Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ecological and Environmental issues in Turkey

4,027 views

Published on

Ecological and Environmental issues in Turkey

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

Ecological and Environmental issues in Turkey

  1. 1. Ecological and Environmental issues in Turkey
  2. 2. Neither East nor West... This stereotypical assessment of where Turkey stands geographically and geopolitically plays an important role in both its ecological composition, and concerns related to its environment and ecology.
  3. 3. As a land of transition between three continents, Turkey is a country that has critical natural and biological reserves at the global level (see the below map for its biodiversity hotspots) and diverse species and agro-environmental landscapes.
  4. 4. With a total area of about 778,000 square kilometres, Turkey is often considered a small continent linking Europe (Thrace) and Asia (Anatolia). Due to the remarkable variation in its geographic features Turkey is home to 305 Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA), equivalent to a quarter of the country’s surface area.
  5. 5. Anatolia demonstrates a significant plant endemism rate (30%) and includes eight recognised Centres of Plant Diversity. Out of a total of 236 species, there are 70 endemic species of inland fish; an important fact unknown to many.
  6. 6. Two major bird migration routes pass through Turkey, implying the presence of key feeding and breeding sites for over 460 species. Forests cover some 20.5 million hectares of the country and include some of the oldest old-growth forests in the temperate zone.
  7. 7. The natural steppes in the Irano-Anatolian floristic zone host nearly half of the endemic species that are of conservation concern. Marine and coastal biodiversity along Turkey’s 8,300-kilometres-long coastline is likewise worth mentioning, which is home to key species such as the Mediterranean monk seal, two out of eight global sea turtle species, and Posidonia sea grasses.
  8. 8. Mediterranean Monk Seal
  9. 9. Unfortunately, an equally remarkable spectrum of environmental conflicts directly threatens the integrity of nature in Turkey. Today, there is an urgent need for knowledge, awareness, and appropriate action to halt irreversible loss of the unique natural capital in the global hotspots that Turkey is home to.
  10. 10. The main ecological and environmental issues in Turkey are the conservation of biodiversity, water pollution from the dumping of chemicals and detergents, air pollution, greenhouse gases and land degradation.
  11. 11. Conservation of Biodiversity Turkey has a remarkable diversity of wildlife, due to its wide variety of habitats and unique position between three continents and three seas. IlI-considered development projects are threatening biodiversity, but a new wildlife corridor offers hope for further conservation progress. Turkish montane forests face major threats to their genetic diversity associated with over-exploitation, forest fragmentation, air pollution and global climatic change
  12. 12. Air Pollution Air pollution is particularly significant in urban areas. The problem is especially acute in İstanbul, Ankara, Erzurum, and Bursa, where the combustion of heating fuels increases particulate density in winter. Especially in Istanbul, increased car ownership causes frequent urban smog conditions. Air pollution in urban centeres, often caused by transport and the use of small-scale burning of wood or coal, is linked to a range of health problems.
  13. 13. Climate Change Summer temperatures have increased and are expected to continue to increase. Proposed new coal fired power plants would increase Turkey's CO2 emissions.
  14. 14. Water Pollution Turkey's most pressing needs are for water treatment plants, wastewater treatment facilities and solid waste management. There is a potential for spills from the 5,000 oil- and gas-carrying ships that pass through the Bosporus annually.
  15. 15. Drought Turkey does not have sufficient water. Almost three quarters of water consumed is used for agriculture. Lake Tuz, which is a closed basin situated in Central Anatolia, comprised of an ecological network of wetlands where highly endemic hypersaline plant species occur in the surrounding natural steppe habitats—and a Special Protection Area—is a case in point.
  16. 16. Since the 1920s, Lake Tuz, Turkey’s second largest body of water has shrunk by about 85 percent due to the over-extraction of groundwater for irrigated agriculture. Additionally, the pollutants discharged into the lake have severely affected the breeding flamingo populations there.
  17. 17. Land degradation Land degradation is a critical agricultural problem, caused by inappropriate use of agricultural land, overgrazing, over-fertilization. Serious soil erosion has occurred in 69% of Turkey’s land surface. According to one estimate, Turkey loses 1 billion tons of topsoil annually.
  18. 18. TURKEY’S KEY ISSUES The most urgent problems on Turkey’s environmental agenda as follows:
  19. 19. The biggest salt lake in Europe has diminished by almost half in 18 years.
  20. 20. One of the terminals of the power plant at Afşin Elbistan has been operating without a filter for years, polluting surrounding areas.
  21. 21. The almost 400 hydroelectric plants planned for many provinces, Artvin and Rize foremost among them, means death for the streams they are going to be built on.
  22. 22. The Great Menderes Basin, the primary water source of İzmir, has been poisoned.
  23. 23. Bafa Lake in Muğla, Kulu Lake in Konya and Eber Lake in Akşehir are threatened by pollution from waste.
  24. 24. Amik, Suğla and Avlan lakes, alongside the reed beds of Kestel, Gavur, Yarma, Aynaz, Hotamış and Eşmekaya, have lost their ecological and economic functions.
  25. 25. The water level of Lake Burdur has dropped 10 meters in the last 27 years, and 90 percent of the Sultansazlığı reed bed has dried up.
  26. 26. Thanks..

×