pick the best camera angles and clips recorded as this gives the film a professional outcome. Editors must be able to work with the computer programs specially designed for them and must be able to work alongside the director so they understand what they need to create. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Titles Designer <ul><li>A Title Designer is the person on a production who creates the beginning titles and the ending titles on a film. The beginning titles can sometimes be simple, with plain writing but sometimes they can be complex and need professional software that creates a font and style of writing suitable for the film. The ending titles must name everyone involved within the whole production which needs to be researched and put at the end of the film. Beginning titles must capture and audience but regularly go on the top of scenes that set the location of the play. This means the Titles Designer must work with the Editor so that the writing can be put on top of beginning clips. Sometimes the Titles Designer has the hard work of animating the titles and credits, for example on the film ‘Lemony Snickets series of Unfortunate Events’, . </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of Titles Designers are freelance and have their own show reels to show when applying for jobs, some are part of Graphics companies and are known for their skills so are hired by Producers for the film. </li></ul><ul><li>Titles Designers often have to pitch their ideas to the Designers team and the Director before they start work on it just so they know they are heading in the right direction with their work. Their work is mainly independent but can have help from the design team at times, their hours are long but they only start working near the end of production. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Titles Editors are Art graduates who will have studied graphic design. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Film Exhibition <ul><li>Administrative </li></ul><ul><li>The Exhibition department is one of the most important ones in the success of a film. This department is responsible for providing the audience with the film and visa versa. The Exhibition departments are employed from many different companies such as cinemas or film events, and ensure the success of the film. </li></ul><ul><li>Programmer </li></ul><ul><li>Programmers pick the films suitable for different locations such as festivals. A programmer must have knowledge of the audiences for the films and the new films available to showcase. Programmers must have a knowledge into film as they are the ones that choose the films to show at the venues. They also must be good at communication as they have to secure the film with the Film Distributors so that their competitors do not secure it first. Promoting and Marketing the films may also be part of the programmers job therefore they will have to be comfortable with many ways of advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>Projectionist </li></ul><ul><li>A projectionist is the person than ensures the film is shown at the correct time that has be promoted and advertised by the programmer. They must make sure that the showing runs smoothly and there are not any technical issues that may stop the showing. Projectionists mainly work on their own and must have the skills to be able to solve technical problems quickly and independently. Projectionists are expected to receive, inspect and sort out any problems with the film efficiently and quickly. They provide the film projection and make sure all the trailers and advertisements shown before the film runs on time without defects. </li></ul>Hair and Makeup
  26. 26. Film Hair and Makeup <ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>The hair and makeup department are in charge of the hair and makeup of the actors, making sure if a shoot is done on a different day but the scene remains the same, the look is constant. They have to be professionally trained in hair and makeup design and be the best at their profession. Sometimes hair and makeup may be difficult as they have to work with latex masks, prosthetics, for example Dr Who monsters, making it look real and believable. They also work close with the Art and Costume Department. Anyone working in Hair and Makeup only work part time, their job is dependant on who they know and luck, sometimes they may not work on a production for months at a time however some well known professionals may come out of one production and start on another. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles within Hair and Makeup include: </li></ul><ul><li>Makeup and Hair Designer </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Makeup Artist </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Hairdresser </li></ul><ul><li>Prosthetics Artist </li></ul><ul><li>Hairdresser / Assistant Hairdresser </li></ul><ul><li>Makeup Artist/ Assistant Makeup Artist </li></ul><ul><li>Makeup and Hair Artist / Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Makeup and Hair Trainee </li></ul>Health and Safety
  27. 27. Chief Makeup artist <ul><li>The Chief Makeup Artist is in charge of all of the makeup/ special effects on all characters. They design the overall look of the makeup and tell their team of Makeup artists what they need to do. A lot of research goes into creating the right look for each character as they all have different personalities, social background and culture therefore the makeup may change. If a film is set in history then the makeup must be the same as it was within that time zone. The Chief Makeup Artist will supervise all the makeup, body hair and masks applied during shoots to make sure it is consistent for each shoot. They also keep and work out the costs and equipment needed for their department so it is kept within a realistic budget agreed with the Producers. </li></ul>Hairdresser The hairdresser works closely with the Makeup team as the hairstyles for each character must be consistent with the makeup. They don’t just work with the actors original hair, they also work with hair extensions and wigs if the director wants the actors looking a certain way, different from their norm. A hairdresser works long hours on set as they need to make sure the hair in each retake is the same as different camera angles are used in each scene to create a more professional looking film. Hairdressers are normally freelance and are employed by Chief Hairdressers as they may know them or know previous films they have done the hairdressing for. A Hairdresser must be on set during every filming day therefore their work requires them to be moved around a lot and could spend a lot of time away from home. The Hairdressers may also be used on publicity shoots as they can achieve the same look created within the film for the posters and advertisements of the film.
  28. 28. Prosthetics Artist <ul><li>A Prosthetics Artists main job is to create a character within a film which is different to the actors normal look. Prosthetics are most commonly used on scifi programs and films as aliens do not exist on earth so they must be created. Prosthetics Artists use materials such as rubber, plastic and silicone to mould masks, body shape casts to change appearances. Common prosthetics work is making a thinner actor fat, with a rubber stomach and face masks to enhance cheeks. Also pregnancy bumps are common within film and television, these are made out of casts and then fixed onto the actor. The Prosthetics Artist much have a clear direction from the art departments and Director on what the actors must look like and what needs to be done. The Prosthetics Artist is in charge of researching the costs for the materials they will need as it can be very costly. They normally work on a freelance basis and are hired because of the work they have previously done. Prosthetics Artists must be experienced with creating realistic and artistic designs and models for the production and need to be able to come up with their own ideas to pitch to the Director if they think the vision could be changed or improved. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Film Heath and Safety <ul><li>Management, Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>Every company must follow the Heath and Safety Act, in film it is the responsibility of people such as the producer, contractor, designer and investor to make sure the rules are followed. An employer in film must be insured as all sets and productions have a risk factor to them, however to ensure this is at its minimum people are employed to make things safer. The employer needs to ensure safety on set so that actors and crews agree to work, if there are high risk action scenes in films this has to be planned in detail and made as safe as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>  The main areas that need to follow safety guidelines are Grip, Crane Operator, Pyrotechnics or Special Effects Technician, Set Construction, Scenery/Property Handling and Stunt Artist. For example if a set is made unsafe then the actors or crew may get seriously injured. </li></ul><ul><li>There are specialist people however that are sometimes employed to deal with Heath and Safety these are: </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Safety Advisor/ Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Paramedics and Paramedical Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Nurse </li></ul>Lighting
  30. 30. Paramedics/ Unit Nurse <ul><li>The Paramedics and Unit Nurse are always on set to make sure if something goes wrong, which it shouldn’t, they are there to tend to the injured immediately. They are most common on film sets to do with action films or films with dangerous fight scenes, maybe on high building or underwater. Actors may need paramedics if they attempt to do their own stunts as they will not be as trained in the stunts as a stunt double. Car chases can be very dangerous as well as scenes with guns and knifes, as these can be the real item and not a copy, therefore just in case Paramedics and nurses are needed just incase. </li></ul>Health and Safety Advisor The health and Safety Adviser works on a production to ensure that all Heath and Safety policy is followed throughout all parts of film making. They monitor every department and make sure they are following the policy so that they do not get into situations that may cause major damage to some and cost mass amounts of money. Health and Safety must be considered carefully on things such as construction of sets, especially if they are high, the actors and camera crew may get injured during shooting and the construction team building the set if the guidelines are not followed. When something drastic happens in a film production that leaves someone injured then it can be very consequential for the company, they will have to attend court, maybe give money to the person injured or their family and also their reputation as a company will be jeopardised and may not be able to produce films again, this is why they always have a Health and Safety Advisor.
  31. 31. Film Lighting <ul><li>Technical, Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting is used in almost every scene in a film, a lot of the time every shot. Although daylight can be used the cameras can make the light look dull and unprofessional. Even in daylight, lighting is used to brighten up the picture and make it look as though it is natural light. On wet and dull locations sometimes lights are needed so the camera can pick up the action. Lighting is key in creating the atmosphere and moods of a film, love scenes tend not to have harsh bright lights, but show more of a warm, candle light. Lighting commonly work alongside the Camera Crew and the designers to make sure they achieve the atmosphere desirable. Lighting crews must be skilled in practical set up of the lighting but also photography and every aspect to do with setting lighting up, they need to be able to understand how strength and placing of lighting effects the overall image in each set up. </li></ul><ul><li>Job roles within lighting are: </li></ul><ul><li>Director of photography </li></ul><ul><li>Gaffer </li></ul><ul><li>Best Boy </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting Technician </li></ul><ul><li>Moving Light Operator </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Lighting Technician </li></ul><ul><li>Console operator </li></ul><ul><li>Apprentice lighting Technician </li></ul><ul><li>Genny Operator </li></ul>Locations
  32. 32. Gaffer <ul><li>Gaffers are the managers of the lighting team and technicians who fit lighting on sets and also off camera. They work with the Director of Photography so that they can create the correct atmosphere for the piece in each scene. The Gaffer must understand how the placing of the lights effects the actors look on camera so they need to plan how bright, big and where to put them. Gaffers on a big production mainly have years of lighting practice and management skills, they must also have the imagination to visualize how the lighting will look within the movie with what they do. Lighting on sets can be extravagant or very simple, such as a candle light, built they all need to be planned and budgeted for by the Gaffer. The Gaffer also assesses the Health and Safety of the lighting used within one set, especially if there is lighting using candles as these can set fire very easily if knocked over during a shoot by any member of the crew. </li></ul>Moving Light Operator Using Moving Light’s have increased over the years within film as technology has advanced. The Moving Light Operator controls the special electronic lights that change position and colour or brightness on set. They need help to install them from the lighting technicians then the DOP briefs them with how they want the lights to be controlled during every part of the filming. The Moving Light Operator has to tune the lights to a special control so they can do what they need to with the lights. The Moving Light operator must be able to fix and maintain the lights they are working with as they are fragile and prone to breaking or technical problems, if these are not controlled throughout filming it will waste time and cost the company more.
  33. 33. Film Locations <ul><li>Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>The Location manager and department work closely with the director. Their job is to find suitable locations for the directors vision and plans for scenes. Some of the sets are in studios but a lot of films are shot in real locations. Sometimes locations are used because a set can not be built as extravagant or real life enough, money may be not substantial for grand sets to be built, therefore locations would be easier. Sometimes in films well known locations are used so that the audience know where the character is and the significance of it. Location managers must sort out all of the financial aspects of the locations, sorting out contracts with the owners/ government and costs. They must also make sure that they can clear the area while production is in session as outside noise and people will lower the professionalism of the film. Country shoots must be away from motorways and roads as it will create background noise not wanted in the film. </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Manager </li></ul><ul><li>These work with the Location Manager to make sure the Locations owners and residents are kept satisfied and are informed of any changes. They also have to deal with any people who are not happy with the shoots if they are noisy or blocking somewhere they need to get. They must deal with any problems without having to move the production team as it will cost time and money. The parking of any vehicles onsite is done by the Unit Manager and they must do it efficiently and put them in a safe and agreed place near the location. </li></ul><ul><li>Location Manager </li></ul><ul><li>A location Manager is in charge of all the locations in a film. They visit the locations they think may be used within the film and also research them heavily and calculate the costs of hiring and shooting on them. They must work with the Director so they can imagine what the director would want the locations to be like, meaning they must be able to visualise a location from being given and idea and looking through the script. Many Location Managers work long hours and are responsible for negotiating with the owners of the locations with price as well as keeping the location in perfect condition after filming. They must be able to drive as their job requires travelling up and down the country viewing location ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Location Manager </li></ul><ul><li>They Assist the Location Manager in choosing locations and sorting out the budgets. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Film Music <ul><li>Creative, Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Music often creates part of the atmosphere of a film, and from this an audience can gather the location and time period they are looking at. Music in a film can be a few things, it can be a track that starts, ends or appears during a scene, that the characters in the film do not hear but fit with the situation they are in. However in musicals, and especially Bollywood films, music is a main part of the film and involves the characters, with dance or singing. Many major Hollywood and Disney films have their own soundtracks made for the film which they may also release after, Disney films are common for this. However many films such as chick flicks have backing tracks that consist of chart songs that are contemporary and well known to entice and audience to watch it. The Music on a film can also set the mood of a scene or an entire film, if a film starts with an upbeat chart song then the audience can expect a comedy or light-hearted film, if the music is slow and sorrowful then usually it is the start of a film featuring drama. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs within the Music Department are: </li></ul><ul><li>Composer </li></ul><ul><li>Music Agent or Composer Agent </li></ul><ul><li>Music Supervisor </li></ul>Performing
  35. 35. Composer <ul><li>Composers are the people that create the individual soundtrack to a film. Some films have well known music in them which is bought from the artist to be played in the film, however a lot of the music on films is written and directed by a composer. Car chases, fights, the beginning titles all have music in their background and the Composer is the one that comes up with it. They work with the Director to understand the type of sounds and music they would like in the background of the scenes as they will want to create a certain atmosphere and mood with the music and link it with the characters on screen at that given time. The composer follows the Directors aspirations but also as a music writer gives pointers and suggestions about how they may do the music with their own ideas involved. The Composer will work in the editing process with the Editor to make sure the music sounds right with the screen and suggest sound levels for it on screen. They also attend the orchestral sessions to make sure their vision and music is being portrayed and played in the correct manor, they will be required to set up all the electrical equipment for recording the instruments. Composers are sometimes required to create demo tracks so the Director is sure they are heading in the correct way they would like for the film. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Film Performing <ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Performing is the main part of a production, without actors there is no film. Many of the actors in films now consist of professionals/ celebrities as many directors know their work and know their abilities. Celebrities are chosen for films for other reasons as well, such as the fact they have a strong fan base, who follow what they are doing and would most defiantly watch films with them in. People now like Robert Pattinson, Zac Effron and Johnny Depp have many followers who are drawn to any film they act in. Unknown actors who have never been in anything before can also be in films, a lot of them start off as small roles or extras and may have been spotted by the director or during an audition. The advantage of having new actors in films is that people get a taste of the new generation of actors and they could become well known by putting them in the movies. A main skill actors must have within a film is to be patient and have the ability to work long hours. Actors are required during the producing of the film to act out the same scenes time and time again, exactly the same way as they did previous so that many different camera angles are set up in the same scene. </li></ul><ul><li>Another main skill actors must have is to be independent in learning lines, but also take good direction, they must know how the director wants them to deliver each of their lines and how they should be using their body language and facial expressions when they deliver them. Good memory also comes in well as they will need to remember many scripts and actions while making it look as if the words have not been written, are natural to that character. </li></ul><ul><li>Job Roles are: </li></ul><ul><li>Actor </li></ul><ul><li>Agent </li></ul><ul><li>Variety Artist </li></ul><ul><li>Choreographer/ Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Singer </li></ul><ul><li>Puppeteer </li></ul><ul><li>Stunt Performer </li></ul><ul><li>Walk ons / Supporting Artists </li></ul>Sound Post Production
  37. 37. Choreographer <ul><li>The Choreographer is commonly known for the practical parts of a movie or television series such as the intricate dance moves or fight scenes. However they also direct the actors where to stand and move on set when delivering their lines. Choreographers work is hard and they must work with the actors most days to teach and perfect the moves wanted by the Director on screen. Fight scenes must be carefully planned by the Choreographer so the actors are not injured in any way if they are using real weapons, they must be confident and convincing during the filming. Dance routines choreographed by them involve intense strength, patience and perseverance as it involved going over the routines many times to get it looking professional before it can be filmed. Choreographers must make sure they follow the Health and Safety Guidelines and take the safety of the actors in consideration heavily before they come up with the moves. Generally during fight scenes and dance scenes actors are hurt but not drastically, this comes with the intense performance in the scenes. </li></ul>Stunt Performer Stunt performers are very trained individuals that have experience with doing dangerous, flexible and skilled stunts. Fight scenes that involve karate or jumping off high buildings usually use stunt performers are they are trained safely how to deal with the situation. Many films with A-list starts have Stunt Doubles, who look exactly like the actor from the side or the back, with almost exact body measurements but are trained for stunts. However now a lot of Stars are trying their own stunts which is more dangerous and risky. They are directed by Stunt Coordinators who must go through everything they have to do within each shot and how to do it safely. If a Stunt performer is not specifically trained in some sort of fighting or gymnastics they are not likely to be hired. Research must be done by the individuals about how to perform their tasks as safe as possible, they also have to watch how the actors perform in their role so as that they can mimic their body language and character interpretation as close as possible.
  38. 38. Film Sound Post Production <ul><li>Editorial, Creative </li></ul><ul><li>When a film has been shot and the images completed, the sound crew add the final touches. They start work on small background noises such as litter blowing about in a street, knocking at doors, everyday sounds that might not have been picked up by sound. They also work on big sounds in scenes such as car crashes and car chases as the sound need to be made louder and more intense than when it was filmed on location. The small sounds are recorded in studios with items that make similar noises to the actual things on screen. However the big sounds may be made electronically online with special software or recorded in special locations with the actual item. </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Designer </li></ul><ul><li>Supervising Sound Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Foley Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Re-recording Mixer </li></ul><ul><li>Music Editor </li></ul><ul><li>ADR Dialogue Editor/ ADR Mixer </li></ul><ul><li>Audio Describer </li></ul><ul><li>Subtitler </li></ul>Production Sound
  39. 39. Foley Editor <ul><li>The Foley Editor is responsible for the post sound on the normally fully edited film without the sound. If a film needs a lot of background sound such as a film with lots of violence and war then they will start work during the editing process of the shots rather than after. However most of the time they go to a meeting with the Director, Sound Effects Editor and the Sound Designer to watch the edited camera shots and decide at each point where sound is needed. Sometimes they need to decide what materials they must used to create the most basic sounds such as wind, litter in the street, water running as it is mainly recorded in a studio with not the exact item. They also need to decide where to get the weapon sounds from and if they need to visit a location where things like guns can be fired and recorded. If certain items need to be used that are not easy to get hold of, the Foley editor must find out where they can be found and used to get the sounds. The overall effect of the sounds are monitored by the Foley Editor when mixed by the Foley Mixer and when added to the film scenes must ensure they sound perfect. The Foley editor works creative long hours recording the thousands of different sounds required and keeps track of them, they mainly work on a freelance basis. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Audio Describer <ul><li>An audio Describer works on films for the community of people who have heard the reviews about the film but are partially sighted or blind. They put music and narration carefully around the dialogue to make sure a picture of the sets and the characters can be imagined by people who can not see what is happening in the film. During a film showing at a cinema or on a DVD they provide headphones which describe everything and can be tuned specially for each individuals hearing requirements. Audio Describers work on computers using specially developed programs which allows them to add their own narration in between the dialogue and music in a film, this specially built program allows them to plan when they will add the narration in as it provides the whole film script. </li></ul>Subtitler A Subtitler is the opposite to an Audio Describer but helps produce films available for people with special requirements. A Subtitler makes sure that on screen at all times there is the dialogue been spoken by the actors. This enables deaf people to watch the film as they can not hear the dialogue but will be able to see it. However a Subtitler is not always required for special needs purposes, in many films subtitles are used when an actor speaks in a different language than the country watching it so they can understand what is being said. Many Subtitler’s are hired for foreign made films so that they can be seen by a global market and understood. Some films such as Lord of the rings use made up languages agreed by Director and Script writers therefore the Subtitler has to be given a script of exactly what is being said. The Subtitler also works on the computer and uses a special program which allows the subtitles to be converted into many different languages after it has been written in one language all the way through. Sometimes the film is translated by other Subtitlers from different countries or bilingual people.
  41. 41. Film Production Sound <ul><li>Technical, Creative </li></ul><ul><li>The role of the sound department during production is to mainly record dialogue during the shoot. The job of getting sound right during a location shoot is difficult as there are usually many unwanted background noises such as cars and wind that should not be heard during the film. Sound recorded in a studio set has less unwanted background noises however the sound department still have the job of getting the sound at the right volume and setting to be sharp/ professional on the film. Another job the production sound team may be required to do is voice syncing and recording, most directors will just edit voices as they are when the shoot was taken however some prefer to have them rerecorded by the cast and added ontop for a clearer effect. This can be a difficult job as a lot of voice syncing can look unprofessional on a film even if the actors mouths are moving at the same time, as the voice isn't as natural. </li></ul><ul><li>People working within the production film department are: </li></ul><ul><li>Production Sound Mixer </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Assistant/ Trainee </li></ul><ul><li>Boom Operator- These are in charge of the placement of a microphone during shoots. The microphone must be out of camera and in a place that does not restrict actors natural movement. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Film Production Office <ul><li>Management, Organisational, Financial </li></ul><ul><li>The production department is the main key to producing a film. They control many groups of people and bring them together in a protected environment so that can creatively produce a film. They are the people who make sure everyone working on the film is working to their best abilities and anything they need is dealt with. Some small budget films on require a Producer, Assistant Producer and some Runners, however others may have more as seen below: </li></ul><ul><li>Producer </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Producer </li></ul><ul><li>Associate/ Assistant Producer </li></ul><ul><li>Co-producer </li></ul><ul><li>Producers Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Line Producer </li></ul><ul><li>Production Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Production Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Production Runner or Production Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Production Coordinator </li></ul>Props
  43. 43. Producer <ul><li>The Producer is probably one of the most demanding and stressful jobs within the film Industry. Many people would not dream of becoming a Producer as they need to be highly motivated even in the most boring situations, plan all the budgets and costs needed during the whole production and they also have to complete a lot of paperwork. A producer has to be highly motivated as an individual and be able to organize and manage all the different departments funds. The Producer has to invest in an idea and try make it profitable and sellable to a wide market by working with the filmmakers. The Producer is involved in all four phases of production. They must work on: </li></ul><ul><li>Development- They hire the certain screenwriter whose idea they think an be sellable and successful, they need to bring a team together of screenwriters and story editors so that the script is professional and finalized. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Production- They must hire the average team of people like the Director, Designers, Editors and Composers so they can come up with the creative vision and individual take on the script. Then Actors are found that have the specific requirements for the parts envisioned by the Director. </li></ul><ul><li>Production- During Production the Producer manages the Production team but also looks over the different departments fees required. They always have meetings with the Director so they know any problems that need solving or where the production is at that period in time. During the production the script may be changed so it fits better with the actors accents and sounds better overall, the Producer has to oversee and agree to the changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Post Production and Marketing- The Producer can personally work with the Editors, composer and visual effects individuals to see if they are on budget and on task and help with any problems they are facing. They work finally with the Distributors to plan how to market the film and get it to the audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>They must have the skills to be good businessmen, be able to make deals with new people and they need to be able to manage every aspect of the different departments. They must have the creativity and imagination to be able to spot a potential film that will gain profit for everyone involved. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Film Props <ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>The props department supply’s, creates and maintains the props used within a film. There are many different type of props in a film, some can be directly used by the actors which are ‘Hand Props’, such as a magazine or an animal. Other props such as ‘Dressing Props’ are not used directly and are mainly furnishings for a set. ‘Mechanical Props’ can be difficult as they can be things like specially built Robots for a Sci-Fi movies which would be expected to move remotely. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs within the Props Department are: </li></ul><ul><li>Property Master </li></ul><ul><li>Prop Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Armourer </li></ul><ul><li>Greensman </li></ul><ul><li>Props Storeman </li></ul><ul><li>Dressing Props </li></ul><ul><li>Standby props </li></ul>Publicity
  45. 45. Armourer <ul><li>It is illegal for firearms to be used during a film production unless there is a licensed Armourer present on set. The Armourer is responsible for the transport and storage of the weaponry and armour needed during the performance. They ensure that the Actors are safe and eligible to handle such dangerous weapons during filming and brief them on how they should be handled safely. They work closely with the Choreographer and stunt team to make sure their safety is being respected in the routines, they also work with the director to make sure the actors are directed in the correct wary when handling the weapons. The Armourer needs to look at the whole script and make sure they have a list of all the weapons needed and agreed on with the Director and Producer. They must come up with a suitable budget for the films weaponry and protection so that the Producer can agree to the funds needed and make a record of it. </li></ul>Greensman The Greensman is a job which is generally not thought about at all and many people will of never heard of before yet they still have a crucial role in the success of a film. The Greensman have the job of planting, preserving and finding the correct greenery and vegetation required within a film. Many films show an outside of a house and its garden, this is carefully looked after and made to look the way the Director wants it by the Greensman. They must look through the scripts and work with the Director, Designers and Locations team to make sure they can find the correct greenery and plants needed for the film. They need to research mainly where to find the items they need and how they can be transported to set carefully so they remain in ideal condition, as many living plants and vegetation is fragile and needs to be looked after daily. The Greensman may also work with the art department to produce artificial landscapes and also work with and place mechanical plants and trees on certain locations.
  46. 46. Film Publicity <ul><li>Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity and the Press are a main factor in the marketing of a film. Without Publicity many of the films would not be as popular. Films being backed by newspapers and famous press figures before the film is released to the public is important as they bring opinions and advice on the upcoming film, so people are more persuaded to watch it. Press conferences are often held after the making of a film and film premiers bring in a lot of publicity from television and other media. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs in Publicity are: </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Publicist </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Stills Photographer- This special type of photographer gets pictures from the shoots and photography shoots of the actors involved to create posters and advertisements on many ranges of media to promote a film. Eg. Posters on buses. </li></ul><ul><li>EPK Director/ Producer- These film during shoots and can film short clips from the final film to make up short trailers. They also are responsible for many cast interviews which can be added to a DVD of the film. ‘The Making of’ programmes are also made by these people as they get background gossip and shots of filming during the shoots. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Film Script <ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>A film begins with an idea then develops into a fully worked out script for the actors. The beginning of the process can begin in two ways, a producer may already have an idea for a film that will commercially sell, they will then employ a scriptwriter to write the script with help from the producer and director. Another way a script can begin is an individual scriptwriter may be lucky enough to approach a Producer with their own ideas and them want to commission the idea and work on it so it can be fully achievable and profitable. The scriptwriter has one of the hardest jobs as their work is tedious and has to be drafted many times before it Id right, even then it may be changed during production. They have to have good imagination and be able to visualise the actors and characters emoting the lines in front of a camera, making the words believable for an audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Screenwriter- They develop the narrative and format it in a correct way. </li></ul><ul><li>Development Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Script Editor- These work with the screenwriter and director in a critical way and make sure the script works altogether effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Script Reader- They look at the work done and make any changes they fell necessary before finalising the work. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Film Transport <ul><li>Organisational </li></ul><ul><li>The Transport Department supports the production process. It moves around all the equipment and crew to every location necessary during shooting. On big shoots the transport must be delivered overseas and the department must organise that as well as suitable permits to allow overseas storage. If one element needed on a location is not transported it can set back the shooting and can be very costly, something which should not happen and can not afford to happen. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport Manager- Manage all the transport required during the production. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Transport Captain </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Driver- Drive crew and actors to all locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Minibus Driver </li></ul><ul><li>Driver (facilities Vehicles) – Drive, sort out and take care of the vehicles hired out. </li></ul>